Search Results

Source: Journal of Applied Psychology
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Andrisani, Paul J.
Nestel, Gilbert
Internal-External Control as Contributor to and Outcome of Work Experience
Journal of Applied Psychology 61,2 (April 1976): 156-165.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/61/2/156/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health Factors; Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Occupational Attainment; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Work Attitudes; Work Experience

This study examined both the influence of internal-external control on a number of facets of work experience of middle-aged men and the influence of work experience on change in internal-external control. Utilizing an 11-item abbreviated version of Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale and multivariate techniques, the authors found a systematic influence of internal-external control on success in the world of work. Confidence in these findings is strengthened by the fact that the observed relationships were independent of individual differences in skills, abilities, and demographic distribution, and were obtained on the basis of longitudinal as well as cross-sectional data. Additionally, these data also provide considerable support for the hypothesis that success at work enhances the expectancy of internal control.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Gilbert Nestel. "Internal-External Control as Contributor to and Outcome of Work Experience." Journal of Applied Psychology 61,2 (April 1976): 156-165.
2. Barling, Julian
Weatherhead, Julie G.
Persistent Exposure to Poverty During Childhood Limits Later Leader Emergence
Journal of Applied Psychology 101,9 (September 2016): 1305-1318.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycarticles/2016-29685-001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Job Characteristics; Job Status; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Poverty; School Quality

Increasing attention is being paid to the question of why some people emerge as leaders, and we investigated the effects of persistent exposure to poverty during childhood on later leadership role occupancy. We hypothesized that exposure to poverty would limit later leadership role occupancy through the indirect effects of the quality of schooling and personal mastery, and that gender would moderate the effects of exposure to poverty and personal mastery. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth provided multiwave and multisource data for a sample of 4,536 (1,533 leaders; 3,003 nonleaders). Both school quality and personal mastery mediated the effects of family poverty status on later leadership role occupancy. Although gender did not moderate the effects of poverty on leadership role occupancy, the indirect effects of early exposure to poverty on leadership role occupancy through personal mastery were moderated by gender. Conceptual and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Barling, Julian and Julie G. Weatherhead. "Persistent Exposure to Poverty During Childhood Limits Later Leader Emergence." Journal of Applied Psychology 101,9 (September 2016): 1305-1318.
3. Dickter, David Nathan
Roznowski, Mary
Harrison, David A.
Temporal Tempering: An Event History Analysis of the Process of Voluntary Turnover
Journal of Applied Psychology 81,6 (December 1996): 705-716.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/81/6/705/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Career Patterns; Cognitive Ability; Event History; Job Satisfaction; Job Turnover; Volunteer Work

In the present study, the authors examined the importance of time in the voluntary turnover process. The researchers used a representative sample of early-career individuals in the American workforce. Moderating effects of time were found for both job satisfaction and cognitive ability. The relationships of these predictors with turnover decreased as a function of time. The temporal nature of effects inherent in the voluntary turnover process is discussed in detail, and the importance of considering changing effects across time is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1997 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Dickter, David Nathan, Mary Roznowski and David A. Harrison. "Temporal Tempering: An Event History Analysis of the Process of Voluntary Turnover." Journal of Applied Psychology 81,6 (December 1996): 705-716.
4. Gerhart, Barry
How Important are Dispositional Factors as Determinants of Job Satisfaction? Implications for Job Design and Other Personnel Programs
Journal of Applied Psychology 72,3 (August 1987): 366-373.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/72/3/366/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Job Requirements; Job Satisfaction; Work Attitudes

According to recent research, including a 1985 study by Staw and Ross, worker attitudes are, to a large degree a function of stable individual traits, not situational characteristics. This implies that job redesign and related personnel programs are prone to failure because they only change the job situation. Problems with this study, which used men 45 to 59 and 50 to 64 years of age, prompted another study designed to examine the relationship of job satisfaction with dispositional and situational factors in younger adults. The NLSY, a national probability sample interviewed annually, provided data for the study. Two measures of job complexity were analyzed in order to determine how changes in complexity impacted job satisfaction. The study found that changes in complexity and other situational factors are important predictors of job satisfaction, while dispositional factors present measurement problems that preclude their use as accurate predictors. These results are contrary to the findings of Staw and Ross. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Gerhart, Barry. "How Important are Dispositional Factors as Determinants of Job Satisfaction? Implications for Job Design and Other Personnel Programs." Journal of Applied Psychology 72,3 (August 1987): 366-373.
5. Gerhart, Barry
Sources of Variance in Incumbent Perceptions of Job Complexity
Journal of Applied Psychology 73,2 (May 1988): 154-162.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/73/2/154/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Job Requirements; Occupations

Substantive research in the job design area has relied heavily on incumbent-based perceptions of job complexity (IPJC) measures (e.g., the Job Characteristics Inventory and the Job Diagnostic Survey). However, little research has addressed the construct validity of IPJC measures. The present study used longitudinal data to assess the convergent validity of an IPJC measure by examining its relation with an independent measure of complexity derived from the fourth edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT-complexity). In addition, discriminant validity is assessed by examining the relation between the IPJC measure and a relatively broad range of individual (e.g., education) and situational (e.g., pay level) variables, controlling for DOT-complexity. The data are taken from the NLSY (ages 16-21 in 1979; 19-24 in 1982). Results indicated that IPJC did converge significantly with DOT-complexity. Moreover, the set of individual and situational factors did not add significant explanatory power to an equation predicting IPJC using only DOT-complexity, thus providing support for the discriminant validity of the IPJC measure as well. These results may help alleviate reservations concerning previous substantive job design research that has relied almost exclusively on IPJC measures. [MGMT CONTENTS]
Bibliography Citation
Gerhart, Barry. "Sources of Variance in Incumbent Perceptions of Job Complexity." Journal of Applied Psychology 73,2 (May 1988): 154-162.
6. Judge, Timothy A.
Cable, Daniel M.
The Effect of Physical Height on Workplace Success and Income: Preliminary Test of a Theoretical Model
Journal of Applied Psychology 89,3 (2004): 428-441.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/89/3/428/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Berkeley Intergenerational Studies; Height; Quality of Employment Survey (QES)

In this article, the authors propose a theoretical model of the relationship between physical height and career success. We then test several linkages in the model based on a meta-analysis of the literature, with results indicating that physical height is significantly related to measures of social esteem (ˆ .41), leader emergence (ˆ .24), and performance (ˆ .18). Height was somewhat more strongly related to success for men (ˆ .29) than for women (ˆ .21), although this difference was not significant. Finally, given that almost no research has examined the relationship between individuals' physical height and their incomes, we present four large-sample studies (total N 8,590) showing that height is positively related to income ( ˆ .26) after controlling for sex, age, and weight. Overall, this article presents the most comprehensive analysis of the relationship of height to workplace success to date, and the results suggest that tall individuals have advantages in several important aspects of their careers and organizational lives.
Bibliography Citation
Judge, Timothy A. and Daniel M. Cable. "The Effect of Physical Height on Workplace Success and Income: Preliminary Test of a Theoretical Model." Journal of Applied Psychology 89,3 (2004): 428-441.
7. Judge, Timothy A.
Cable, Daniel M.
When It Comes to Pay, Do the Thin Win? The Effect of Weight on Pay for Men and Women
Journal of Applied Psychology 96,1 (January 2011): 95-112.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/96/1/95/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Income; Income Level; Weight

Cultivation theory suggests that society holds very different body standards for men versus women, and research indicates that the consequences of defying these social norms may not be linear. To test these notions in the employment context, we examined the relationship between weight and income and the degree to which the relationship varies by gender. For women, we theorized a negative weight–income relationship that is steepest at the thin end of the distribution. For men, we predicted a positive weight–income relationship until obesity, where it becomes negative. To test these hypotheses, we utilized 2 longitudinal studies, 1 German and 1 American. In Study 1, weight was measured over 2 time periods, and earnings were averaged over the subsequent 5 years. Study 2 was a multilevel study in which weight and earnings were within-individual variables observed over time, and gender was a between-individual variable. Results from the 2 studies generally support the hypotheses, even when examining within-individual changes in weight over time.
(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Judge, Timothy A. and Daniel M. Cable. "When It Comes to Pay, Do the Thin Win? The Effect of Weight on Pay for Men and Women." Journal of Applied Psychology 96,1 (January 2011): 95-112.
8. Judge, Timothy A.
Hurst, Charlice
Capitalizing on One's Advantages: Role of Core Self-Evaluations
Journal of Applied Psychology 92,5 (September 2007): 1212-1227.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/92/5/1212/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Achievement; Educational Attainment; Income Level; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Self-Esteem; Self-Perception; Socioeconomic Factors

The authors examined (a) whether core self-evaluations in adolescence and young adulthood predict income at midlife and (b) whether people with positive core self-evaluations are more likely to capitalize on advantages resulting from family socioeconomic status and academic achievement, resulting in even higher levels of income at midcareer. The sample consisted of participants from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a national probability sample that first surveyed participants in 1979. The authors found that core self-evaluations and family socioeconomic status and academic achievement predict income and that, furthermore, high core self-evaluations enhance the benefits derived from these factors. Overall, it appears that individuals with positive core self-evaluations are particularly adept at translating early advantages into later economic success. ((c) 2007 APA.)
Bibliography Citation
Judge, Timothy A. and Charlice Hurst. "Capitalizing on One's Advantages: Role of Core Self-Evaluations." Journal of Applied Psychology 92,5 (September 2007): 1212-1227.
9. Judge, Timothy A.
Hurst, Charlice
How the Rich (and Happy) Get Richer (and Happier): Relationship of Core Self-Evaluations to Trajectories in Attaining Work Success
Journal of Applied Psychology 93,4 (July 2008): 849-863.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/93/4/849/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Occupational Status; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Self-Esteem; Self-Reporting; Wealth

In this study, the authors linked core self-evaluations to job and work success. Utilizing a dynamic design from participants in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY79), core self-evaluations were hypothesized to predict individuals' intercepts (starting levels of success), and their growth trajectories (slope of individuals' success over time) with respect to job satisfaction, pay, and occupational status. Results indicated that higher core self-evaluations were associated with both higher initial levels of work success and steeper work success trajectories. Education and health problems that interfere with work mediated a portion of the hypothesized relationships, suggesting that individuals with high core self-evaluations have more ascendant jobs and careers, in part, because they are more apt to pursue further education and maintain better health. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Judge, Timothy A. and Charlice Hurst. "How the Rich (and Happy) Get Richer (and Happier): Relationship of Core Self-Evaluations to Trajectories in Attaining Work Success." Journal of Applied Psychology 93,4 (July 2008): 849-863.
10. Judge, Timothy A.
Klinger, Ryan L.
Simon, Lauren S.
Time is on My Side: Time, General Mental Ability, Human Capital, and Extrinsic Career Success
Journal of Applied Psychology 95,1 (January 2010): 92-107.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/95/1/92/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Human Capital; Income; Life Course; Occupational Prestige

The present study linked general mental ability (GMA) to extrinsic career success using a multilevel framework that included time and 3 possible time-based mediators of the GMA–career success relationship. Results, based on a large national sample, revealed that over a 28-year period, GMA affected growth in 2 indicators of extrinsic career success (income and occupational prestige), such that the careers of high-GMA individuals ascended more steeply over time than those of low-GMA individuals. Part of the reason high-GMA individuals had steeper growth in extrinsic success over time was because they attained more education, completed more job training, and gravitated toward more complex jobs. GMA also moderated the degree to which within-individual variation in the mediating variables affected within-individual variation in extrinsic career success over time: Education, training, and job complexity were much more likely to translate into career success for more intelligent individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Judge, Timothy A., Ryan L. Klinger and Lauren S. Simon. "Time is on My Side: Time, General Mental Ability, Human Capital, and Extrinsic Career Success." Journal of Applied Psychology 95,1 (January 2010): 92-107.
11. Judge, Timothy A.
Livingston, Beth A.
Is the Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings
Journal of Applied Psychology 93,5 (September 2008): 994–1012.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/93/5/994/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Economics of Gender; Gender Differences; Men's Studies; Occupational Segregation; Wage Gap; Women's Roles; Women's Studies

This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.
Bibliography Citation
Judge, Timothy A. and Beth A. Livingston. "Is the Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings." Journal of Applied Psychology 93,5 (September 2008): 994–1012. A.
12. Kramer, Amit
Chung, Wonjoon
Work Demands, Family Demands, and BMI in Dual-earners Families: A 16-year Longitudinal Study
Journal of Applied Psychology 100,5 (September 2015): 1632-1640.
Also: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038634
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Children; Family Income; Family Size; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Work Hours

Many scholars assert that work and family demands are negatively related to individuals' long-term physical health, but few studies have explicitly examined this relationship. Among these exceptions, most have employed a cross-sectional design that is limited in its ability to establish causality. We use body mass index (BMI) that generally increases during one's lifetime as an indicator of physical health, and seek to explore the amount of control individuals may have on this seemingly inevitable progression. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we propose that an increase in demands--both in the work realm (e.g., the number of work hours) and in the family realm (e.g., the number of spouse work hours)--is likely to speed up the increase of BMI. Using a nationally representative sample of 4,264 individuals who were part of a dual-earner family between 1994 and 2010, we find that a within-person increase in weekly work hours, an increase in spouse weekly work hours, and an increase in the number of children are all related to a small within-person increase of the BMI growth trajectory. Within-person increase in work responsibility demands is related to a small within-person decrease in the BMI growth trajectory. We discuss implications of the relationships between work and family demands and long-term physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Amit and Wonjoon Chung. "Work Demands, Family Demands, and BMI in Dual-earners Families: A 16-year Longitudinal Study." Journal of Applied Psychology 100,5 (September 2015): 1632-1640.
13. Maltarich, Mark A.
Nyberg, Anthony J.
Reilly, Greg
A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis of the Cognitive Ability–Voluntary Turnover Relationship
Journal of Applied Psychology 95,6 (November 2010): 1058-1070.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/95/6/1058.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Employment, History; Job Satisfaction; Job Turnover; Occupational Status; Work History

Despite much research into cognitive ability as a selection tool and a separate large literature on the causes of voluntary turnover, little theoretical or empirical work connects the two. We propose that voluntary turnover is also a potentially key outcome of cognitive ability. Incorporating ideas from the person- environment fit literature and those regarding push and pull influences on turnover, we posit a theoretical connection between cognitive ability and voluntary turnover that addresses both why and how voluntary turnover is related to cognitive ability. Integrating data from 3 different sources, our empirical analyses support the theoretical perspective that the relationship between cognitive ability and voluntary turnover depends on the cognitive demands of the job. When the cognitive demands of a job are high, our findings support the hypothesized curvilinear relationship between cognitive ability and voluntary turnover, such that employees of higher and lower cognitive ability are more likely than medium cognitive ability employees to leave voluntarily. With regard to jobs with low cognitive demands, our data are more consistent with a negative linear relationship between cognitive ability and voluntary turnover, such that higher cognitive ability employees are less likely to leave voluntarily. We also examine the role of job satisfaction, finding that job satisfaction is more strongly linked to voluntary turnover in jobs with high cognitive demands. NOTE: O*Net used for coding occupational characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Maltarich, Mark A., Anthony J. Nyberg and Greg Reilly. "A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis of the Cognitive Ability–Voluntary Turnover Relationship." Journal of Applied Psychology 95,6 (November 2010): 1058-1070.