Search Results

Source: Journal of Family and Economic Issues
Resulting in 42 citations.
1. Abdel-Ghany, Mohamed
Sharpe, Deanna L.
Racial Wage Differentials Among Young Adults: Evidence from the 1990s
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 15,3 (September 1994): 279-294.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/379978974712q620/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Human Capital; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Labor Market Segmentation; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Sex Roles; Wage Differentials; Wage Equations

Using 1991 data drawn from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience, wage differentials between black and white male young adults (N = 930 and 1,825, respectively) are decomposed into those related to labor market discrimination and those resulting from human capital endowments. The importance of testing for significant differences in wage equations before conducting decomposition analysis is emphasized. Results demonstrate that ignoring correction for the sample selection bias resulting from black-white differences in the probability of being employed would lead to an underestimation of the size of wage differentials. Findings also show that the results of models based on different assumptions regarding the nondiscriminatory wage structure might lead to different conclusions pertinent to the extent of labor market discrimination. Implications for public policy development are discussed. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Abdel-Ghany, Mohamed and Deanna L. Sharpe. "Racial Wage Differentials Among Young Adults: Evidence from the 1990s." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 15,3 (September 1994): 279-294.
2. Addo, Fenaba
Financial Integration and Relationship Transitions of Young Adult Cohabiters
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,1 (March 2017): 84-99.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-016-9490-7
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Assets; Cohabitation; Credit/Credit Constraint; Financial Behaviors/Decisions; Home Ownership; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite increasing rates of pre-marital cohabitation, the majority of research on household financial practices in the United States has focused on married couples. This study explored ways young adult cohabiters (N = 691) financially combined their lives and the associations with subsequent relationship outcomes. Results indicated cohabiters were intertwining credit histories and bank accounts, and acquiring assets such as purchasing homes together. Sharing a mortgage was associated with an increased likelihood of marriage, whereas joint credit card accounts increased the odds of dissolution. Cohabiters with an intent to marry were much more likely to start integrating their finances prior to marriage. This study sheds light on the heterogeneous ways that a recent cohort of young adult couples manages their finances and navigates relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba. "Financial Integration and Relationship Transitions of Young Adult Cohabiters." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,1 (March 2017): 84-99.
3. Addo, Fenaba
Houle, Jason N.
Sassler, Sharon
The Changing Nature of the Association Between Student Loan Debt and Marital Behavior in Young Adulthood
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 40,1 (March 2019): 86-101.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9591-6
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we compared young adults from the NLSY 1979 and the NLSY 1997 to examine how the relationship between student debt and the likelihood of marrying changed across cohorts, in light of the growing acceptance of non-marital cohabitation. In the 1997 cohort, student loan debt among college-attending young adults was associated with delays in marriage, but not in the 1979 cohort. Among men, the positive association between education debt and marriage in the 1979 cohort was no longer evident for the 1997 cohort of young men. Our findings provide further evidence that rising student debt is reshaping relationship formation among college-going youth, and that as cohabitation has become more widespread, social and economic disparities in who marries without cohabiting first have increased.
Bibliography Citation
Addo, Fenaba, Jason N. Houle and Sharon Sassler. "The Changing Nature of the Association Between Student Loan Debt and Marital Behavior in Young Adulthood." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 40,1 (March 2019): 86-101.
4. Afxentiou, Diamando
Hawley, Clifford B.
Explaining Female Teenagers' Sexual Behavior and Outcomes: A Bivariate Probit Analysis with Selectivity Correction
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 18,1(Spring 1997): 91-106.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/url6l16117270q36/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing, Adolescent; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Sexual Activity; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data, this article estimates a model of teenage childbearing. The model recognizes that teenage childbearing is conditional on earlier sexual activity and that such activity is undertaken by only a portion of the female teenage population. Consequently, rather than estimate a single equation for birth probability as much past research has done, a bivariate probit model with selectivity correction is estimated to account for the sequential nature of the process. An important result of this research suggests that AFDC benefits play a role in the decision to become sexually active as well as to become a teenage parent.
Bibliography Citation
Afxentiou, Diamando and Clifford B. Hawley. "Explaining Female Teenagers' Sexual Behavior and Outcomes: A Bivariate Probit Analysis with Selectivity Correction." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 18,1(Spring 1997): 91-106.
5. Astone, Nan Marie
Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Sonenstein, Freya L.
Pleck, Joseph H.
Hynes, Kathryn
Men's Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 31,1 (March 2010): 3-13.
Also: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10834-009-9174-7
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Fatherhood; Marital Status; Marriage; Work Ethic

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we tested three hypotheses: (a) the transition to fatherhood is associated with an increase in work effort; (b) the positive association (if any) between the transition to fatherhood and work effort is greater for fathers who are married at the time of the transition; and (c) the association (if any) is greater for men who make the transition at younger ages. The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The transition to fatherhood was associated with an increase in work effort among young unmarried men, but not for married men. Among married men who were on-time fathers, work effort decreased. Among childless men, the marriage transition was associated with increased work effort.
Bibliography Citation
Astone, Nan Marie, Jacinda K. Dariotis, Freya L. Sonenstein, Joseph H. Pleck and Kathryn Hynes. "Men's Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 31,1 (March 2010): 3-13.
6. Baydar, Nazli
Greek, April A.
Gritz, R. Mark
Young Mothers' Time Spent at Work and Time Spent Caring for Children
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 20,1 (March 1999): 61-84.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h367846g48770465/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Child Care; Time Use; Work Hours

Investigated the association between the time a mother spends at work and in different child care activities, using data from 1,248 female participants in the 1981 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) who had children younger than 6 yrs old at the time of the study. The mothers who worked on the index day spent almost one hour less time in physical care, one-half hour less time in interactive care, and over two hours less time in passive supervision of their children. The effects of a set of predictors on time use at work, time use in physical care, interactive care, and passive supervision of children were estimated using a covariance structure model. When the effects of these predictors were controlled, the number of hours at work predicted: (1) a small reduction in time spent in interactive care, and (2) larger reductions in time spent in physical care and passive supervision. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli, April A. Greek and R. Mark Gritz. "Young Mothers' Time Spent at Work and Time Spent Caring for Children." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 20,1 (March 1999): 61-84.
7. Bhatt, Vipul
Adolescent Alcohol Use and Intergenerational Transfers: Evidence from Micro Data
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 32,2 (June 2011): 296-307.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/c41345468l185728/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Transfers, Family

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the first seven waves (1997–2003) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), this paper investigates the effect of adolescent alcohol use on the amount of transfers they receive from their parents. Exploiting cross state and time variation in the price of alcohol, the main finding is that greater binge drinking among youths is associated with receiving significantly lower parental transfers. From a theoretical standpoint, one way to interpret this finding is to imagine an altruistic parent using pecuniary incentives to influence child behavior. Given that for many teenagers parental allowance is an important component of their income, limiting and monitoring such transfers may help reducing the chances of excessive drinking by youth.
Bibliography Citation
Bhatt, Vipul. "Adolescent Alcohol Use and Intergenerational Transfers: Evidence from Micro Data." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 32,2 (June 2011): 296-307.
8. Britt, Sonya L.
Huston, Sandra
The Role of Money Arguments in Marriage
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 33,4 (December 2012): 464-476.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-012-9304-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Divorce; Expectations/Intentions; Income; Marital Conflict; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the paucity of empirical evidence indicating the impact of money arguments on spousal relationship outcomes, it is common belief that money plays a large role in the life of couples. This study used panel data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine how money-related arguments affect the marital relationship. Economic theory indicates that initial expectations about the marriage and variance in expectations are both important in predicting relationship satisfaction and divorce. Money arguments were modeled as a sign of the lack of investment in spousal-specific capital and were hypothesized to negatively impact relationship quality. Results suggest that money arguments are an important indicator of relationship satisfaction, but are not as influential in predicting divorce. Both the approach used to model money arguments and the empirical results can be used by marriage therapists and financial counselors to help couples understand and improve the benefits received through marriage.
Bibliography Citation
Britt, Sonya L. and Sandra Huston. "The Role of Money Arguments in Marriage." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 33,4 (December 2012): 464-476.
9. Britt, Sonya L.
Roy, R. Roudi Nazarinia
Relationship Quality Among Young Couples from an Economic and Gender Perspective
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 35,2 (June 2014): 241-250.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-013-9368-x
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Chores (see Housework); Gender Attitudes/Roles; Housework/Housewives; Marital Satisfaction/Quality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Less than a third of married couple households in the United States are composed of families with one breadwinner. This is a stark contrast to a mere 40 years ago when men were the primary breadwinner for the majority of households. The goal of this study was to determine how the perception of household chores is related to relationship quality. Specifically we wanted to determine how perception of household chores is related to relationship quality reported by partners from a traditional economic and a gender role theory perspective. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1986 cohort, results indicate that perceived unfairness in household division of chores was predictive of women’s relationship quality, but not men’s. Arguments about affection and money were predictive of relationship quality for both genders.
Bibliography Citation
Britt, Sonya L. and R. Roudi Nazarinia Roy. "Relationship Quality Among Young Couples from an Economic and Gender Perspective." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 35,2 (June 2014): 241-250.
10. Burgess, Simon M.
Propper, Carol
Gardiner, Karen N.
School, Family and County Effects on Adolescents' Later Life Chances
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 27,2 (Summer 2006): 155-184.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/574tg055k2017568/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Family Characteristics; Family Influences; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; School Quality; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the links between family, school and area background influences during adolescence and later adult economic outcomes. The empirical analysis is based on data covering the period 1979 to 1996, drawn from the 1979 US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. For a sample of individuals aged 14–19 in 1979, we estimate the association between family, school and area characteristics when growing up, on adult earnings capacity and poverty risk. We show that including all these influences jointly, family and school quality generally have significant associations with adult outcomes, but that area influences generally do not.
Bibliography Citation
Burgess, Simon M., Carol Propper and Karen N. Gardiner. "School, Family and County Effects on Adolescents' Later Life Chances." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 27,2 (Summer 2006): 155-184.
11. Campione, Wendy A.
Employed Women's Well-Being: The Global and Daily Impact of Work
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 29,2 (September 2008): 346-361.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/441h8h1535747576/
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Benefits; Job Satisfaction; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Life Satisfaction; Unions; Well-Being; Women's Roles; Women's Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although women derive satisfaction and self-efficacy from work, the potential for stress and the need for balance of multiple roles are of great concern. Utilizing a sample of women from the National Longitudinal Survey cohort Young Women in 1997, this study develops a model which delineates global well-being, measured as life satisfaction and daily well-being, measured as depression, and tests the impact of personal, family, and work variables specifically chosen for each well-being measure. Findings suggest that in addition to personal and family variables, union membership, supervisory capacity, recent promotion, and government employment are significant correlates of global life satisfaction and irregular shifts, paid leave, and telecommuting are significant correlates of daily depression. (Author)
Bibliography Citation
Campione, Wendy A. "Employed Women's Well-Being: The Global and Daily Impact of Work." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 29,2 (September 2008): 346-361.
12. Caputo, Richard K.
Adult Daughters as Parental Caregivers: Rational Actors versus Rational Agents
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 23,1 (Spring 2002): 27-50.
Also: http://ipsapp009.lwwonline.com/content/getfile/4842/9/2/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Financial Assistance; Home Environment; Inheritance; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Using logistic regression analyses on a sub-sample (n = 611) of the National Longitudinal Survey, Young Women's Cohort, the study found that inheritance-related factors added no explanatory power to other factors influencing the likelihood of adult daughters providing personal care or doing household chores for their aging parents, suggesting the motivational primacy of adherence to social norms. The study also found that inheritance-related factors increased the likelihood of providing financial assistance beyond that of other factors, suggesting the primacy of self-interest when money transactions are concerned. This is an important study because it offers insights into developing and implementing public and private incentives and policies to ensure an adequate supply of informal caregivers as baby boomers enter their twilight years. Copyright © 2002 Human Sciences Press, Inc.
Bibliography Citation
Caputo, Richard K. "Adult Daughters as Parental Caregivers: Rational Actors versus Rational Agents." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 23,1 (Spring 2002): 27-50.
13. Caputo, Richard K.
Race and Marital History as Correlates of Women's Access to Family-Friendly Employee Benefits
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 21,4 (December 2000): 365-385.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k2658j7658503693/
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Benefits; Children; Education; Employment; Marriage; Racial Differences; Wages; Women; Work History

Using a nationally representative sample of young women surveyed intermittently since 1968 (N=2030), this study assessed the effects of race and marital history on access to family-friendly employee benefits between 1978 and 1995. Accounting for such factors as work history, total number of employers for whom the respondent has worked, education level, and number of children, race was found to act as a suppressor variable. White women were found to work for more years for employers providing family-friendly benefits even though Black women worked for more years in full-time jobs. Results suggested that systematic biases relegated Black women to lower-paying full-time jobs without family-friendly benefits more so than was the case for White women. Policy implications regarding affirmative action are discussed. No relationship was found between marital history and access to jobs with family-friendly benefits when taking into account other sociodemographic and employment-related characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Caputo, Richard K. "Race and Marital History as Correlates of Women's Access to Family-Friendly Employee Benefits." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 21,4 (December 2000): 365-385.
14. Caputo, Richard K.
The Impact of Intergenerational Head Start Participation on Success Measures Among Adolescent Children
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 25,2 (Summer 2004): 199-223.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g5m8514278766268/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Childhood Education, Early; Depression (see also CESD); Head Start; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty

This study examines the influence of intergenerational Head Start participation on success outcomes among adolescent children of mother-adolescent pairs (N = 1,251). Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and the National Longitudinal Survey's Child-Mother (NLSCM) files. Of 290 adolescents who participated in Head Start as children, one-third (n = 97) had mothers who had also participated in Head Start when they were children. Graduates of Head Start appear roughly comparable to other adolescents in regard to highest grade completed, a sense of mastery, perceived health, and level of depressive symptoms. They do not attain the levels of achievements as other adolescents in regard to reading comprehension and years living above the poverty level.
Bibliography Citation
Caputo, Richard K. "The Impact of Intergenerational Head Start Participation on Success Measures Among Adolescent Children." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 25,2 (Summer 2004): 199-223.
15. Chen, Zhuo
Zhang, Qi
Nutrigenomics Hypothesis: Examining the Association Between Food Stamp Program Participation and Bodyweight Among Low-Income Women
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 32,3 (September 2011): 508-520.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g0847322820k702x/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Heterogeneity; Program Participation/Evaluation; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the association between food stamp program participation and bodyweight among 1,723 eligible women who were respondents of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The study sample was stratified by race/ethnicity and two time periods, i.e., 1987–1996, 1998–2002, to allow for genetic and cultural differences and a potential structural break due to the 1996 welfare reform. We test a hypothesis based on the nutrigenomic literature suggesting that genetic heterogeneities result in varying effects of nutrition or food-borne components on metabolism. Differences in socioeconomic characteristics between participants and eligible non-participants were identified. We find a positive association between food stamp program participation and bodyweight among Hispanic women, particularly those of foreign-born.
Bibliography Citation
Chen, Zhuo and Qi Zhang. "Nutrigenomics Hypothesis: Examining the Association Between Food Stamp Program Participation and Bodyweight Among Low-Income Women." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 32,3 (September 2011): 508-520.
16. Christie-Mizell, C. André
The Effects of Traditional Family and Gender Ideology on Earnings: Race and Gender Differences
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 27,1 (April 2006): 48-71.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/n0154055336j20x8/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Earnings; Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Family Studies; Gender Differences; Labor Market Demographics; Racial Differences; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite increasing gains in labor market opportunities, women and racial minorities earn less than their white male counterparts. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study explores racial and gender variation in how family and gender ideology shape this wage gap. The findings reveal that traditional role attitudes reduce earnings for African American men, African American women, and white women. However, white women experience the largest threat to wages as a result of conventional gender ideology. Further, the number of children and the timing of childbearing are detrimental to black and white women's earnings, while neither of these factors hampers men's earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Christie-Mizell, C. André. "The Effects of Traditional Family and Gender Ideology on Earnings: Race and Gender Differences." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 27,1 (April 2006): 48-71.
17. Couch, Kenneth A.
Lillard, Dean R.
Divorce, Educational Attainment, and the Earnings Mobility of Sons
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 18,3(Fall 1997): 231-245.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/1f9nmk58gnmb7m1h/
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Children, Home Environment; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital Status; Pairs (also see Siblings)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article uses matched pairs of sons and their parents from the National Longitudinal Surveys: Old Cohort Databases to investigate the relationship between the marital history of parents, educational attainment, and intergenerational correlations in earnings. The research indicates that patterns of intergenerational earnings mobility vary with divorce. Sons from families whose divorced parents had relatively low earnings have a greater chance of having low earnings themselves. The research also shows that much of the variation in earnings mobility can be explained by lower educational attainment for children from divorced families. This finding highlights the importance of designing policies to assist the educational attainment of those most likely to be affected by divorce.
Bibliography Citation
Couch, Kenneth A. and Dean R. Lillard. "Divorce, Educational Attainment, and the Earnings Mobility of Sons." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 18,3(Fall 1997): 231-245.
18. Delaney, Jason J.
Winters, John V.
Sinners or Saints? Preachers’ Kids and Risky Health Behaviors
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 35,4 (December 2014): 464-476.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-013-9388-6/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Drug Use; Occupations; Parental Influences; Religion; Religious Influences; Risk-Taking; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How do parents influence adolescent risky behavior? In this paper, we focus on a unique population: children of the clergy, more commonly known as preachers' kids (PKs). We used data on risky behavior among American adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort and used latent variable and zero-inflated count models to analyze the effect of being a PK on both uptake and intensity of use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs. We found that being a PK significantly reduced alcohol use. This effect came exclusively from a reduction in the probability of any alcohol use and this increased abstinence among children of the clergy persisted into adulthood. We found no significant effects of being a PK on cigarette uptake or intensity of use but some evidence of a negative PK effect on the uptake of marijuana and other drugs.
Bibliography Citation
Delaney, Jason J. and John V. Winters. "Sinners or Saints? Preachers’ Kids and Risky Health Behaviors." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 35,4 (December 2014): 464-476.
19. Driscoll, Anne K.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
The Relationship of Welfare Receipt to Child Outcomes
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 20,1 (Spring 1999): 85-113.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/x38027r8n40238t5/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Cognitive Ability; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare

Welfare receipt often is correlated negatively with children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Yet, virtually all children in households that receive public assistance are poor, prompting the question of whether poor outcomes are an effect of welfare, a spurious relationship between welfare and child outcomes, or a result of welfare selection. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), these possibilities were examined by controlling for poverty and for selection into welfare. Controlling for child and maternal characteristics accounted for the majority of bivariate associations between welfare and outcomes among Black children. Controlling for poverty did little to change the relationship between welfare and outcomes for Black or White children. Controlling for selection into welfare further reduced the relationship between welfare receipt and outcomes among White children and had little discernible effect among Black children. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Driscoll, Anne K. and Kristin Anderson Moore. "The Relationship of Welfare Receipt to Child Outcomes." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 20,1 (Spring 1999): 85-113.
20. Frech, Adrianne
Painter, Matthew A.
Vespa, Jonathan Edward
Marital Biography and Mothers' Wealth
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,2 (June 2017): 279-292.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-016-9508-1
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Divorce; First Birth; Marital History/Transitions; Marriage; Mothers; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We used over 20 years of data to estimate differences in mothers' wealth across marital biography, following a marital first birth. Our study is the first to account for the selection of mothers into divorce or remarriage when estimating the role that marital history plays in wealth accumulation. Mothers who remained stably married to the biological father of their firstborn child reported greater wealth in their forties than mothers who divorced and did not remarry. Those who married at younger ages, women of color, and women from lower-income families were less likely to remain stably married. Net of selection, mothers who remained remarried had the same wealth as continuously married mothers. Thus the characteristics that predispose mothers to divorce, and not divorce per se, are linked to lower wealth. Once these selection effects were accounted for, we concluded that divorce was not necessarily detrimental to mothers’ economic security, a new finding that contradicts past studies.
Bibliography Citation
Frech, Adrianne, Matthew A. Painter and Jonathan Edward Vespa. "Marital Biography and Mothers' Wealth." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,2 (June 2017): 279-292.
21. Glauber, Rebecca
Young, Justin Robert
On the Fringe: Family-Friendly Benefits and the Rural-Urban Gap Among Working Women
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 36,1 (March 2015): 97-113.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-014-9418-z/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Insurance, Health; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Rural Women; Rural/Urban Differences; Unions; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study drew on longitudinal, nationally representative data to estimate rural-urban inequality in women's access to family-friendly benefits. Multivariate fixed effects regression models showed that compared to urban women, rural women's odds of reporting access were 11% lower for flexible work scheduling, 24% lower for job-protected maternity leave, 13% lower for paid sick time, 21% lower for vacation time, and 20% lower for health insurance. The rural-urban gap in sick time was explained by differences in unionization, as rural women were less likely to be unionized than urban women. Our findings suggest that rural women's work-family experiences may be more constrained than urban women's work-family experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Glauber, Rebecca and Justin Robert Young. "On the Fringe: Family-Friendly Benefits and the Rural-Urban Gap Among Working Women." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 36,1 (March 2015): 97-113.
22. Griesdorn, Tim S.
Durband, Dorothy B.
Does Self-control Predict Wealth Creation Among Young Baby Boomers?
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 37,1 (March 2016): 18-28.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-015-9437-4/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Bankruptcy; Educational Attainment; Home Ownership; Income; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Net Worth; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Savings; Self-Control/Self-Regulation; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Why similar people have different patterns of wealth accumulation is puzzling. The behavioral life-cycle hypothesis indicates self-control is an important aspect of household saving behavior. This study investigated if household wealth creation from 1994 to 2008 could be predicted by self-control among a sample of young baby boomers using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) data. Variables that significantly predicted 2008 net worth included homeownership, 1994 net worth, income, bankruptcy filing, inheritance, education level, race, marital status, children, retirement planning activities, locus of control, and self-mastery. The addition of self-control predictors to a regression model improved the model's ability to predict net worth by 1.3% above and beyond the human capital, financial status, and demographic predictor variables. In total, the model explained 60% of the variance in net worth. Findings indicated that individuals who invested in their human capital, were homeowners, and had higher self-control, accumulated more wealth.
Bibliography Citation
Griesdorn, Tim S. and Dorothy B. Durband. "Does Self-control Predict Wealth Creation Among Young Baby Boomers?" Journal of Family and Economic Issues 37,1 (March 2016): 18-28.
23. Groves, Lincoln
Lopoo, Leonard M.
Federal Financial Aid and Family Formation: Examining the Social Security Student Benefit Program
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,3 (September 2018): 436-444.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9568-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Benefits, Disability; Family Formation; Financial Assistance; Program Participation/Evaluation; Social Security

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A broad empirical literature asks if social policies designed to provide benefits to low-income families also affect family formation patterns. While most of the evidence suggests that family formation effects are small at best, and often nonexistent, recent research argues that policies that alter budget constraints considerably should have greater family formation impacts. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the Social Security Student Benefit Program (SSSBP), a program designed to provide large higher education subsidies for the children of disabled, retired, or deceased parents. Conditions for receipt of SSSBP created strong incentives to delay marriage. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979, and a difference-in-differences model, we found that women potentially qualifying for the SSSBP were much less likely to marry before age 22 and were older when they had children, while the program did not influence the probability of women ever marrying or having children. Impacts on men, however, were negligible.
Bibliography Citation
Groves, Lincoln and Leonard M. Lopoo. "Federal Financial Aid and Family Formation: Examining the Social Security Student Benefit Program." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,3 (September 2018): 436-444.
24. Hao, Lingxin
Poverty, Public Assistance, and Children in Intact and Single-Mother Families
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 16,2-3 (Fall 1995): 181-205.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/e257251542801515/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Development; Family Background; Family Structure; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Motherhood; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Welfare

Examined the effects of poverty, public assistance and family structure on school-age children's home environment and developmental outcomes. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, based on a sample of 12,686 Ss (14-21 yr. old) was used. Results show that long duration and late timing of poverty had a detrimental effect on home environment and child developmental outcomes. Long duration of public assistance disturbed reading ability for Ss of intact families. Late timing of public assistance enhanced the cognitive and emotional environment and had a greater effect on the emotional environment for single mother families. Long duration and late timing of single motherhood were detrimental to the emotional environment. Thus, the process of intergenerational transmission of welfare dependency during school age years is attributable to poverty and single motherhood rather than the duration and timing of public assistance. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1996 American Psychological Assn., all rights reserved)

Also: Rand Reprint, http://www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/ordi/getabbydoc.pl?doc=RP-489

Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin. "Poverty, Public Assistance, and Children in Intact and Single-Mother Families." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 16,2-3 (Fall 1995): 181-205.
25. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Forry, Nicole D.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Child Support, Father-Child Contact, and Preteens' Involvement with Nonresidential Fathers: Racial/Ethnic Differences
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 31,1 (March 2010): 14-32.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20357896
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Child Support; Ethnic Differences; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Presence; Parent-Child Interaction; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined how child support, frequency of contact with children, and the relationship between nonresidential parents influenced preteens' reports of the involvement of fathers and mothers in their life. Data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) that has followed the children of NLSY mothers from birth into their twenties. Results showed that increases in child support and in contact with the child over time after separation are linked to a better coparental relationship when children are age 11 or 12. This better relationship between parents is, in turn, associated with greater involvement of both mothers and nonresidential fathers with their children.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L., Nicole D. Forry and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Child Support, Father-Child Contact, and Preteens' Involvement with Nonresidential Fathers: Racial/Ethnic Differences." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 31,1 (March 2010): 14-32.
26. Kimmes, Jonathan G.
Heckman, Stuart J.
Parenting Styles and College Enrollment: A Path Analysis of Risky Human Capital Decisions
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,4 (December 2017): 614-627.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-017-9529-4
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Expectations/Intentions; Human Capital; Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we examined how parents influence the higher education decision-making process of young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, results from a path analysis showed that, although parenting styles were not directly linked with college enrollment, they were indirectly associated with college enrollment via their prior associations with a number of variables, including young adults' subjective probability of completing college, time preferences, academic achievement, cognitive ability, and parental expectations. These findings suggest that although parents may be less directly involved with higher education choices of young adults, they still have an important indirect influence on these choices. Parenting style impacts the child's beliefs, expectations, and attitudes, all of which ultimately play a role in the decision of whether or not to enroll in college.
Bibliography Citation
Kimmes, Jonathan G. and Stuart J. Heckman. "Parenting Styles and College Enrollment: A Path Analysis of Risky Human Capital Decisions." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,4 (December 2017): 614-627.
27. Lauderdale, Mitzi K.
Heckman, Stuart J.
Family Background and Higher Education Attainment Among Children of Immigrants
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,3 (September 2017): 327-337.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-017-9537-4
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Background; Immigrants; Parental Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses a modified form of Perna's educational choice model (Studying college access and choice: A proposed conceptual model, Springer, Berlin, 2006) to examine whether children of immigrants have an "immigrant advantage" related to educational attainment. Children of immigrants represent approximately one in four children in the US and are the fastest growing segment of school-aged children. Using data from all 16 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997-2013), a random effects regression analysis indicated that children with at least one immigrant parent had a higher likelihood of higher education attainment. When separate regressions were run by race/ethnicity, the immigrant advantage was only present for Black and Hispanic respondents. Results presented evidence of omitted variable bias when modeling higher education attainment where parental immigration status was absent.
Bibliography Citation
Lauderdale, Mitzi K. and Stuart J. Heckman. "Family Background and Higher Education Attainment Among Children of Immigrants." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 38,3 (September 2017): 327-337.
28. Lim, Sojung
Mothers' Nonstandard Employment, Family Structure, and Children's Health Insurance Coverage
Journal of Family and Economic Issues published online (23 October 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s10834-018-9596-1.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9596-1
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Children, Health Care; Family Structure; Insurance, Health; Maternal Employment; Work, Atypical

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from two longitudinal studies on mothers and children (NLSY79 and NLSY79 Children), this study first examined the relationship between mothers' nonstandard employment and children’s health insurance coverage while adjusting for various compositional characteristics of mothers, children, and families. This study also evaluated whether this relationship differed across family structures. Results from multinomial logistic regression models showed that mothers' nonstandard work was associated with a higher likelihood of children being uninsured or relying on public programs. In addition, in single-mother families, children's uninsurance rate was highest if the mother held a nonstandard job, even compared to children of non-employed mothers. These study findings contribute to the literature on access to health insurance for children in the United States.
Bibliography Citation
Lim, Sojung. "Mothers' Nonstandard Employment, Family Structure, and Children's Health Insurance Coverage." Journal of Family and Economic Issues published online (23 October 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s10834-018-9596-1.
29. Majumder, Md. Alauddin
The Impact of Parenting Style on Children's Educational Outcomes in the United States
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 37,1 (March 2016): 89-98.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-015-9444-5/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Modeling, OLS; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the causal link between parenting style and children's educational outcomes. The existing literature seems to lack any effort to use a nationally representative data from the United States, to properly address endogeneity, or to examine educational outcomes beyond high school level. This paper attempts to mitigate these shortcomings. Drawing upon the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, it first used OLS and logit regression. It then applied the maximum simulated likelihood approach to get rid of endogeneity, thereby isolating the causal impact of parenting style on children's educational outcomes. Findings suggested that parenting style mattered for children academic performance. Authoritative parenting style was found to be the best among all types of parenting style. Particularly, relative to uninvolved parents' children, authoritatively reared children were predicted to have 1.1 more years of schooling and be 18.5, 13.6, and 16.3 percentage points more likely to obtain at least bachelor's degree, associate's degree, and high school diploma, respectively. Also, they had 5.5 percentage points less likelihood of being high school dropouts than children reared by uninvolved parents.
Bibliography Citation
Majumder, Md. Alauddin. "The Impact of Parenting Style on Children's Educational Outcomes in the United States." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 37,1 (March 2016): 89-98.
30. Mamun, Arif A.
Cohabitation Premium in Men’s Earnings: Testing the Joint Human Capital Hypothesis
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 33,1 (March 2012): 53-68.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/d475u11p1423406x/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Earnings; Human Capital; Marriage; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper provides new evidence on the increase in wage earnings for men due to marriage and cohabitation (in the literature, commonly referred to as marital and cohabitation wage premiums for men). Using data for a sample of white men from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, the paper shows that even after accounting for potential selection bias there is a cohabitation wage premium for men, albeit smaller than the marriage premium. Our analysis shows that a joint human capital hypothesis (a la Benham in J Polit Econ 82(2, Part 2):S57–71, 1974) with intra-household spillover effects of partner’s education can explain the existence of the wage premiums. Our estimates provide some empirical support for the joint human capital hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Mamun, Arif A. "Cohabitation Premium in Men’s Earnings: Testing the Joint Human Capital Hypothesis." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 33,1 (March 2012): 53-68.
31. Mauldin, Teresa A.
Mimura, Yoko
Marrying, Unmarrying, and Poverty Dynamics among Mothers with Children Living at Home
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 28,4 (December 2007): 566-582.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/fk37722vvn6701g7/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Child Development; Discrimination; Domestic Violence; Economics of Gender; Family Structure; Fertility; Marital Dissolution; Marriage; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the two-way transitions model and a sample of mothers with children living at home who experienced poverty, we examined how the changes in mothers' marital status relate to the odds of exiting and reentering poverty. The data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort (1979-1998). This study found an asymmetric association between poverty dynamics and becoming unmarried. Becoming unmarried was associated with increased odds of both getting out of poverty and reentering poverty, where the magnitude of the latter is greater than that of the former, when family background, family characteristics, and human capital and employment factors are controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Mauldin, Teresa A. and Yoko Mimura. "Marrying, Unmarrying, and Poverty Dynamics among Mothers with Children Living at Home." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 28,4 (December 2007): 566-582.
32. Miller, Daniel P.
Maternal Work and Child Overweight and Obesity: The Importance of Timing
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 32,2 (June 2011): 204-218.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-010-9244-x
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Television Viewing; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous studies have found that increased work by mothers results in an increased likelihood that children are obese. Building upon this work, this study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement to investigate whether the timing of maternal work matters to this relationship. Fixed effects models found that maternal work at ages 9–11 and 12–14 was related to an increased rate of overweight during the same periods, while work at ages 6–8 resulted in a decreased rate of obesity in the same period and later at ages 9–11, a novel finding. Subgroup analyses found that effects were confined to families who were relatively low income and to children who grew up with single mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Daniel P. "Maternal Work and Child Overweight and Obesity: The Importance of Timing." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 32,2 (June 2011): 204-218.
33. Mimura, Yoko
Mauldin, Teresa A.
American Young Adults' Rural-to-Urban Migration and Timing of Exits from Poverty Spells
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 26,1 (Spring 2005): 55-76.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p727j01518241693/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Exits; Family Characteristics; Gender; Human Capital; Marital Status; Poverty; Rural Youth; Rural/Urban Migration

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined the timing of exit from poverty among rural young adults who migrated to urban areas in the United States, using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, with a focus on gender and marital status. Poverty spells that involved relocation to urban areas lasted longer than those that did not. Poverty exit rates upon relocation to urban areas declined each year the young adults remained in poverty, but the impact remaining in urban areas had on reduced poverty exit rates diminished when family characteristics, human capital, and labor market factors were controlled.
Bibliography Citation
Mimura, Yoko and Teresa A. Mauldin. "American Young Adults' Rural-to-Urban Migration and Timing of Exits from Poverty Spells." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 26,1 (Spring 2005): 55-76.
34. Nsiah, Christian
DeBeaumont, Ronald
Ryerson, Annette
Motherhood and Earnings: Wage Variability by Major Occupational Category and Earnings Level
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 34,2 (June 2013): 224-234.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-012-9323-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Earnings; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Occupations; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research has indicated that women with children earn less than their childless counterparts. In addition, recent research has found that the motherhood wage penalty may be most severe for low-income earners. Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979), we test two hypotheses. First, are there occupational differences in the motherhood wage penalty? Second, are there occupational differences in the relative wage penalty experienced by low and high wage mothers? Our results indicated that mothers in sales occupations are penalized at a significantly higher rate than mothers in non-sales occupations, while mothers in blue-collar occupations were penalized the least. Furthermore, the wage cost of motherhood was greatest amongst the highest earners in sales occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Nsiah, Christian, Ronald DeBeaumont and Annette Ryerson. "Motherhood and Earnings: Wage Variability by Major Occupational Category and Earnings Level." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 34,2 (June 2013): 224-234.
35. Painter, Matthew A.
Vespa, Jonathan Edward
The Role of Cohabitation in Asset and Debt Accumulation During Marriage
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 33,4 (December 2012): 491-506.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-012-9310-7?null
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Assets; Cohabitation; Debt/Borrowing; Marriage; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research has found that married individuals who cohabited only once before marriage with their future spouse (i.e., “spousal cohabiters”) have a distinctive financial advantage: they accumulate more wealth over time than individuals who married without ever cohabiting (i.e., “directly married”). Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and growth curve models, the present study attempts to identify the source of spousal cohabiters’ wealth advantage. We find that marriage is associated with gains for financial and nonfinancial wealth, increasing home equity, and decreasing debt over time. Spousal cohabiters begin marriage with more debt than the directly married. Conditional on education, income, and other key factors, spousal cohabiters pay down their debt faster and generate greater home equity over time thereby accumulating more wealth than the directly married. This pattern of financial behavior among spousal cohabiters explains some, but not all, of their financial advantage over married persons who never cohabited prior to marrying. Given the increasing prevalence of cohabitation among young adults, these results offer important insights into the long-term economic outcomes associated with premarital cohabitation.
Bibliography Citation
Painter, Matthew A. and Jonathan Edward Vespa. "The Role of Cohabitation in Asset and Debt Accumulation During Marriage." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 33,4 (December 2012): 491-506.
36. Routon, P. Wesley
The Probability of Teenage Parenthood: Parental Predictions and Their Accuracy
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 647-661.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9583-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Expectations/Intentions; Parenthood; Parenting Skills/Styles; Pregnancy, Adolescent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Teenage parenthood is an often-discussed topic in family economics since it has been shown to affect many outcomes for the teen, child, and household. Using a nationally representative longitudinal panel of American teenagers and their parents, two questions related to the probability of teenage parenthood are examined. First, how do predictions of this occurrence made by the teenager's parents vary across the population? Second, how does the accuracy of these predictions vary? The actual prevalence and variance of teenage parenthood are also examined, and the determinants of its occurrence are estimated. Among other results, expectations and their accuracy are found to differ substantially across socioeconomic status and some demographics such as race and religion. The average American parent underestimates the probability their child will become a teen parent by only a small amount, but within certain demographic groups this outcome is considerably underestimated, and in others it is overestimated. These differences help explain the variability in teen parenthood effects, and more broadly, the analysis serves as a test of parents' ability to judge their childrens' future outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Routon, P. Wesley. "The Probability of Teenage Parenthood: Parental Predictions and Their Accuracy." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 647-661.
37. Santiago, Anna M.
Intergenerational and Program-Induced Effects of Welfare Dependency: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 16,2-3 (Fall 1995): 281-306.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p67l5j4x40573r71/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Ethnic Differences; Family Background; Family Structure; Human Capital; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Local Labor Market; Poverty; Program Participation/Evaluation; Racial Differences; Racial Studies; State Welfare; Welfare

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1988, are drawn on to examine intergenerational and program-induced effects of welfare dependency. Three research questions are asked: (1) How do parental Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) receipt and other family background characteristics affect subsequent dependency on AFDC? (2) How do attitudes about welfare and state AFDC benefit levels affect AFDC dependency? and (3) How do the patterns and factors associated with AFDC dependency vary across racial and ethnic lines? The results suggest that women who grew up in households that received welfare during the woman's adolescence are approximately twice as likely to be dependent on AFDC in young adulthood as women whose families did not receive welfare. Further, state AFDC benefit levels are associated with higher risks of AFDC dependency, but the association is significant only for Anglo women. These analyses provide little support for the hypothesis that attitudes toward welfare and low-wage work increase the likelihood of welfare dependency. 3 Tables, 2 Figures, 1 Appendix, 35 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Santiago, Anna M. "Intergenerational and Program-Induced Effects of Welfare Dependency: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 16,2-3 (Fall 1995): 281-306.
38. Simon, Jessica
Way, Megan McDonald
Why the Gap? Determinants of Self-Employment Earnings Differentials for Male and Female Millennials in the US
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 37,2 (June 2016): 297-312.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-015-9452-5
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Motherhood; Self-Employed Workers; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigated gender differences in self-employment earnings for US Millennials, and whether differences could be attributed to individual characteristics, business characteristics, or factors related to household formation, such as marriage and parenthood. Using a nationally representative dataset of US youth, we found significant earnings differences favoring men and suggestive evidence of a "motherhood earnings penalty" (Budig and England 2001, p. 204–225). After controlling for business characteristics, however, the effect of gender itself was not statistically significant and the effect of motherhood only approached statistical significance, suggesting that gendered choices and paths explain earnings differences, not gender or motherhood per se. Future work would benefit from a larger dataset and should explore the role of work location and education in earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Simon, Jessica and Megan McDonald Way. "Why the Gap? Determinants of Self-Employment Earnings Differentials for Male and Female Millennials in the US." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 37,2 (June 2016): 297-312.
39. Sorokina, Olga V.
Parental Credit Constraints and Children’s College Education
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 34,2 (June 2013): 157-171.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-012-9322-3
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Cost; College Education; Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Family Constraints; Family Influences; Family Resources

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

What fraction of college-age youths in the United States comes from liquidity-constrained families? This question is important because such youths may have difficulties borrowing for college education and be less likely to enroll. While most earlier studies have concluded that credit constraints in education are not pervasive, these studies have relied on indirect measures and data sources from the 1980s. The contribution of this descriptive study is the use of parents’ reports of borrowing limitations in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) Young Adult Supplement to evaluate the pervasiveness of credit constraints in the early 2000s. The results indicate that about 20 percent of college-age youths are potentially credit-constrained and are less likely to attend college.
Bibliography Citation
Sorokina, Olga V. "Parental Credit Constraints and Children’s College Education." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 34,2 (June 2013): 157-171.
40. Su, Jessica Houston
Addo, Fenaba
Born Without a Silver Spoon: Race, Wealth, and Unintended Childbearing
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 600-615.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-018-9577-4
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Expectations/Intentions; Fertility; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The United States has a surprisingly high rate of unintended fertility, particularly among women of color. Although studies have examined socioeconomic correlates of unintended fertility, the role of economic resources remains unclear. Wealth may provide an important context for whether a birth was intended or unintended. Moreover, staggering racial wealth disparities may contribute to racial/ethnic patterns of unintended childbearing. This study examines the linkages between wealth and unintended first births, drawing on data from the NLSY79 (N = 1508). Results suggest that net wealth is negatively related to the probability of having an unintended first birth, controlling for a host of sociodemographic characteristics. We also use decomposition analysis to quantify wealth's contribution to racial/ethnic disparities in unintended childbearing. Second only to marital status, differences in net wealth account for 9-17% of racial/ethnic disparities in unintended childbearing. Our results suggest that wealth is a significant and heretofore overlooked correlate of unintended childbearing.
Bibliography Citation
Su, Jessica Houston and Fenaba Addo. "Born Without a Silver Spoon: Race, Wealth, and Unintended Childbearing." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 39,4 (December 2018): 600-615.
41. Zagorsky, Jay L.
Do People Save or Spend Their Inheritances? Understanding What Happens to Inherited Wealth
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 34,1 (March 2013): 64-76.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10834-012-9299-y
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Inheritance; Savings; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Financial; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Almost $4 trillion dollars of wealth is currently held by families with a life expectancy of less than 10 years. When that wealth is inherited, will it be retained or spent quickly? Results from the NLSY79, a longitudinal survey covering people in their 20s, 30s, and 40s suggest roughly half of all money inherited is saved and the other half spent or lost investing. These spending and saving decisions are made by a concentrated group with about one-fifth of all families getting an inheritance and about one-seventh expecting to receive an inheritance. Suggestions to increase savings from inheritances are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Zagorsky, Jay L. "Do People Save or Spend Their Inheritances? Understanding What Happens to Inherited Wealth." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 34,1 (March 2013): 64-76.
42. Zhang, Qi
Chen, Zhuo
Diawara, Norou
Wang, Youfa
Prices of Unhealthy Foods, Food Stamp Program Participation, and Body Weight Status among U.S. Low-Income Women
Journal of Family and Economic Issues 32,2 (June 2011): 245-56.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/9t80867m29252804/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Income Level; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Program Participation/Evaluation; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the interactive effect between the price of unhealthy foods and Food Stamp Program participation on body weight status among low-income women in the United States. We merged the panel data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort in 1985-2002 and the Cost of Living Index data compiled by the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association by using geographic identifiers. Using the merged data, we used panel econometric models to examine the impact of unhealthy food prices on the food stamp-eligible U.S. population. Our results indicate that higher prices for unhealthy food can partially offset the positive association between Food Stamp Program participation and bodyweight among low-income women.
Bibliography Citation
Zhang, Qi, Zhuo Chen, Norou Diawara and Youfa Wang. "Prices of Unhealthy Foods, Food Stamp Program Participation, and Body Weight Status among U.S. Low-Income Women." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 32,2 (June 2011): 245-56.