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Source: Journal of Criminal Justice
Resulting in 16 citations.
1. Beaver, Kevin M.
Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said
Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Stability and Change in Levels of Self-Control
Journal of Criminal Justice 41,5 (September-October 2013): 300-308.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723521300069X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Genetics; Kinship; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Siblings

Purpose: There has been an emerging body of research estimating the stability in levels of self-control across different sections of the life course. At the same time, some of this research has attempted to examine the factors that account for both stability and change in levels of self-control. Missing from much of this research is a concerted focus on the genetic and environmental architecture of stability and change in self-control.

Methods: The current study was designed to address this issue by analyzing a sample of kinship pairs drawn from the Child and Young Adult Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (CNLSY).

Results: Analyses of these data revealed that genetic factors accounted for between 74 and 92 percent of the stability in self-control and between 78 and 89 percent of the change in self-control. Shared and nonshared environmental factors explained the rest of the stability and change in levels of self-control.

Conclusions: A combination of genetic and environmental influences is responsible for the stability and change in levels of self-control over time.

Bibliography Citation
Beaver, Kevin M., Eric J. Connolly, Joseph A. Schwartz, Mohammed Said Al-Ghamdi and Ahmed Nezar Kobeisy. "Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Stability and Change in Levels of Self-Control." Journal of Criminal Justice 41,5 (September-October 2013): 300-308.
2. Bolger, Michelle A.
Predicting Arrest Probability Across Time: An Exploration of Competing Risk Perspectives
Journal of Criminal Justice 59 (November-December 2018): 92-109.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235217301046
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Gender Differences; Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis; Risk Perception

Objectives: Criminal involvement is non-randomly distributed across individuals and across groups, resulting in differential probabilities of arrest. Thus, various predictors of arrest probability across time were examined for different groups.

Methods: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the current study examined latent class membership in the probability of arrest over a 15-year time span starting when participants were 12-16 years-old and ending when they were 28-31 years-old. Latent class regressions were employed to prospectively investigate whether demographic and criminological risk factors from the base wave could predict class membership.

Results: Results from the latent class growth analyses resulted in three to four classes characterized by an abstainer group, a stable, low-level group, an adolescent-limited group, and a stable moderate-level chronic group. In general, race, poverty, and other risk factors exhibited weak and inconsistent effects in predicting class membership. In contrast, being male and self-reported delinquency were consistent predictors of class membership.

Bibliography Citation
Bolger, Michelle A. "Predicting Arrest Probability Across Time: An Exploration of Competing Risk Perspectives." Journal of Criminal Justice 59 (November-December 2018): 92-109.
3. Chapple, Constance L.
Vaske, Jamie
Hope, Trina L.
Sex Differences in the Causes of Self-Control: An Examination of Mediation, Moderation, and Gendered Etiologies
Journal of Criminal Justice 38,6 (November 2010): 1122-1131.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235210001686
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Discipline; Gender Differences; Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Sex is one of the most robust predictors of self-control, with a consistent finding that girls score higher on a variety of measures of self-control. In this research, we investigate three possible reasons for why this is true: first, we examine whether current predictors of self-control mediate the effect of sex on self-control, second, we examine whether sex moderates the effect of current predictors on self-control and third, we examine the possibility that the causes of self-control are gendered, necessitating different causal models for boys and girls. Using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth79, we assess three, related questions: Is the sex effect on self-control mediated by current predictors of self-control? Does sex moderate the effects of current predictors of self-control? Does the causal model predicting self-control differ for boys and girls? We find that the sex effect on self-control is robust; does not moderate the etiology of self-control; and although partially mediated by etiological variables, remains a significant predictor of self-control. We also find that current predictors do a poor job of explaining girls' acquisition of self-control, suggesting a gendered etiology of self-control. [Copyright © Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Chapple, Constance L., Jamie Vaske and Trina L. Hope. "Sex Differences in the Causes of Self-Control: An Examination of Mediation, Moderation, and Gendered Etiologies." Journal of Criminal Justice 38,6 (November 2010): 1122-1131.
4. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Assessing the Salience of Gene-Environment Interplay in the Development of Anger, Family Conflict, and Physical Violence: A Biosocial Test of General Strain Theory
Journal of Criminal Justice 43,6 (November-December 2015): 487-497.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723521530009X
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Family Decision-making/Conflict; Genetics; Health, Mental; Kinship; Siblings

Behavioral genetic methods were used to assess gene-environment interplay between anger, family conflict, and violence using a subsample of kinship pairs drawn from the Child and Young Adult Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Assessing the Salience of Gene-Environment Interplay in the Development of Anger, Family Conflict, and Physical Violence: A Biosocial Test of General Strain Theory." Journal of Criminal Justice 43,6 (November-December 2015): 487-497.
5. Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Jackson, Dylan B.
Beaver, Kevin M.
How Far Does the Apple Fall from the Tree? Maternal Delinquency and Sex-specific Patterns of Offspring Delinquent Behavior
Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 50-61.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235217305159
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Parental Influences

Purpose: Examine whether parental offending is directly associated with male and female offspring patterns of delinquent behavior during adolescence and indirectly associated with risk for criminal conviction in young adulthood.

Methods: Latent growth curve models and growth mixture models are estimated using intergenerational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the effects of maternal offending on rates of growth and distinct trajectories of delinquent behavior in male and female children.

Results: The results revealed that maternal offending was associated with higher starting levels and slower rates of decline in delinquent behavior in male and female children. Growth mixture modeling, however, revealed that a four-class solution explained patterns of delinquency in male offspring, while a three-class solution explained patterns of delinquency in female offspring. Multivariate analyses indicated that maternal offending was more strongly associated with male offending classes than female offending classes, with males in the high and slowly declining class and moderate and increasing class demonstrating the highest risk for criminal conviction in young adulthood.

Conclusions: Maternal offending is more strongly associated with serious patterns of delinquent behavior and risk for future criminal conviction in male offspring than in female offspring.

Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Joseph A. Schwartz, Dylan B. Jackson and Kevin M. Beaver. "How Far Does the Apple Fall from the Tree? Maternal Delinquency and Sex-specific Patterns of Offspring Delinquent Behavior." Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 50-61.
6. Dong, Beidi
Wiebe, Douglas J.
Violence and Beyond: Life-course Features of Handgun Carrying in the Urban United States and the Associated Long-term Life Consequences
Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 1-11.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235217304245
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Arrests; Behavior, Violent; Crime; Handguns, carrying or using

Purpose: Although previous research has made progress in identifying correlates of risky gun-related behavior and its impact on violence and injury, particularly during adolescence, it is not clear how individuals differ in their gun carrying behavior over time or how developmental features of carrying affect experiences and accomplishments later in the life.

Methods: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we delineated age-specific patterns of handgun carrying in the urban United States and investigated how onset age, duration, and timing of handgun carrying affected criminal offending, substance use, police arrest, and educational and economic achievements in established adulthood.

Results: There is important heterogeneity in individuals' handgun carrying behavior over time in the urban United States. Developmental features of handgun carrying are significant predictors of negative life outcomes in a variety of domains.

Bibliography Citation
Dong, Beidi and Douglas J. Wiebe. "Violence and Beyond: Life-course Features of Handgun Carrying in the Urban United States and the Associated Long-term Life Consequences." Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 1-11.
7. Higgins, George E.
Jennings, Wesley G.
Marcum, Catherine D.
Ricketts, Melissa L.
Mahoney, Margaret
Developmental Trajectories of Nonsocial Reinforcement and Offending In Adolescence and Young Adulthood: An Exploratory Study of an Understudied Part of Social Learning Theory
Journal of Criminal Justice 39,1 (January-February 2011): 60-66.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235210001947
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Differences; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Illegal Activities

Purpose: Within social learning theory, nonsocial reinforcement has been hypothesized to have a link with offending. The purpose of the present study was to address two questions: (1) Does nonsocial reinforcement change or remain stable over time? And (2) does nonsocial reinforcement have a reciprocal link with offending, as Wood et al. (1997) would expect? Methods: We used a subsample (N=413) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data and semi-parametric group-based modeling (SPGM). Results and Conclusions: The SPGM suggested three distinct groups of nonsocial reinforcement (one trajectory group appeared to have a low but stable rate of nonsocial reinforcement, one trajectory appeared to be higher but stable, another trajectory higher but also stable). A cross-tabulation of the nonsocial reinforcement trajectories and offending trajectories indicated that offending increased as nonsocial reinforcement became greater. Study limitations and implications are also discussed. Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

"The SPGM suggested three distinct groups of nonsocial reinforcement (one trajectory group appeared to have a low but stable rate of nonsocial reinforcement, one trajectory appeared to be higher but stable, another trajectory higher but also stable). A cross-tabulation of the nonsocial reinforcement trajectories and offending trajectories indicated that offending increased as nonsocial reinforcement became greater,"

Bibliography Citation
Higgins, George E., Wesley G. Jennings, Catherine D. Marcum, Melissa L. Ricketts and Margaret Mahoney. "Developmental Trajectories of Nonsocial Reinforcement and Offending In Adolescence and Young Adulthood: An Exploratory Study of an Understudied Part of Social Learning Theory." Journal of Criminal Justice 39,1 (January-February 2011): 60-66.
8. Huebner, Beth Marie
Gustafson, Regan M.
The Effect of Maternal Incarceration on Adult Offspring Involvement in the Criminal Justice System
Journal of Criminal Justice 35,3 (May 2007): 283-329.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235207000372
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Illegal Activities; Incarceration/Jail; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Incarceration

Researchers have estimated that 63 percent of incarcerated women have one or more minor children and most reported living with their children prior to incarceration (Mumola, 2000). Unfortunately, children of incarcerated parents have been a relatively invisible population in the research on the collateral consequences of incarceration. The goal of the current study was to examine the long-term effect of maternal incarceration on adult offspring involvement in the criminal justice system using data from the mother-child sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Based on existing research, it was hypothesized that the adult offspring of incarcerated mothers would be more likely to have been convicted of a crime or to be sentenced to probation. The effect of maternal incarceration on correlates of criminal behavior in adolescence and early adulthood (e.g., negative peer influences, positive home environment) was also modeled to assess possible indirect effects. The results highlighted the direct effect of incarceration on adult offspring involvement in the criminal justice system, but parental incarceration had little association with correlates of criminal behavior. [Copyright 2007 Elsevier]

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Bibliography Citation
Huebner, Beth Marie and Regan M. Gustafson. "The Effect of Maternal Incarceration on Adult Offspring Involvement in the Criminal Justice System." Journal of Criminal Justice 35,3 (May 2007): 283-329.
9. McCartan, Lisa Marie
Inevitable, Influential, or Unnecessary?: Exploring the Utility of Genetic Explanation for Delinquent Behavior
Journal of Criminal Justice: An International Journal 35,2 (March/April 2007): 219-233.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235207000220
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Children, Behavioral Development; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Kinship; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Siblings

Results indicated three main reasons to include genetic factors into criminological studies: (1) the models that included genetic influence had higher levels of explanatory power than the models without genetic variables; (2) genetic factors were found to interact with environmental factors to jointly influence criminal behavior; and (3) relationships were found between parenting and delinquency, a departure from recent theoretical claims. The findings, on the other hand, were less supportive of the influence of delinquent peers, which failed to predict delinquent behavior in the current study when genetic variables were included in the models. Data were gathered from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-Child), an ongoing, longitudinal, perspective study that collects information on children from before birth through young adulthood. Subjects for the current analysis were the children born to women participating in the 1979 NLSY-Child. Children in this cohort were followed up on even years beginning in 1986. The latest wave of data used in the current analysis was gathered in 1996. Variables under analysis included delinquent involvement, parent-child interaction, level of parent-child attachment, parental expectations of children, parental supervision, and delinquent peers. Random effects regression analysis and DF (formerly known as DeFries-Fulker) analysis were used to examine the data. Future research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the relationships between parenting, peers, and genetic influences. Tables, appendixes, notes, references
Bibliography Citation
McCartan, Lisa Marie. "Inevitable, Influential, or Unnecessary?: Exploring the Utility of Genetic Explanation for Delinquent Behavior ." Journal of Criminal Justice: An International Journal 35,2 (March/April 2007): 219-233.
10. Meldrum, Ryan C.
Beyond Parenting: An Examination of the Etiology of Self-Control
Journal of Criminal Justice 36,3 (July 2008): 244-251.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235208000469
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking; School Quality; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

The study found that partial support could be offered for “self-control theory.” In implicit support of the theory, this study found that the effect of parenting on self-control was not conditioned by the competing social factors examined. Contrary to the theory, however, was the finding that self-control was predicted by both peer pressure and school social factors contemporaneously, even after controlling for parental monitoring. While prior research testing Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) theory of low self-control has demonstrated a significant relationship between parenting and self-control, it has also recognized significant effects of other social factors, suggesting the etiology of self-control may be more complex than the theory specifies. The current study examined first whether social factors other than parenting predicted self-control using both contemporaneous and lagged effects models, and second, whether the effect of parenting on self-control varied according to these social factors. Data for this study came from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) Mother Data and the Child and Young Adult Supplement to the NLSY79. The NLSY is a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women who were 14 to 22 years old when they were first surveyed in 1979; this study used data from the 2000 and 2002 surveys.
Bibliography Citation
Meldrum, Ryan C. "Beyond Parenting: An Examination of the Etiology of Self-Control." Journal of Criminal Justice 36,3 (July 2008): 244-251.
11. Tapia, Michael
Untangling Race and Class Effects on Juvenile Arrests
Journal of Criminal Justice 38,3 (May-June 2010): 255-265.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723521000036X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Arrests; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study employed a synthesis of conflict and labeling theory to reexamine the often observed links between race, social class, and arrest. Using longitudinal data on a representative sample of U.S. teens, random effects negative binomial regressions detected direct and indirect effects of race and class on arrest. In support of main effects hypotheses, racial minority status and low SES increased arrests, controlling for demographic and legal items. Consistent with research on “out of place” effects for minority youth in high SES contexts, and counter to expectations, interactions showed that racial minority status increased arrest risk for high SES youth significantly more than it did for low SES youth. Somewhat reminiscent of research on the “Latino paradox,” the effect of minority status on arrest at low-income levels did not exert the same interactive effect for Hispanics as it did for Blacks. Implications for theory, policy, and future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Tapia, Michael. "Untangling Race and Class Effects on Juvenile Arrests." Journal of Criminal Justice 38,3 (May-June 2010): 255-265.
12. Turner, Michael G.
Livecchi, Crista M.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Booth, Jeb
Moving Beyond the Socialization Hypothesis: The Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on the Development of Self-control
Journal of Criminal Justice 39,2 (March-April 2011): 120-127.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235210002175
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Racial Differences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Purpose: Gottfredson and Hirschi, in A General Theory of Crime, argue that the primary source of self-control is parental socialization. Specifically, parents who fail to supervise their children, to recognize their child's deviant behavior, and to punish such behavior are more likely to raise children with lower levels of self-control. Recent empirical research, however, has broadened the explanatory factors to include sources within schools, neighborhoods, and individual factors as significant contributors to the development of self-control. This study proposes that maternal smoking during pregnancy places additional limits on the development of self-control.

Methods: Using a subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 542), we provide a comprehensive investigation of the variety of sources of self-control to include both individual and environmental covariates.

Results: Results indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy significantly impacts the development of self-control net of parental, neighborhood, and school socialization. We also found that individual sources of self-control significantly vary across race and neighborhood context.

Conclusions: The sources of self-control are more complex than socialization from parents, schools, and within neighborhoods occurring in childhood and adolescence.

Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G., Crista M. Livecchi, Kevin M. Beaver and Jeb Booth. "Moving Beyond the Socialization Hypothesis: The Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on the Development of Self-control." Journal of Criminal Justice 39,2 (March-April 2011): 120-127.
13. Turner, Michael G.
Piquero, Alex R.
Pratt, Travis C.
The School Context as a Source of Self-Control
Journal of Criminal Justice 33,4 (July-May 2005): 327-339.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723520500022X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Discipline; Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Researchers investigating Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime primarily concentrated their efforts on the relationship between an individual's self-control and involvement in crime and/or analogous behaviors. Much less research examined the potential sources of an individual's self-control. In this study, an argument was developed for the importance of exploring the contribution of the school context in the development of self-control within individuals. In particular, Gottfredson and Hirschi's position on this front was theoretically elaborated by including school/teacher socialization practices in a larger model of the development of self-control. Using data extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, it was found that the effects of school socialization on self-control were significant net of parental socialization. In addition, the effects of school socialization varied across parenting and neighborhood contexts. The theoretical implications of this research, specifically as they relate to the development of self-control, are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR; Copyright 2005 Elsevier]

The development of self-control, or the ability to manage one's behavior to comply with normative behavioral expectations, is generally recognized as a significant factor in preventing antisocial behavior and crime. Although extensive research has focused on the link between an individual's self-control and involvement in crime and/or problem behaviors, much less research has identified and examined the potential sources of an individual's self-control. The current study considers the school context as a potential resource for the development of self-control. One source of data was the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which was a multistage, stratified cluster sample of 12,686 individuals between the ages of 14 and 21 in 1979. Since 1979, yearly interviews have been conducted with the sample to examine experiences when the youth s completed high school and entered the workforce. The second source of data was the NLSY Child-Mother, which was a separate biennial data collection that began in 1986. It included detailed assessments of each child born to the females in the original NLSY data cohort. The two surveys provided information on the following variables related to the cultivation of self-control: poor parental supervision, parental discipline, neighborhood socialization, and school socialization. The behavioral measures of self-control were based on an individual's total score on portions of the Behavioral Problem Index measured when individuals were age 10. The study found that although school socialization was a significant contributor to self-control in less disadvantaged neighborhoods, it failed to enhance self-control in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. [NCJRS]

Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G., Alex R. Piquero and Travis C. Pratt. "The School Context as a Source of Self-Control." Journal of Criminal Justice 33,4 (July-May 2005): 327-339.
14. Vaske, Jamie
Ward, Jeffrey T.
Boisvert, Danielle
Wright, John Paul
The Stability of Risk-seeking from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood
Journal of Criminal Justice 40,4 (July-August 2012): 313-322.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235212000827
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Risk-Taking; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Transition, Adulthood

Purpose: The current study examines the stability of the risk-seeking component of self-control using a second-order latent class growth model.

Methods: Longitudinal data from 962 respondents from the NLSY79-Child and Young Adult sample are used to examine the stability of the risk-seeking component of self-control from ages 14 to 23.

Results: Data reveal three trajectories of risk-seeking (low, moderate, and high) that maintain strong relative stability from adolescence through early adulthood. Further, two trajectories of risk-seeking (moderate and high) maintain absolute stability, whereas the low risk-seeking group exhibits statistically significant decreases in risk-seeking over time.

Conclusions: The SOLCGA may provide a stricter test of the stability hypothesis since it accounts for measurement error in the construct prior to estimating the developmental trajectories. The results from the SOLCGA support Gottfredson and Hirschi's hypotheses that self-control will remain stable from adolescence into emerging adulthood.

Bibliography Citation
Vaske, Jamie, Jeffrey T. Ward, Danielle Boisvert and John Paul Wright. "The Stability of Risk-seeking from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood." Journal of Criminal Justice 40,4 (July-August 2012): 313-322.
15. Walters, Glenn D.
Early Childhood Temperament, Maternal Monitoring, Reactive Criminal Thinking, and the Origin(s) of Low Self-Control
Journal of Criminal Justice 43,5 (September-October 2015): 369-376.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235215000641
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Modeling, Trajectory analysis; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Risk-Taking; Self-Control/Self-Regulation; Temperament

The purpose of this study was to determine whether difficult temperament is capable of predicting low self-control after controlling for parenting factors (maternal monitoring) and whether low self-control precedes reactive criminal thinking in the development of a delinquent lifestyle.
Bibliography Citation
Walters, Glenn D. "Early Childhood Temperament, Maternal Monitoring, Reactive Criminal Thinking, and the Origin(s) of Low Self-Control." Journal of Criminal Justice 43,5 (September-October 2015): 369-376.
16. Walters, Glenn D.
Sex as a Moderator and Perceived Peer Pressure as a Mediator of the Externalizing-Delinquency Relationship: A Test of Gendered Pathways Theory
Journal of Criminal Justice 42,3 (May-June 2014): 299-305.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235214000312
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Gender Differences; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations

Purpose: The current study sought to determine whether sex moderated peer mediation of the externalizing-delinquency relationship as part of a larger test of the gendered pathways theory of crime.

Methods: Data gathered from 4,144 (2,079 males and 2,065 females) members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child sample were subjected to simple correlational and moderated mediation analysis.

Results: Externalizing behavior and delinquency correlated equally in boys and girls but in testing a full moderated mediation model it was discovered that sex moderated the mediating effect of perceived peer pressure on the externalizing–delinquency relationship. Whereas externalizing behavior predicted delinquency in both boys and girls, perceived peer pressure only mediated the externalizing-delinquency relationship in boys.

Conclusions: These results support the gendered pathways to delinquency model to the extent that the relationship between childhood externalizing behavior and delinquency was mediated by perceived peer pressure in males but not females. The implications of these results for theoretical refinement of the gendered pathways approach and crime prevention and intervention are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Walters, Glenn D. "Sex as a Moderator and Perceived Peer Pressure as a Mediator of the Externalizing-Delinquency Relationship: A Test of Gendered Pathways Theory." Journal of Criminal Justice 42,3 (May-June 2014): 299-305.