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Source: Journal of Gerontology
Resulting in 11 citations.
1. Beck, Scott Herman
Adjustment to and Satisfaction with Retirement
Journal of Gerontology 37,5 (September 1982): 616-624.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/5/616.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Family Resources; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marital Status; Occupations; Retirement; Widows

Research over the past 30 years concerning the effect of retirement on personal adjustment has resulted in conflicting findings. Some studies reported a negative effect for retirement; others showed no effect at all. This study tested the net effect of retirement on happiness with life and analyzed an evaluation of retirement item in order to discern specific factors that cause lower satisfaction with retirement. Logistic multiple regression and ordinary least squares regression were used in the analysis. The main findings are as follows: (1) although a negative bivariate relationship exists between retirement and happiness with life, retirement has no significant net effect; (2) health factors, recent widowhood, and income have the greatest impact on happiness with life; and (3) poor health, lower income, and earlier-than-expected retirement are the main determinants of negative evaluations of retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "Adjustment to and Satisfaction with Retirement." Journal of Gerontology 37,5 (September 1982): 616-624.
2. Beck, Scott Herman
Retirement Preparation Programs: Differentials in Opportunity and Use
Journal of Gerontology 39,5 (September 1984): 596-602.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/39/5/596.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Retirement; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Two issues rarely addressed in the retirement planning field are: (1) the proportion of older workers who participate, or have the opportunity to participate, in retirement preparation programs; and (2) socioeconomic differentials in access to such programs. Data from the NLS of Older Men were used to investigate these two issues. The data indicate that fewer than 4 percent of this sample of men aged 60-74 in 1981 had participated in a retirement preparation program. Logistic multiple regression analysis indicated that occupational status, government employment and private pension coverage were positively related to the likelihood of participation as well as the likelihood of opportunity to participate. Conclusions from this analysis are: (1) very few older workers ever participate in retirement preparation programs; and (2) those who would seem to benefit most from preparation programs, low status and low income workers, are the least likely to have access to these programs.
Bibliography Citation
Beck, Scott Herman. "Retirement Preparation Programs: Differentials in Opportunity and Use." Journal of Gerontology 39,5 (September 1984): 596-602.
3. Campione, Wendy A.
Predicting Participation in Retirement Preparation Programs
Journal of Gerontology 43,3 (May 1988): S91-S95.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/3/S91.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Retirement

The probability of participation in a retirement preparation program was estimated by applying a logit regression model to data from the 1981 NLS of Older Men. The final sample consisted of 294 retired men who were aged 45 to 59 in the initial survey year (1966) and who had had the opportunity to participate in a retirement planning program. Variables postulated to influence participation were occupational status, preretirement income, job satisfaction, health status, change in health, marital status, pension eligibility, prior unemployment, constraint by mandatory retirement rules, and expected retirement experience (i.e. plans for retirement). Occupational status, marital status, health status, preretirement income, and constraint by mandatory retirement rules were significant predictors of participation. Moreover, a positive selectivity bias existed in that those individuals most likely to succeed in retirement were those who were volunteering for and participating in retirement preparation programs. [AgeLine]
Bibliography Citation
Campione, Wendy A. "Predicting Participation in Retirement Preparation Programs." Journal of Gerontology 43,3 (May 1988): S91-S95.
4. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Longitudinal Analysis of Functional Disabilities in Older Men
Journal of Gerontology 40,4 (July 1985): 426-433.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/40/4/426.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Attrition; Disability; Disabled Workers; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mortality; Racial Differences; Self-Reporting; Transfers, Skill

The study examines longitudinal changes in various functional disabilities and the effects of such changes on self-reported health, role function, mobility, and self-sufficiency. Using data from the NLS of Older Men, the analysis revealed that: (1) sizeable percentages of men report motor-sensory dysfunctions with black men experiencing higher rates of dysfunction than whites; and (2) that functional disabilities are strong predictors of mortality.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Longitudinal Analysis of Functional Disabilities in Older Men." Journal of Gerontology 40,4 (July 1985): 426-433.
5. Fillenbaum, Gerda G.
George, Linda K.
Palmore, Erdman B.
Determinants and Consequences of Retirement Among Men of Different Races and Economic Levels
Journal of Gerontology 40,1 (January 1985): 85-94.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/40/1/85.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Health Factors; Racial Differences; Retirement; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This paper examined predictors and consequences of retirement for black and white men differing in economic status. Data were drawn from the Social Security Administration's Retirement History Surveys (1969 and 1975) and the National Longitudinal Surveys (1966 and 1976). Basic work-related characteristics were the only predictors of retirement for black men, while more varied matters predicted retirement for whites. For blacks, the impacts of retirement were few and centered on economic and health matters. Economic consequences of retirement for black men were minimal, probably because they were recipients of age-related income supports and other income subsidies and supplements and had received low pre-retirement incomes. There were fewer determinants of retirement for low than for high income earners. Retirement tended to level incomes. Economically marginal men--those whose preretirement incomes lay between poverty level and the intermediate budget level--were most affected by retirement. Methodological issues are also discussed. [AgeLine]
Bibliography Citation
Fillenbaum, Gerda G., Linda K. George and Erdman B. Palmore. "Determinants and Consequences of Retirement Among Men of Different Races and Economic Levels." Journal of Gerontology 40,1 (January 1985): 85-94.
6. Palmore, Erdman B.
Fillenbaum, Gerda G.
George, Linda K.
Consequences of Retirement
Journal of Gerontology 39,1 (January 1984): 109-116.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/39/1/109.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Career Patterns; Early Retirement; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Life Satisfaction; Retirement; Retirement History Study

Six longitudinal data sets are used to examine the consequences of retirement, controlling for preretirement characteristics. Results show: (1) about one-half to three-fourths of income differences between the retired and working was caused by retirement; (2) little, if any, of the health differences are caused by retirement; (3) there are few effects of retirement on social activity; and (4) there are few effects on attitudes such as life satisfaction and happiness. Early retirement, however, has stronger effects than retirement at normal ages. The results show that retirement has different effects depending on type of outcome and timing of retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Palmore, Erdman B., Gerda G. Fillenbaum and Linda K. George. "Consequences of Retirement." Journal of Gerontology 39,1 (January 1984): 109-116.
7. Palmore, Erdman B.
George, Linda K.
Fillenbaum, Gerda G.
Predictors of Retirement
Journal of Gerontology 37,6 (November 1982): 733-742.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/6/733.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Duke Retirement Study; Family Income; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Michigan Study-Auto Worker; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Pensions; Retirement; Self-Reporting; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Predictors of retirement among men were analyzed using data from seven longitudinal studies, multiple definitions of retirement, multivariate analyses, and unbiased statistical techniques. Results show that the predictors of retirement vary depending on how retirement is defined. The strongest predictors of objective retirement among men over age 65 (i.e., employed less than full-time and receiving a pension) are structural factors such as socioeconomic status and job characteristics. The strongest predictors of early retirement (i.e., retiring before age 65) and of age at retirement include both structural factors and subjective factors, such as self- rated health and attitudes. When retirement is defined by amount of employment, job characteristics are more important predictors than all the others combined.
Bibliography Citation
Palmore, Erdman B., Linda K. George and Gerda G. Fillenbaum. "Predictors of Retirement." Journal of Gerontology 37,6 (November 1982): 733-742.
8. Parnes, Herbert S.
Sommers, David Gerard
Shunning Retirement: Work Experience of Men in Their Seventies and Early Eighties
Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 49,3 (1994): S117-S124
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Level; Labor Force Participation; Retirement; Wives, Work; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Older Men, this study examined the extent and character of the work experience of men who opt to continue labor force participation well beyond conventional retirement age. Logistic regression results showed that good health, a strong psychological commitment to work, and a corresponding distaste for retirement are among the most important characteristics related to continued employment into old age. The probability of employment was also found to be positively related to educational attainment and being married to a working wife; it was negatively related to age and level of income in the absence of work. Of the men in the sample who were not working, very few gave evidence of a desire to do so. Policy implications of the findings are explored.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and David Gerard Sommers. "Shunning Retirement: Work Experience of Men in Their Seventies and Early Eighties." Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 49,3 (1994): S117-S124.
9. Reitzes, Donald C.
Mutran, Elizabeth
Pope, Hallowell
Location and Well-Being Among Retired Men
Journal of Gerontology 46,4 (July 1991): S195-S203.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/46/4/S195.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Geographical Variation; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Residence; Retirement; Support Networks; Well-Being

This paper investigates the influence of environment, specifically residence in a central city or suburb, on the psychological well-being of a sample of retired men drawn from the NLS of Older Men. Three issues were explored: (1) whether there were statistically significant differences among retired men living in central cities, suburbs, and non-metropolitan areas in their well-being, personal and social characteristics, networks, and activities; (2) whether differences in location exerted independent and interactional effects on well-being; and (3) whether location indirectly influences well-being through activities. Results indicate that: (1) retired men living in suburbs experienced the highest mean well-being scores; (2) poor health reduced the well- being of retired men in the suburbs to a greater extent than in the central cities; and (3) suburban location indirectly influenced well-being by way of its effect on informal activities.
Bibliography Citation
Reitzes, Donald C., Elizabeth Mutran and Hallowell Pope. "Location and Well-Being Among Retired Men." Journal of Gerontology 46,4 (July 1991): S195-S203.
10. Wanner, Richard A.
Mcdonald, Lynn
Ageism in the Labor Market: Estimating Earnings Discrimination Against Older Workers
Journal of Gerontology 38,6 (November 1983): 738-744.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/38/6/738.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Career Patterns; Discrimination, Age; Earnings; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Tenure; Training, Occupational; Work Experience

In this paper, the authors attempt to determine the degree to which older persons who are employed full-time experience a decline in earnings not related to a decline in productivity.Such a decline in earnings is labelled discrimination. Using panel data for a cohort of men age 45-54 in l966, trends in earnings between l966 and l976 are examined. The effects of labor force experience on earnings controlling for factors related to productivity, such as health, time on the job, and specific occupational training, as well as other factors known to influence earnings levels are analyzed. Comparing earnings attainment models estimated at both time periods, it was found that the effect of experience on earnings is negligible in l966 but substantial and negative in l976. Furthermore, by far the largest component in the real earnings decline experienced by these men between l966 and l976 is associated with the increase in age-related experience.
Bibliography Citation
Wanner, Richard A. and Lynn Mcdonald. "Ageism in the Labor Market: Estimating Earnings Discrimination Against Older Workers." Journal of Gerontology 38,6 (November 1983): 738-744.
11. Wong, Jen D.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 64B,1 (January 2009): 77-86.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/64B/1.toc
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Demography; Gerontology; Heterogeneity; Income Level; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Retirement; Women; Women's Studies

OBJECTIVE: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. METHODS: Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. RESULTS: Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning.
Bibliography Citation
Wong, Jen D. and Melissa A. Hardy. "Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?" Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 64B,1 (January 2009): 77-86.