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Source: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Baum, Charles L., II
Ruhm, Christopher J.
The Effects of Paid Family Leave in California on Labor Market Outcomes
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 35,2 (Spring 2016): 333-356.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pam.21894/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA); Geocoded Data; Labor Market Outcomes; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-97), we examine the effects of California's paid family leave program (CA-PFL) on mothers' and fathers' use of leave during the period surrounding child birth, and on the timing of mothers' return to work, the probability of eventually returning to prechildbirth jobs, and subsequent labor market outcomes. We estimate multivariate difference-in-differences regression models that compare changes in the outcomes for new California parents before and after the enactment of CA-PFL to those for corresponding parents in control states. Our results suggest that CA-PFL raised leave use by almost five weeks for the average covered mother and two to three days for the corresponding father. Maternal leave-taking appears to increase in the quarter before the birth and to extend through the two quarters after it. Paternal leave-taking rises fairly quickly after the birth and is short-lasting. Rights to paid leave are also associated with higher work and employment probabilities for mothers nine to 12 months after birth, probably because they increase job continuity among those with relatively weak labor force attachments. We also find positive effects of California's program on hours and weeks of work during their child's second year of life.
Bibliography Citation
Baum, Charles L., II and Christopher J. Ruhm. "The Effects of Paid Family Leave in California on Labor Market Outcomes." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 35,2 (Spring 2016): 333-356.
2. Butcher, Kristin F.
Piehl, Anne Morrison
Cross-City Evidence on the Relationship between Immigration and Crime
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 17,3 (Summer 1998): 457-493.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6688%28199822%2917:3%3C457::AID-PAM4%3E3.0.CO;2-F/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Crime; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Illegal Activities; Immigrants; Migration Patterns

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Public concerns about the costs of immigration and crime are high, and sometimes overlapping. This article investigates the relationship between immigration into a metropolitan area and that area's crime rate during the 1980s. Using data from the Uniform Crime Reports and the Current Population Surveys, we find, in the cross section, that cities with high crime rates tend to have large numbers of immigrants. However, controlling for the demographic characteristics of the cities, immigrants appear to have no effect on crime rates. In explaining changes in a city's crime rate over time, the flow of immigrants again has no effect, whether or not we control for other city-level characteristics. In a secondary analysis of individual data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NOSY) (sic), we find that youth born abroad are statistically significantly less likely than native-born youth to be criminally active.
Bibliography Citation
Butcher, Kristin F. and Anne Morrison Piehl. "Cross-City Evidence on the Relationship between Immigration and Crime." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 17,3 (Summer 1998): 457-493.
3. Cellini, Stephanie Riegg
McKernan, Signe-Mary
Ratcliffe, Caroline
The Dynamics of Poverty in the United States: A Review of Data, Methods, and Findings
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 27,3 (Summer 2008): 577-605.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pam.20337/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Census of Population; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Poverty; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper reviews the literature on poverty dynamics in the U.S. It surveys the most prevalent data, theories, and methods used to answer three key questions: How likely are people to enter, exit, and reenter poverty? How long do people remain in poverty? And what events are associated with entering and exiting poverty? The paper then analyzes the combined findings of the literature, discussing overarching patterns of poverty dynamics, differences among demographic groups, and how poverty probabilities, duration, and events have changed over time. We conclude with a discussion of the policy implications of these findings and avenues for future research. © 2008 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Bibliography Citation
Cellini, Stephanie Riegg, Signe-Mary McKernan and Caroline Ratcliffe. "The Dynamics of Poverty in the United States: A Review of Data, Methods, and Findings." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 27,3 (Summer 2008): 577-605.
4. Gottschalk, Peter
The Intergenerational Transmission of Welfare Participation: Facts and Possible Causes
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 11,2 (Spring 1992): 254-272.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2307/3325367/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Ethnic Differences; Ethnic Groups; Event History; Family Income; Hispanics; Income Level; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers and Daughters; Wage Dynamics; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Two methodological issues in measuring intergenerational correlations in welfare participation are explored. One controls for differences in eligibility as well as participation, the other uses event history analysis on mothers' and daughters' welfare histories. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is used to measure the intergenerational correlation among whites, blacks, & Hispanics. It is concluded that: (1) parental participation in Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) is correlated with daughters' AFDC participation for whites & Hispanics; (2) parents' participation does not seem to be capturing solely the effects of low income, which leads to a correlation in mothers' and daughters' eligibility; and (3) the loss of income if the parent does not participate raises the probability that the daughter will receive assistance. The effect of this income loss offsets nearly half of the participation effect for whites.
Bibliography Citation
Gottschalk, Peter. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Welfare Participation: Facts and Possible Causes ." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 11,2 (Spring 1992): 254-272.
5. Hao, Lingxin
Astone, Nan Marie
Cherlin, Andrew J.
Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23,4 (Autumn 2004): 697-721.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pam.20043/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Employment, Youth; High School; High School Dropouts; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Variations in state welfare policies in the reform era may affect adolescents through two mechanisms: A competing labor market hypothesis posits that stringent state welfare policies may reduce adolescent employment; and a signaling hypothesis posits that stringent welfare policies may promote enrollment. To test these hypotheses, we use a dynamic joint model of adolescents' school enrollment and formal employment, separating state welfare policies from non-welfare state policies, state labor market conditions, and unobserved state characteristics. Longitudinal data from the NLSY97 on adolescents aged 14 to 18 and various state data sources over the period 1994-1999 support the competing labor market effect but not the signaling effect. In particular, lower-income dropouts suffer more severely from fewer labor market opportunities when state welfare policies are more stringent, which indicates that welfare reform may compromise work opportunities for lower-income dropouts.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, Nan Marie Astone and Andrew J. Cherlin. "Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 23,4 (Autumn 2004): 697-721.
6. Heymann, S. Jody
Earle, Alison
The Work-Family Balance: What Hurdles Are Parents Leaving Welfare Likely to Confront?
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 17,2 (Spring 1998): 313-321.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6688%28199821%2917:2%3C313::AID-PAM11%3E3.0.CO;2-J/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Children; Maternal Employment; Welfare; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study empirically examines the question: How do the working conditions faced by parents leaving welfare who seek to balance working and caring for their children compare to conditions faced by parents who have not received AFDC? Similarities and differences in working conditions may play a critical role in determining whether parents are able to leave welfare for work successfully and what impact the need to work will have on their children.
Bibliography Citation
Heymann, S. Jody and Alison Earle. "The Work-Family Balance: What Hurdles Are Parents Leaving Welfare Likely to Confront?" Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 17,2 (Spring 1998): 313-321.
7. Kaestner, Robert
Korenman, Sanders D.
O'Neill, June E.
Has Welfare Reform Changed Teenage Behaviors?
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 22,2 (Spring 2003): 225-248.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pam.10115/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior; Family Background; Fertility; Welfare; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts were used to compare welfare use, fertility, educational attainment, and marriage among teenage women in the years before and immediately following welfare reform. The first objective was to document differences between these cohorts in welfare use and outcomes and behavior correlated with entry into welfare and with future economic and social well-being. The second objective was to investigate the causal role of welfare reform in behavioral change. Significant differences were found between cohorts in welfare use and in outcomes related to welfare use. Furthermore, difference-in-differences estimates suggest that welfare reform has been associated with reduced welfare receipt, reduced fertility, and reduced marriage among young women who, because of a disadvantaged family background, are at high risk of welfare receipt. Finally, in the post-welfare reform era, teenage mothers are less likely to receive welfare and are more likely to live with at least one parent than in the pre-reform era. Establishing more definitively that welfare reform is responsible for these changes will require further investigation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright: 2003 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert, Sanders D. Korenman and June E. O'Neill. "Has Welfare Reform Changed Teenage Behaviors?" Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 22,2 (Spring 2003): 225-248.
8. Kerr, Sari Pekkala
Parental Leave Legislation and Women's Work: A Story of Unequal Opportunities
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 35,1 (Winter 2016): 117-144.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pam.21875/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Family Income; Geocoded Data; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Legislation; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

U.S. federal and state family leave legislation requires employers to provide job-protected parental leave for new mothers covered under the legislation. In most cases the leave is unpaid, and rarely longer than 12 weeks in duration. This study evaluates disparities in parental leave eligibility, access, and usage across the family income distribution in the United States. It also describes the links between leave-taking and women's labor market careers. The focus is especially on low-income families, as their leave coverage and ability to afford taking unpaid leave is particularly poor. This study shows that the introduction of both state and federal legislation increased overall leave coverage, leave provision, and leave-taking. For example, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leads to an increased probability of leave-taking by nearly 20 percentage points and increased average leave length by almost five weeks across all states. The new policies did not, however, reduce gaps between low- and high-income families' eligibility, leave-taking, or leave length. In addition, the FMLA effects on leave-taking were very similar across states with and without prior leave legislation, and the FMLA did not disproportionately increase leave-taking for women who worked in firms and jobs covered by the new legislation, as these women were already relatively well covered by other parental leave arrangements.
Bibliography Citation
Kerr, Sari Pekkala. "Parental Leave Legislation and Women's Work: A Story of Unequal Opportunities." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 35,1 (Winter 2016): 117-144.
9. Klawitter, Marieka Marjorie
Plotnick, Robert D.
Edwards, Mark Evan
Determinants of Initial Entry onto Welfare by Young Women
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 19,4 (Autumn 2000): 527-546.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6688%28200023%2919:4%3C527::AID-PAM1%3E3.0.CO;2-4/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Family Structure; First Birth; Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the youngest cohorts of women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study constructs Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) histories starting at age 15. Most young women go on AFDC for the first time between ages 18 and 25 and do so in the first few years after the birth of their first baby. These histories are used to estimate models of the determinants of initial use of AFDC. The models provide mixed evidence that the financial or other incentives of welfare policy affect the likelihood and timing of AFDC use. Benefit levels do not seem to affect participation, but the presence of a program for medically needy families who are not on welfare appears to decrease entrance to welfare for some groups. Parental poverty, family structure, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, and race are significantly related to the likelihood of participating in AFDC, and the rate of entry. copyright: 2000 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Bibliography Citation
Klawitter, Marieka Marjorie, Robert D. Plotnick and Mark Evan Edwards. "Determinants of Initial Entry onto Welfare by Young Women." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 19,4 (Autumn 2000): 527-546.
10. Loeb, Susanna
Corcoran, Mary E.
Welfare, Work Experience, and Economic Self-Sufficiency
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 20,1 (Winter 2001): 1-20.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6688%28200124%2920:1%3C1::AID-PAM1001%3E3.0.CO;2-I/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Wage Growth; Wages; Wages, Women; Welfare; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The potential of former AFDC recipients to earn a living wage is central to the success of welfare-to-work programs. Previous studies have found that welfare recipients see little increase in their wages over time. Low wage growth could arise from either low returns to work experience or low levels of experience. This distinction is important for designing effective welfare policy. In the following paper, we estimate how wages grew with work experience between 1978 and 1992 for a national sample of women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We compare women who never received welfare with both short- and long-term recipients in order to see to what extent the rates of wage growth with work experience differ. We find that they differ very little. We use numerous specification checks to test the robustness of our results and find consistent evidence that the wages of AFDC recipients grew at a rate similar to those of nonrecipients once work experience is taken into account. Copyright: 2001 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
Bibliography Citation
Loeb, Susanna and Mary E. Corcoran. "Welfare, Work Experience, and Economic Self-Sufficiency." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 20,1 (Winter 2001): 1-20.
11. Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo
Powell, David
Heaton, Paul
Sevigny, Eric L.
Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 34,1 (Winter 2015): 7-31.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pam.21804/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Drug Use; Geocoded Data; Legislation; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to MMLs without this supply source.
Bibliography Citation
Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo, David Powell, Paul Heaton and Eric L. Sevigny. "Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 34,1 (Winter 2015): 7-31.
12. Pavetti, Ladonna Ann
Acs, Gregory P.
Moving Up, Moving Out, or Going Nowhere? A Study of the Employment Patterns of Young Women and the Implications for Welfare Mothers
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 20,4 (Autumn 2001): 721-736.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pam.1025/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s):

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Conventional wisdom holds that women on welfare will be better off in the long run if they take a job, even if it means initially having less money to spend on their and their children needs. Underlying this thinking is the belief that women who take low-paying jobs will eventually move up to higher paying jobs either with their current employer or by changing employers. This paper examines the employment transitions of young women focusing oil the likelihood that women who turn to the welfare system for support will make the transition from low-paying to high-paying jobs. The data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey, of Youth (NLSY). Based on the experiences of women who never received welfare, all estimated one-quarter of young women who received welfare could be firmly established in jobs paying more than $9.50 an hour by ages 26 and 27. An additional 40 percent would work steadily but in low-paying jobs, and more than one-third would work only, sporadically. (C) 2001 by the Association for Public Policy, Analysis and Management.
Bibliography Citation
Pavetti, Ladonna Ann and Gregory P. Acs. "Moving Up, Moving Out, or Going Nowhere? A Study of the Employment Patterns of Young Women and the Implications for Welfare Mothers." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 20,4 (Autumn 2001): 721-736.
13. Pirog-Good, Maureen A.
Good, David H.
Child Support Enforcement for Teenage Fathers: Problems and Prospects
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 14,1 (Winter 1995): 25-43.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2307/3325431/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Support; Fatherhood; Fathers; Fathers and Children

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the NLSY (National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experiences-Youth Cohort) indicate that about 7.3 percent of teenage males become fathers and that very few of these fathers live with their children. Father absence and the concurrent increase in female-headed households are closely associated with the impoverishment of children. Most absent teen fathers never come into contact with the child support enforcement (CSE) program, and the extent to which they financially support their children informally is not well understood. While the income of absent teen fathers is low in the teen years, it increases over time, as does the potential for collecting child support. Nevertheless, men who were absent teen fathers earn less in early adulthood than men who deferred parenting until age 20 or later and teen fathers who lived with their children. Early establishment of paternity and greater standardization in the treatment of adolescent fathers by the child support enforcement program are recommended. Further, the substantial and persistent income deficit experienced by adolescent fathers who live apart from their children raises an interesting dilemma. While children may benefit financially and psychosocially from living with two parents, the lower income of men who were absent teenage fathers may make them poor marital prospects. This raises doubts about the recent recommendations of some scholars that we should bring back the shotgun wedding.
Bibliography Citation
Pirog-Good, Maureen A. and David H. Good. "Child Support Enforcement for Teenage Fathers: Problems and Prospects." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 14,1 (Winter 1995): 25-43.