Search Results

Source: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Resulting in 33 citations.
1. Acs, Gregory P.
The Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions
Discussion Paper No. 1011-93, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, November 1993.
Also: http://osu.worldcat.org/title/impact-of-afdc-on-young-womens-childbearing-decisions/oclc/28629000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Health; Childbearing; Fertility; First Birth; Household Composition; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Sexual Activity; Welfare; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Contrary to popular belief, unmarried women do not bear children in order to obtain welfare benefits, and women who are on welfare do not have additional children in order to collect more money. The major welfare program for single mothers -- and the program most people have in mind when they think of welfare -- is Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Every state operates its own AFDC program, which pays a monthly cash benefit to mothers who apply for and qualify for assistance. Research by Gregory Acs of the Urban Institute finds that the size of a state's AFDC benefit has no impact on the decision of an unmarried woman to have a child or on the decision of a mother who already receives AFDC to have another child. Politicians, the press, and the public have latched onto the argument that the welfare system encourages childbearing. The cost of raising a child, however, is substantial, and the amount of money a woman would receive from the AFDC program would hardly defray that cost. According to Acs, restricting benefits for welfare recipients who have additional children may send a significant symbolic message--that long-term dependence on welfare is not an acceptable way to live--but it is unlikely to have any effect on childbearing. Consequently, restricting or sharply reducing AFDC benefits for needy women and children is difficult to justify.
Bibliography Citation
Acs, Gregory P. "The Impact of AFDC on Young Women's Childbearing Decisions." Discussion Paper No. 1011-93, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, November 1993.
2. Brown, Meta
Flinn, Christopher J.
Investment in Child Quality Over Marital States
IRP Discussion Paper No. DP 1320-07, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, January 2007.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp132007.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Divorce; Family Income; Fathers, Involvement; Marital Stability; Marriage; Parental Marital Status; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Policies governing divorce and parenting, such as child support orders and enforcement, child custody regulations, and marital dissolution requirements, can have a large impact on the welfare of parents and children. Recent research has produced evidence on the responses of divorce rates to unilateral divorce laws and child support enforcement. In this paper the authors argue that in order to assess the child welfare impact of family policies, one must consider their influence on parents' investments in their children as well as the stability of the marginal marriage. Further, the authors expect that changes in the regulatory environment induce changes in the distribution of resources within both intact and divided families. The authors develop a continuous time model of parents' marital status choices and investments in children, with the main goal being the determination of how policies toward divorce influence outcomes for children. Estimates are derived for model parameters of interest using the method of simulated moments, and simulations based on the model explore the effects of changes in custody allocations and child support standards on outcomes for children of married and divorced parents. We find that, while small changes in children's academic attainment are induced by significant shifts in custody and support, the major effects of these policies in both intact and divided households are on the distribution of welfare between parents. In addition, children's attainments are not necessarily best served by the divorce-minimizing policy.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Meta and Christopher J. Flinn. "Investment in Child Quality Over Marital States." IRP Discussion Paper No. DP 1320-07, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, January 2007.
3. Cancian, Maria
Haveman, Robert H.
Kaplan, Thomas
Meyer, Daniel R.
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Work, Earnings, and Well-Being after Welfare: What Do We Know?
Focus 20,2 (Spring 1999): 22-25.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/focus.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Employment, History; Family Income; State Welfare; Welfare; Well-Being; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers who wish to examine the economic well-being of those who have left welfare need accurate data on women's circumstances while on welfare and measures of individual and family well-being over an extended period afterward. The most likely sources of this information are state administrative records, national longitudinal survey data, and targeted surveys. None provides a fully satisfactory solution. IRP researchers have conducted two studies of the economic well-being and employment histories of women who have left welfare. In one, they used the NLSY, and in the other, Wisconsin state administrative data. In this article, we briefly report the findings from these studies, illustrate the problems inherent in each approach, and compare their findings with studies of postwelfare experiences in other states.
Bibliography Citation
Cancian, Maria, Robert H. Haveman, Thomas Kaplan, Daniel R. Meyer and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Work, Earnings, and Well-Being after Welfare: What Do We Know?" Focus 20,2 (Spring 1999): 22-25.
4. Cao, Jian
Welfare Recipiency and Welfare Recidivism: An Analysis of the NLSY Data
Discussion Paper No. 1081-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, March 1996.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp108196.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Fertility; Marital Status; Regions; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzes welfare recipiency and recidivism of first-time AFDC recipients over the 168-month (14-year) period from January 1978 to December 1991 using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) database. Duration of a single AFDC spell is short, but repeated welfare dependency is common. On average, 57 percent of former AFDC recipients return to the rolls after an exit and most of them come back within two years. Having a newborn is the most important direct cause for going on the AFDC rolls and for recidivism. The results from bivariate duration models suggest a negative correlation due to unobserved heterogeneity between the previous welfare recipiency and recidivism. An inverted U-shaped hazard function is found for both the first and second spells on AFDC and the intervening off-AFDC spell. Age, years of education or AFQT score, martial status, ethnic origin, and region are the significant correlates with a recipient's initial welfare dependency and recidivism. However, few variables have significant effects on the duration of the second AFDC spell and off-AFDC spell at the conventional statistical level.
Bibliography Citation
Cao, Jian. "Welfare Recipiency and Welfare Recidivism: An Analysis of the NLSY Data." Discussion Paper No. 1081-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, March 1996.
5. Chatterji, Pinka
Bonuck, Karen
Dhawan, Simi
Deb, Nandini
WIC Participation and the Initiation and Duration of Breastfeeding
Discussion Paper No. 1246-02, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, February 2002.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/pubs/dp124602.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The objective of this paper is to measure the effect of participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) after the birth of a child on one important health behavior, the initiation and persistence of breastfeeding. The study is based on linked data on mothers and children from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Baseline, two-stage least squares, and fixed-effects model estimates show a negative effect of WIC participation on some forms of breastfeeding. The findings demonstrate that the WIC program faces a difficult challenge in encouraging low-income mothers to breastfeed while also providing needed infant formula to formula-fed infants.
Bibliography Citation
Chatterji, Pinka, Karen Bonuck, Simi Dhawan and Nandini Deb. "WIC Participation and the Initiation and Duration of Breastfeeding." Discussion Paper No. 1246-02, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, February 2002.
6. Corcoran, Mary E.
Loeb, Susanna
Will Wages Grow with Experience for Welfare Mothers?
Focus 20,2 (Spring 1999): 20-21.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/focus.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; High School Diploma; Mothers; Part-Time Work; Skilled Workers; Wage Growth; Welfare; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It appears that wages grow little for welfare recipients over time, especially for those whose skills and circumstances place them among the most disadvantaged. But welfare recipients work far fewer years than do nonrecipients, and it is not clear whether their low rates of wage growth with age are due to more meager work experience or to lower returns to that experience. Will more time working, as the new welfare regimes require, bring better jobs and higher wages? Research on work experience and women's wages consistently finds that wages grow with work experience, that prolonged periods of joblessness lower women's wages, and that wage growth is lower when work experience is part time. Welfare mothers not only have less work experience than other women, but often work part time. These factors in themselves could lead to lower wage growth over time even if returns to experience are the same for recipients and nonrecipients.
Bibliography Citation
Corcoran, Mary E. and Susanna Loeb. "Will Wages Grow with Experience for Welfare Mothers?" Focus 20,2 (Spring 1999): 20-21.
7. Fleisher, Belton M.
Parsons, Donald O.
Porter, Richard D.
Asset Adjustments and Labor Supply of Older Workers
In: Income Maintenance and Labor Supply-Econometric Studies. G. Cain, et. al., eds.Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1973
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Assets; Behavior; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Labor Supply

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper focuses on the hypothesis that empirical research on labor supply, with reference to males in the age group where work is the normal mode of behavior, has suffered from the lack of an adequate formulation of the role of nonemployment sources of purchasing power in affecting labor-supply decisions. Recent extensions of the classical labor-supply model, that have proved fruitful in increasing understanding of the behavior of other groups in the work force, appear to be of little help in understanding the behavior of older primary workers--males between ages 45-59. This paper concentrates on the role of nonhuman assets and nonemployment income in the labor supply function of older workers. The authors present the derivation and empirical estimation of two variants of an asset-adjustment model of labor supply and develop a system of labor-supply equations in which hours of work for an individual are determined by wage rate and the difference between the actual and desired stock of nonhuman assets. The value of assets conditions work decisions principally relative to some desired asset level rather than through its level alone. A large number of the regressions yielded estimates of the labor-supply parameters that are quite plausible. In many of the regressions, the internal consistency is quite good. However, in the more complex model, in which the authors attempt to incorporate transitory wage effects as well, the results appear suspect. The major empirical problem uncovered in this study is the high sensitivity of labor supply estimates to different definitions of a given variable and to different sample compositions. This may be a characteristic of male workers in this age group, 45 to 59, because more traditional models suffer from the same problem. The results imply that dynamic aspects of asset adjustments cannot be ignored. Because the expected time path of supply responses depends critically on the asset value of the NIT program, one must conclude the inferences drawn from experimental short-term programs are likely to underestimate the impact on labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Fleisher, Belton M., Donald O. Parsons and Richard D. Porter. "Asset Adjustments and Labor Supply of Older Workers" In: Income Maintenance and Labor Supply-Econometric Studies. G. Cain, et. al., eds.Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1973
8. Gamoran, Adam
Mare, Robert D.
Bethke, Lynne
Effects of Nonmaternal Child Care on Inequality in Cognitive Skills
Discussion Paper No. 1186-99, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1999.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp118699.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Child Care; Cognitive Ability; Home Environment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As a result of changing welfare policies, large numbers of children of poor, uneducated mothers are likely to receive care from others as their mothers enter the workforce. How will this change affect inequality in cognitive skills among young children? One view suggests that inequality will expand because children from economically advantaged families have access to better child care, and families with well-educated parents are more likely to reinforce the cognitive benefits of care. Another view argues that inequality will diminish because even though child care may be unequal, it may be less unequal than the home environments that are supplanted by nonmaternal care. A third view suggests that because the effects of care are inconsistent, there will be little overall change in inequality. Analysis of the children of mothers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth provides tentative evidence in support of the first view, that nonmaternal care tends to magnify inequality. Although ordinary least squares regressions reveal no effects of child care, fixed-effects models that control for differences between families indicate that children of high-income, well-educated mothers benefit from center-based care, but children of low-income, poorly educated mothers suffer a cognitive disadvantage from attending day care centers. Home-based care, however, is not associated with cognitive performance. Results from nonparametric analyses are consistent with the findings from fixed-effects models. The key results rely mainly on a relatively small sample of about 700 children in 300 families that sent their children to different types of care, and they do not pertain to families with only one child, so caution is warranted in generalizing the findings.
Bibliography Citation
Gamoran, Adam, Robert D. Mare and Lynne Bethke. "Effects of Nonmaternal Child Care on Inequality in Cognitive Skills." Discussion Paper No. 1186-99, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1999.
9. Gottschalk, Peter
Correlations Between Mothers' and Daughters' Welfare Experiences
Working Paper, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconson - Madison, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers and Daughters; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Poverty; Research Methodology; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This report describes the previous work on intergenerational correlation of welfare experiences of mothers and daughters and presents new evidence based on the NLSY. Previous studies artificially limited the time period over which mothers and daughters were observed by focusing on the mothers' and daughters' experience during limited windows during the beginning and end of the survey. The descriptive duration tables and multivariate equations presented in this report overcome this drawback by using all the information in the survey. The results show a strong degree of correlation between mothers' and daughters' welfare experiences. The daughters of mothers who received assistance were more likely to have a child at every given age and were much more likely to start an AFDC spell after the birth of their first child. The facts presented are consistent with two competing theories - daughters may have experiences similar to their mothers' because they face similar constraints or because tastes or information are passed from one generation to the next. Since these two theories have very different policy implications, this study is only an intermediate step in the study of intergenerational welfare dependency.
Bibliography Citation
Gottschalk, Peter. "Correlations Between Mothers' and Daughters' Welfare Experiences." Working Paper, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconson - Madison, 1989.
10. Haveman, Robert H.
Knight, Brian
Youth Living Arrangements, Economic Independence, and the Role of Labor Market Changes: A Cohort Analysis from the Early 1970s to the Late 1980s
Discussion Paper No. 1201-99, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1999.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp120199.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Economic Independence; Educational Attainment; Household Composition; Skilled Workers; Wages, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Between the late 1960s and early 1990s, young workers experienced declining average real wages and increasing labor market inequality. High-skilled youths--those with a college degree--fare better in this new economy relative to youths with few skills and little formal education. This paper studies two separate, but related, indirect effects of this labor market deterioration: changes in living arrangements and changes in economic independence, the ability to financially support oneself and dependents. We find that over this period, youths tended to shift away from living arrangements with significant financial responsibility, such as living with a spouse and children, and toward arrangements with less responsibility, such as remaining at home with one's parents or living alone. This shift is especially pronounced for low-skilled youths, those most adversely affected by the labor market deterioration. These changes in living arrangements tended to increase the economic independence of youths relative to their loss in economic independence were they unable to alter these living arrangements.
Bibliography Citation
Haveman, Robert H. and Brian Knight. "Youth Living Arrangements, Economic Independence, and the Role of Labor Market Changes: A Cohort Analysis from the Early 1970s to the Late 1980s." Discussion Paper No. 1201-99, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1999.
11. Holzer, Harry J.
LaLonde, Robert J.
Job Change and Job Stability Among Less-Skilled Young Workers
Discussion Paper No. 1191-99, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, May 1999.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp119199.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Fertility; Job Skills; Job Tenure; Marital Status; Occupations; Skills; Wages; Welfare; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we review evidence from previous studies of job and employment instability among less-educated young workers, and we provide new evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We find that early employment instability contributes somewhat to the low levels of employment observed among high school dropouts, especially females. Important determinants of job stability include the cognitive skills of the workers themselves (as measured by math test scores), current or previous experience and job tenure, and a variety of job characteristics including starting wages, occupation, and industry. Job instability among female dropouts seems to be strongly related to fertility history and marital status. Some implications for policy, especially welfare reform, are discussed as well.
Bibliography Citation
Holzer, Harry J. and Robert J. LaLonde. "Job Change and Job Stability Among Less-Skilled Young Workers." Discussion Paper No. 1191-99, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, May 1999.
12. Klawitter, Marieka Marjorie
Plotnick, Robert D.
Edwards, Mark Evan
Determinants of Welfare Entry and Exit by Young Women
Discussion Paper No. 1099-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1996.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp109996.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Attitudes; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; First Birth; Home Environment; Modeling; Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the youngest cohorts of women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study constructs AFDC histories starting at age 15. Most young women go on AFDC for the first time between ages 18 and 25 and do so in the first few years after the birth of their first baby. We use these histories to estimate models of the determinants of initial use of AFDC and of the rate of exit from the first AFDC spell. The models show little evidence that welfare benefits affect the likelihood and timing of AFDC use, except that higher Medicaid benefits are associated with slower rates of exit from an initial AFDC spell. Parental welfare receipt, the home educational environment, family structure, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, and race are significantly related to the likelihood of participating in AFDC and the rate of entry and exit.
Bibliography Citation
Klawitter, Marieka Marjorie, Robert D. Plotnick and Mark Evan Edwards. "Determinants of Welfare Entry and Exit by Young Women." Discussion Paper No. 1099-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1996.
13. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?
Discussion Paper No. 1145-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1997.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp114597.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Economic Well-Being; Education; Human Capital; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences; Variables, Instrumental; Wages, Adult; Wages, Young Women; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The consequences of teen childbearing for the future well-being of young women remain controversial. In this paper, we model and estimate the relationship between early childbearing and human capital investment, and its effect on wages in early adulthood. Taking advantage of a large set of potential instruments for fertility--principally state- and county-level indicators of the costs of fertility and fertility control--we use instrumental variables procedures to generate unbiased estimates of the effects of early fertility on education and work experience, and the effects of these outcomes on adult wages. For both black and white women, adolescent fertility substantially reduces years of formal education and teenage work experience. White teenage mothers also obtain less early adult work experience than young women who delay childbearing. We also find that, through these human capital effects, teenage childbearing has a significant effect on a young woman's market wage at age 25. Our results, unlike those of recent "revisionist" studies, suggest that public policies that reduce teenage childbearing are likely to have positive effects on the economic well-being of many young mothers and their families.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "How Does Adolescent Fertility Affect the Human Capital and Wages of Young Women?" Discussion Paper No. 1145-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1997.
14. Klepinger, Daniel H.
Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Instrument Selection: The Case of Teenage Childbearing and Women's Educational Attainment
Discussion Paper No. 1077-95, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, November 1995.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp107795.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Methods/Methodology; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent research has identified situations in which instrumental variables (IV) estimators are severely biased and has suggested diagnostic tests to identify such situations. We suggest a number of alternative techniques for choosing a set of instruments that satisfy these tests from a universe of a priori plausible candidates, and we apply them to a study of the effects of adolescent childbearing on the educational attainment of young women. We find that substantive results are sensitive to instrument choice, and make two recommendations to the practical researcher: First, it is prudent to begin with a large set of potential instruments, when possible, and pare it down through formal testing rather than to rely on a minimal instrument set justified on a priori grounds. Second, the application of more restrictive tests of instrument validity and relevance can yield results very different from those based on less restrictive tests that produce a more inclusive set of instruments, and is the preferred, conservative approach when improper instrument choice can lead to biased estimates.
Bibliography Citation
Klepinger, Daniel H., Shelly Lundberg and Robert D. Plotnick. "Instrument Selection: The Case of Teenage Childbearing and Women's Educational Attainment." Discussion Paper No. 1077-95, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, November 1995.
15. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
Effects of Participation in the WIC Food Assistance Program on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children
Discussion Paper No. 1207-00, Institute for Research on Poverty, 2000.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp120700.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Children, Health Care; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Pre/post Natal Behavior; Siblings; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the effects of maternal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on birth weight, motor and social skills, and temperament for a national sample of children born between 1990 and 1996 to women participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Sibling fixed effect models are used to account for persistent differences in difficult to measure characteristics of mothers that affect participation in the program. Results indicate that prenatal WIC participation has positive effects on infant birth weight. Fixed effect, but not OLS, estimates suggest that prenatal WIC participation is associated with more positive child temperament.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "Effects of Participation in the WIC Food Assistance Program on Children's Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children." Discussion Paper No. 1207-00, Institute for Research on Poverty, 2000.
16. Leigh, Duane E.
Racial Differentials in Returns to Human Capital Investments: Further Evidence from the Longitudinal Surveys
Mimeo, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1974
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Human Capital Theory; Job Tenure; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences; Vocational Training; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The author analyzes the impact of formal schooling and vocational training on alternative measures of labor market success for men. The results agree with Freeman and Flanagan that during the period between 1966-1969, occupational advancement is significantly related to formal education for whites; for blacks, post school vocational training and firm specific experience lead to greater advancement. For both racial groups, the advancement is greater among young men; but, for neither age cohort is occupational segregation sufficiently strong to negate the advancement of black men.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Racial Differentials in Returns to Human Capital Investments: Further Evidence from the Longitudinal Surveys." Mimeo, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1974.
17. Lerman, Robert I.
Do the Earnings Deficiencies of Unwed Fathers Account for Their Low Child Support Payments?
In: Paternity Establishment: A Public Policy Conference, Volume 2: Studies of the Circumstances of Mothers and Fathers. Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, 1992: pp. 191-218.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/sr/pdfs/sr56b.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Child Support; Children; Fathers; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: Special Report #SR 56B, IRP, Madison WI, 1992: pp. 191-218. http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/sr/pdfs/sr56b.pdf

Fatherhood brings new financial responsibilities so that, due the added cost of supporting a child, parents must increase their earnings or reduce their own material living standards. This paper asks about the linkages between earnings and child support payments. We begin by examining the job market success of unwed fathers. Do young unwed fathers earn significantly less than other young men? If so, what accounts for their disadvantages? Are the differences between unwed fathers and married fathers caused by differences in worker capabilities, such as low education and limited work experience, or differences in worker effort? Do young unwed fathers eventually experience rapid earnings growth or do their earnings stagnate? The child support payment record of unwed fathers is examined as well as the relationship between increased earnings and added support payments. A common assumption guiding public policy is that increased earnings among unwed fathers will generate increased support payments. Findings bear on questions concerning the appropriate government role in dealing with earnings deficiencies of unwed fathers. Should public programs provide targeted employment and training assistance to these young men? How should programs link the fulfillment of child support obligations with job-related services? Do adjustments in government benefit programs make sense? The paper concludes by reporting on demonstration projects.

Bibliography Citation
Lerman, Robert I. "Do the Earnings Deficiencies of Unwed Fathers Account for Their Low Child Support Payments?" In: Paternity Establishment: A Public Policy Conference, Volume 2: Studies of the Circumstances of Mothers and Fathers. Madison, WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, 1992: pp. 191-218.
18. Levine, Phillip B.
Zimmerman, David J.
Intergenerational Correlation in AFDC Participation: Welfare Trap or Poverty Trap?
Discussion Paper No. 1100-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1996.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/dplist.htm
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Earnings; Endogeneity; Family Characteristics; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Probit; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Several recent studies have shown that daughters whose mothers have participated in the welfare program Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), are themselves more likely to participate in AFDC when they head their own household. Other studies have shown that the earnings of parents and their children are highly correlated across generations. This suggests that any variable correlated with income--such as AFDC participation--will also be correlated across generations. This paper uses data from the original and youth cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys to investigate the question of whether the link in mother-daughter welfare participation is a causal relationship, or whether it can be explained by the expected intergenerational correlation in earnings. Several reduced-form probit equations are estimated, and attention is directed to the potential endogeneity of key explanatory variables. The empirical findings suggest that much of the observed correlation in AFDC participation across generations can be explained by the intergenerational correlation of income and other family characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Phillip B. and David J. Zimmerman. "Intergenerational Correlation in AFDC Participation: Welfare Trap or Poverty Trap?" Discussion Paper No. 1100-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1996.
19. Liu, Haiyong
Growing Up Poor and Childhood Weight Problems
IRP Discussion Paper no. DP 1324-07, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, April 2007.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp132407.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Children, Poverty; Family Income; Obesity; Poverty; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the impact of growing up in poverty on the risk of childhood weight problems. Understanding the effect of family income on childhood weight problems is important, but has been hindered by the potential endogeneity of family income. We use matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to study the effects of growing up poor on risks of childhood overweight and underweight, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity that governs both children's weight and family income. We also estimate the impacts of family income on a child's weight measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) at different points in the conditional distribution of children's weight, using a two-stage residual inclusion least absolute deviation approach. Our results show that the mean effects of poverty exposure on risks of obesity and underweight are not statistically different from zero, accounting for the endogeneity of family income. More importantly we find that growing up poor increases a child's BMI by 14.7 percent if her BMI is at the 90th quantile of her cohort's BMI distribution and reduces her BMI by 12.7 percent if her BMI is at the 10th quantile.
Bibliography Citation
Liu, Haiyong. "Growing Up Poor and Childhood Weight Problems." IRP Discussion Paper no. DP 1324-07, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, April 2007.
20. Lundberg, Shelly
Plotnick, Robert D.
Adolescent Premarital Childbearing: Do Opportunity Costs Matter?
Discussion Paper No. 926-90, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1990
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavioral Differences; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Planning; Household Composition; Medicaid/Medicare; Racial Differences; Religion; State Welfare; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study develops an empirical model of adolescent premarital childbearing which emphasizes the influence of opportunity costs. The model estimates determinants of premarital pregnancy, the choice to abort or carry to teem, and whether a marriage occurs before the birth. The sample is from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The long-run opportunity costs are the predicted effects of premarital childbearing on own future wages and welfare benefits. State variables on abortion and family planning policy and availability, which are proxies for the costs of abortion and avoiding pregnancy, represent short-run costs. For white adolescents, the long-run wage measure has statistically significant effects on abortion and pregnancy outcomes that are consistent with theoretical expectations. Their behavior also is associated with welfare, abortion, and family planning policy variables in directions consistent with an opportunity-cost model of behavior. Black adolescents' behavior shows no association with the opportunity-cost or policy variables. This may be a function of sample size. It may also be that there are important unmeasured racial differences in the factors that influence fertility and marital behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly and Robert D. Plotnick. "Adolescent Premarital Childbearing: Do Opportunity Costs Matter?" Discussion Paper No. 926-90, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1990.
21. Menchik, Paul L.
Economic Status as a Determinant of Mortality Among Nonwhite and White Older Males: Does Poverty Kill?
Discussion Paper No. 936-91, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1991
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Mortality; Poverty; Racial Differences; Retirement; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Public

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The evidence presented in this paper shows that differential mortality rates by economic status are strongly present in the United States today, and that this relationship is monotonic, with the wealthiest decile having lower death rates than the next wealthiest decile. Differential mortality rates by economic status can be said to be confused with the well-known racial difference in mortality. An implication of this paper, then, is that racial differences in mortality are, in large part, a consequence of poverty or low permanent income, as opposed to racial genotype. Consequently, it may be just as valid, or even more so, to publish mortality tables by income as by race. Another implication of this paper is that the redistributive effects of longevity-based transfer systems, such as Social Security, may be less "progressive" than assumed, since would-be-poorer recipients are either less likely to live long enough to collect any benefits in the first place or will not live to collect them for as long a period of time as will more affluent recipients. In addition, a direct effect of schooling on survival-probability was not found. Consequently, the beneficial effect of schooling on longevity must work through its effect upon income, with only the latter directly influencing mortality risk.
Bibliography Citation
Menchik, Paul L. "Economic Status as a Determinant of Mortality Among Nonwhite and White Older Males: Does Poverty Kill?" Discussion Paper No. 936-91, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1991.
22. Meyer, Daniel R.
Cancian, Maria
Life After Welfare: The Economic Well-Being of Women and Children Following An Exit From AFDC
Discussion Paper No. 1101-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1996.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Well-Being; Earnings; Economic Well-Being; Family Background; Poverty; Transfers, Financial; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Much previous research has focused on the length of welfare spells and returns to welfare following an exit. Few quantitative studies have looked at broader indicators of the economic well-being of those who have exited AFDC. In this paper we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NSLY) to trace welfare use, poverty status, and primary sources of income in the years following an exit from welfare. We find that while there is a trend toward improved economic status over time, 40 percent of women remain poor five years after exit. Women with more advantaged family backgrounds, those with fewer children, or with more education at exit are more likely to consistently escape poverty. Median income increases over the first five years from about $10,500 to about $15,000 (1992 dollars). Own earnings are the most prevalent income source, followed by spouse's earnings, and mean-tested transfers.
Bibliography Citation
Meyer, Daniel R. and Maria Cancian. "Life After Welfare: The Economic Well-Being of Women and Children Following An Exit From AFDC." Discussion Paper No. 1101-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1996.
23. Moffitt, Robert A.
Effect of Welfare on Marriage and Fertility: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know?
Discussion Paper No. 1153-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, December 1997.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp115397.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Demography; Fertility; Longitudinal Data Sets; Marriage; Methods/Methodology; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Racial Differences; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The recent literature on the effects of welfare on marriage and fertility includes studies employing a wide variety of methodologies and data sets and covering different time periods. A majority of the studies show that welfare has a significantly negative effect on marriage or positive effect on fertility rather than none at all, and thus the current consensus is that the welfare system probably has some effect on these demographic outcomes. Considerable uncertainty surrounds this consensus because a sizable minority of the studies find no effect at all, because the magnitudes of the estimated effects vary widely, and because puzzling and unexplained differences exist across the studies by race and methodological approach. At present, and with the information provided in the studies, the source of these disparities cannot be determined. While a neutral weighing of the evidence still leads to the conclusion that the welfare system affects marriage and fertility, research needs to be conducted to resolve the conflicting findings.
Bibliography Citation
Moffitt, Robert A. "Effect of Welfare on Marriage and Fertility: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know?" Discussion Paper No. 1153-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, December 1997.
24. Moffitt, Robert A.
Reville, Robert T.
Winkler, Anne E.
Beyond Single Mothers: Cohabitation, Marriage, and the U.S. Welfare System
Discussion Paper No. 1068-95, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, July 1995.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/pubs/dp106895.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Cohabitation; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Household Composition; Marital Status; Marriage; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parents, Single; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the extent and implications of cohabitation and marriage among U.S. welfare recipients. An analysis of four data sets (the CPS, NSFH, PSID, and NLSY) shows significant numbers of cohabitors among recipients of AFDC. An even more surprising finding is the large number of married women on AFDC. We also report the results of a telephone survey of state AFDC agencies conducted to determine state rules governing cohabitation and marriage. The survey results indicate that, in a number of respects, cohabitation is encouraged by the AFDC rules. Finally, we conduct a brief analysis of the impact of AFDC rules on cohabitation, marriage, and headship, and find weak evidence in support of incentives to cohabit.
Bibliography Citation
Moffitt, Robert A., Robert T. Reville and Anne E. Winkler. "Beyond Single Mothers: Cohabitation, Marriage, and the U.S. Welfare System." Discussion Paper No. 1068-95, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, July 1995.
25. Pirog-Good, Maureen A.
Teen Fathers and the Child Support Enforcement System
In: Paternity Establishment: A Public Policy Conference, Volume 2: Studies of the Circumstances of Mothers and Fathers. Madison WI: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Child Support; Childbearing, Adolescent; Data Quality/Consistency; Fathers, Absence; Poverty; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: Special Report #56B (August 1992), Madison WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, 1992

Institute for Research on Poverty Conference report. Enormous attention has been paid to adolescent mothers and their children. The United States has a higher rate of teen pregnancy than any other industrialized country. In 1988 alone, there were 488,941 births to women under the age of 20. If there were no adverse effects of adolescent parenting, the high incidence of teenage childbearing in the U.S. would not surface as a policy issue. Because of the high personal and social costs of teen parenting, the antecedents, consequences, and factors associated with adolescent motherhood have been widely researched. In contrast, young fathers are infrequently the focus of researchers. Knowledge of this population contains neither the breath nor depth of knowledge concerning young mothers. Currently, there are only six published studies of young fathers which use nationally representative data. Of the six, one focuses on absent fathers many of whom are in their early to mid twenties. The remaining five use outdated data, are narrowly focused, or use biased subsamples of nationally representative data. Consequently, public policies directed towards this population are made in a virtual vacuum of knowledge. However, few public policies are specifically targeted at teen fathers. To partially fill the void of knowledge concerning teen fathers, this article provides a general overview of this population. The data for the ensuing analyses are derived from two different sources. The description of the teen father population is based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experiences-Youth Cohort (NLSY). NLSY is a balanced panel which includes information on 6,403 males ages 14-21 in 1979. The second source of data is a survey mailed to the directors of Child Support Enforcement (CSE) programs and State Court administrators in eve ry state and the District of Columbia in January, 1993.

Bibliography Citation
Pirog-Good, Maureen A. "Teen Fathers and the Child Support Enforcement System" In: Paternity Establishment: A Public Policy Conference, Volume 2: Studies of the Circumstances of Mothers and Fathers. Madison WI: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), 1992
26. Plotnick, Robert D.
The Effect of Attitudes on Teenage Premarital Pregnancy and its Resolution
Discussion Paper No. 965-92, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, February 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Background; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Internal-External Attitude; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem; Teenagers; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the influence of self-esteem, locus of control, and attitudes toward women's family roles and school on the probability of teenage premarital pregnancy and, given a pregnancy, whether it is resolved by abortion, having the birth premaritally, or marrying before the birth. The data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and analyzed using the nested logit method. The evidence suggests that for both whites and blacks the four attitude variables are associated with premarital pregnancy and its resolution in the directions predicted by theory.
Bibliography Citation
Plotnick, Robert D. "The Effect of Attitudes on Teenage Premarital Pregnancy and its Resolution." Discussion Paper No. 965-92, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, February 1992.
27. Plotnick, Robert D.
Klawitter, Marieka Marjorie
Edwards, Mark Evan
Do Attitudes and Personality Characteristics Affect Socioeconomic Outcomes? The Case of Welfare Use by Young Women
Discussion Paper No. 1161-98, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1998.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp116198.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Attitudes; Family Background; Family Influences; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Modeling, Logit; Self-Esteem; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We develop and estimate a model of social-psychological determinants of entry to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, the primary cash welfare program in the United States for 60 years until replaced in 1996. The structural model holds that attitudes and personality characteristics influence a woman's likelihood of becoming demographically and financially eligible for welfare and her willingness to bear the stigma of receiving benefits. These factors, in turn, affect the likelihood of actually going on welfare. We test for a relationship between social-psychological variables and welfare participation using data from the youngest cohorts of women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We estimate logit models of the probability of ever participating in AFDC up to age 25 and hazard models of the timing until first use of AFDC. The attitudes and personality characteristics in the empirical model are self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes toward school, att itudes toward women's work and family roles, commitment to work, and aversion to accepting public assistance. We find strong associations between welfare use and several attitudes and personality characteristics, but most of the associations are not robust to the inclusion of exogenous personal and family background characteristics. Consistent, strong evidence suggests that more positive attitudes toward school lower the likelihood of using welfare and increase duration until first receipt.
Bibliography Citation
Plotnick, Robert D., Marieka Marjorie Klawitter and Mark Evan Edwards. "Do Attitudes and Personality Characteristics Affect Socioeconomic Outcomes? The Case of Welfare Use by Young Women." Discussion Paper No. 1161-98, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1998.
28. Prosser, William R.
Family Structure, Substitute Care, and Educational Achievement
Discussion Paper No. 1140-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, August 1997.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp114097.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Foster Care; High School Completion/Graduates; Home Environment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to explore the educational achievement of youths who lived away from both biological parents for at least four months during childhood. The study focuses on those who spent some time in substitute care (in foster family care, living with relatives, or in institutions), those who left home to be on their own before age 17, and children who were adopted by a couple before age 2. Educational achievement is measured by high school completion, college completion, and highest grade completed by age 25. The 5 to 10 percent of youths in this study who experience surrogate forms of family care on average have lower educational achievement than those who grew up with both biological parents. The educational level of the parents appears to play an important role, and may explain a significant portion of this discrepancy. This study cannot sort out whether the differences in educational achievement reflect the types of youths who enter surrogate forms of care, the reasons for transitions, or the actual substitute care experiences. Its contribution is that it adds analysis of a nationally representative sample of youth to a very thin body of literature on substitute care.
Bibliography Citation
Prosser, William R. "Family Structure, Substitute Care, and Educational Achievement." Discussion Paper No. 1140-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, August 1997.
29. Sandefur, Gary D.
Cook, Steven T.
Duration of Public Assistance Receipt: Is Welfare a Trap?
Discussion Paper No. 1129-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, April 1997.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/dpabs97.htm#DP1129-97
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Family Characteristics; High School Diploma; Marital Status; Welfare; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to answer two questions about the effects of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: (1) Does the length of time that one receives AFDC affect the likelihood of permanently leaving AFDC? (2) What personal and family characteristics are associated with the long-term receipt of AFDC? The answer to the first question is that the likelihood of permanently leaving AFDC decreases with the length of time that individuals receive benefits, after adjustments for other measured and unmeasured attributes of individuals and their families. The answer to the second question is that not having a high school diploma, never having married, having more than two children, and having little work experience are associated with long-term receipt. Many of the recipients who will reach the five-year limit imposed by the new federal legislation are in situations that make it difficult for them to support themselves and their families without public assistance. Abstract online.
Bibliography Citation
Sandefur, Gary D. and Steven T. Cook. "Duration of Public Assistance Receipt: Is Welfare a Trap?" Discussion Paper No. 1129-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, April 1997.
30. Sandefur, Gary D.
McLanahan, Sara S.
Wojtkiewicz, Roger A.
Race and Ethnicity, Family Structure, and High School Graduation
Discussion Paper No. 893-89, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, August 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Family Structure; Heterogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; Minorities, Youth; Parental Influences; Parents, Single; Racial Differences; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979-1985 waves of the NLSY, this paper focuses on two questions: (1) Can racial and ethnic differences in family structure and single parenthood account for differences in high school graduation rates of white and minority youth? (2) What explains the relationship between family structure and school achievement? The authors find that parental education is more important than family structure in accounting for differences in schooling among whites, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Native Americans, and that family structure and parental education are equally important in accounting for differences between whites and blacks. Family income moderates some of the impact of family structure on children's graduation. Statistical controls for the endogeneity of family structure suggest that not all of the family structure effect on school graduation is due to unmeasured heterogeneity.
Bibliography Citation
Sandefur, Gary D., Sara S. McLanahan and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz. "Race and Ethnicity, Family Structure, and High School Graduation." Discussion Paper No. 893-89, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, August 1989.
31. Sandefur, Gary D.
Wells, Thomas Eric
Using Siblings to Investigate the Effects of Family Structure on Educational Attainment
Discussion Paper No. 1144-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1997.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp114497.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Family Structure; Income; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the effects of family structure on educational attainment after controlling for common family influences, observed and unobserved, using data from siblings. The use of sibling data permits us to examine whether the apparent effects of family structure are due to unmeasured characteristics of families that are common to siblings. The data come from pairs of siblings in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-1992. The results suggest that taking into account the unmeasured family characteristics yields estimates of the effects of family structure on educational attainment that are smaller, but still statistically significant, than estimates based on analyses that do not take unmeasured family influences into account.
Bibliography Citation
Sandefur, Gary D. and Thomas Eric Wells. "Using Siblings to Investigate the Effects of Family Structure on Educational Attainment." Discussion Paper No. 1144-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, September 1997.
32. Schmeiser, Maximilian D.
Expanding Wallets and Waistlines: The Impact of Family Income on the BMI of Women and Men Eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit
Discussion Paper No. 1339-08, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin–Madison, July 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; Income; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The rising rate of obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is now one of the most serious public health challenges facing the US. However, the underlying causes for this increase are unclear. This paper examines the effect of family income changes on body mass index (BMI) and obesity using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. It does so by using exogenous variation in family income in a sample of low-income women and men. This exogenous variation is obtained from the correlation of their family income with the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program benefits. Income is found to significantly raise the BMI and probability of being obese for women with EITC-eligible earnings, and have no appreciable effect for men with EITC-eligible earnings. The results imply that the increase in real family income from 1990 to 2002 explains between 10 and 21 percent of the increase in sample women's BMI and between 23 and 29 percent of their increased obesity prevalence.
Bibliography Citation
Schmeiser, Maximilian D. "Expanding Wallets and Waistlines: The Impact of Family Income on the BMI of Women and Men Eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit." Discussion Paper No. 1339-08, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin–Madison, July 2008.
33. Wu, Lawrence L.
Cherlin, Andrew J.
Bumpass, Larry L.
Family Structure, Early Sexual Behavior, and Premarital Births
Discussion Paper No. 1125-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1997.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp112597.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Intercourse; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Structure; Marital Status; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG); Racial Differences; Sexual Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we argue that entry into first sexual intercourse is a key process mediating the effects of family structure on premarital childbearing. We explicate three ways in which onset of sexual activity can mediate effects of family structure on premarital first births. First, the gross association between family structure and premarital birth risks may be due entirely to the effect of family structure on age at first intercourse. Second, the earlier the age at first intercourse, the longer the duration of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. Third, an early age at first intercourse may proxy unmeasured individual characteristics correlated with age at onset but uncorrelated with other variables in the model. We develop methods to assess such mediating effects and analyze data from two sources, the 1979-93 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth. We find that age at first intercourse partially mediates the effect on premarital birth risks of both snapshot measures of family structure at age 14 and a dine-varying measure of the number of family transitions, but that significant effects of these variables remain net of age at first intercourse. Delaying age at intercourse by one year reduces the cumulative relative risk of a premarital first birth by a similar amount for both white and black women. For black women, the magnitude of this effect is roughly the same as that of residing in a mother-only family at age 14.
Bibliography Citation
Wu, Lawrence L., Andrew J. Cherlin and Larry L. Bumpass. "Family Structure, Early Sexual Behavior, and Premarital Births." Discussion Paper No. 1125-97, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1997.