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Source: Institute for Research on Poverty
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Anderson, Douglas K.
Effects of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhood on High School Dropout
Discussion Paper No. 1027-93, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, December 1993.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED384688.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childbearing; Educational Status; Family Background; Fertility; High School Dropouts; Modeling; Motherhood; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A previous version of this paper was presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, April 1, 1993, Cincinnati, Ohio. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore the effect of fertility on high school dropout, and differences in that effect by age at first birth. Fertility is conceptualized as a series of states: pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, and motherhood. Pregnant students and mothers are much more likely to drop out than students who are not pregnant or mothers. Models including a wide variety of controls for social background, ability, schooling factors, and adolescent behaviors show that the net effects of pregnancy and motherhood on dropout are substantively and statistically significant. The effects of fertility on dropout are strongest for the youngest students.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Douglas K. "Effects of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhood on High School Dropout." Discussion Paper No. 1027-93, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, December 1993.
2. Betts, Julian R.
The Impact of School Resources on Women's Earnings and Educational Attainment: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women
Discussion Paper No. 1108-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, September 1996.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp110896.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; High School Diploma; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Schooling, Post-secondary; Wage Models; Wages, Young Women; Women's Education

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research measures the impact of high school resources on women's educational attainment and earnings. No link emerges between education and school resources, whether measured by the pupil-teacher ratio, spending per pupil, teachers' starting salaries, or books per student. For white women, no significant connection between school resources and wages is found. But school inputs are in several cases significantly and positively related to black women's wages. Wage elasticities with respect to school inputs are uniformly larger for black women. Finally, the impact of school resources on earnings remains constant or in some cases depreciates as workers grow older.
Bibliography Citation
Betts, Julian R. "The Impact of School Resources on Women's Earnings and Educational Attainment: Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women." Discussion Paper No. 1108-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, September 1996.
3. Bryant, Richard R.
Jayawardhana, Ananda
Samaranayake, V. A.
Wilhite, Allen
The Impact of Alcohol and Drug Use on Employment: A Labor Market Study Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
IRP Discussion Paper 1092-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, June 1996.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp109296.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Employment; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Human Capital; Modeling; Modeling, Logit; Racial Differences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study was, first, to estimate the impact of alcohol and drug use on the employment status of men and women and, second, to examine whether a history of past use, as opposed to current use, adversely affects the propensity to be employed. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth we conducted a cross-sectional and a longitudinal analysis with logistic regression estimation to model the probability that a person was employed in 1992. In addition to usual regressors, interactions between substance use measures, between substance use measures and human capital variables, and between substance use measures and race dummies were included in the equation. The longitudinal analysis utilized a conditional likelihood method based on employment data in 1992 and 1988 and included the difference between 1992 regressors and their 1988 counterparts. A comparison was made between the prediction accuracy of the logit choice model, linear discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbor analysis, and three modern classification methods that are used extensively in the area of machine learning.

Results showed that the logit model performs relatively well in classifying individuals into employed and unemployed categories based on individual attributes. Results of the cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis were mixed but not inconsistent with our prior expectations that use of alcohol or drug has a negative impact on a person's propensity to be employed. Cross-sectional results show a clear negative impact of past substance use on a person's employment probability among all demographic groups examined (by gender: all persons, blacks, Hispanics, families with income below the poverty line, and high users of alcohol or drugs). However, when current and past use are considered together, only women seem to experience negative impacts. The results of the longitudinal analysis are less clear, although they do indicate that negative impacts are associated with the interaction between substance use measures and human capital variables. Limitations of the study are pointed out and suggestions are made for future research.

Bibliography Citation
Bryant, Richard R., Ananda Jayawardhana, V. A. Samaranayake and Allen Wilhite. "The Impact of Alcohol and Drug Use on Employment: A Labor Market Study Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." IRP Discussion Paper 1092-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, June 1996.
4. Dahl, Gordon B.
Lochner, Lance John
The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit
Discussion Paper No. 1361-09, Institute for Research on Poverty, January 2009.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp136109.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Achievement; Child Development; Children, Academic Development; Children, Poverty; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Endogeneity; Family Income; Family Influences; Heterogeneity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use two simulated instrumental variables strategies to estimate the causal effect of income on children's math and reading achievement. Our identification derives from the large, non-linear changes in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) over the last two decades. The largest of these changes increased family income by as much as 20 percent, or approximately $2,100. Using a panel of almost 5,000 children matched to their mothers from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth datasets allows us to address problems associated with unobserved heterogeneity, endogenous transitory income shocks, and measurement error in income. Our baseline estimates imply that a $1,000 increase in income raises combined math and reading test scores by 6 percent of a standard deviation in the short run. The gains are larger for children from disadvantaged families and are robust to a variety of alternative specifications. We find little evidence of long-run income effects, with most of the effects disappearing after one year. ...

To make the PIAT test scores more easily interpretable, we create normalized test scores with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one based on the random sample of test takers (i.e. excluding the poor and minority oversamples). We also create a combined math-reading score, which takes the average of our normalized math and reading scores. This is then re-normalized to have a mean of zero and standard deviation of one in the random sample.2

Bibliography Citation
Dahl, Gordon B. and Lance John Lochner. "The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit." Discussion Paper No. 1361-09, Institute for Research on Poverty, January 2009.
5. Fligstein, Neil
Wolf, Wendy
The Impact of the Censoring Problem on Estimating Women's Occupational Attainment Equations
Discussion Paper No. 371-76, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Income; Occupational Attainment; Sex Education; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research on sex differences in occupational attainment suggests that working men and working women attain essentially the same mean level of occupational attainment and do so through quite similar processes. A possible explanation for these similarities is that the sample of working women contains an overrepresentation of successful women, since women who can afford not to work will stay out of the labor force unless they find a job commensurate with their education. This we define as a censoring problem. By extending a technique developed by Heckman, we can estimate the structural parameters for all women, regardless of current employment status. This procedure allows us to assess the impact of the censoring problem on women's occupational attainment equations.
Bibliography Citation
Fligstein, Neil and Wendy Wolf. "The Impact of the Censoring Problem on Estimating Women's Occupational Attainment Equations." Discussion Paper No. 371-76, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1977.
6. Garasky, Steven
Exploring the Effects of Childhood Family Structure on Teenage and Young Adult Labor Force Participation
Discussion Paper No. 1111-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, October 1996.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Childhood Residence; Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Family Structure; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Labor Force Participation; Teenagers; Wages, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In examining teenage and young adult employment, this study has three objectives. It seeks to throw light on reasons that some teenagers work and some do not. It explores the effect teenage labor force participation has on teenage educational attainment. Finally, it considers the longer-term effects of early employment on young adult world and wages. Four cross-sectional analyses are performed separately for male and female cohorts of original National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) respondents who were aged 14 through 16 at the first interview in 1979. These analyses take the fullest advantage of the longitudinal nature of the data, using information from every year available, 1979 through 1993. Childhood family structure is found to have little impact on teenage employment and timely high school graduation. However, there is evidence that teenage employment has positive effects on high school graduation and later labor force participation.
Bibliography Citation
Garasky, Steven. "Exploring the Effects of Childhood Family Structure on Teenage and Young Adult Labor Force Participation." Discussion Paper No. 1111-96, Institute for Research on Poverty, October 1996.
7. Haveman, Robert H.
Knight, Brian
Effect of Labor Market Changes from the Early 1970s to the Late 1980s on Youth Wage, Earnings, and Household Economic Position
Discussion Paper No. 1174-98, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, September 1998.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/dp117498.pdf
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Family Income; Family Resources; Family Size; Family Structure; Labor Market Demographics; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The trend in national policy over the past two decades has emphasized self-reliance and a reduced role of government in society. Given this ideological shift, the official poverty measure, which is based on the premise that all families should have sufficient income from either their own efforts or government support to boost them above a family-size-specific threshold, appears now to have less policy relevance than in prior years. In this paper we present a new concept of poverty, the inability to be self-reliant, which is based on the ability of a family, using its own resources, to support a level of consumption in excess of needs. This concept closely parallels the "capability poverty" measure that has been proposed by Amartya Sen. We use this measure to examine the size and composition of the poor population from 1975 to 1995. We find that poverty in terms of self-reliance increased more rapidly over the 1975-95 period than did official poverty. We find that families commonly thought to be the most impoverished-those headed by minorities, single women with children, and individuals with low levels of education-have the highest levels of self-reliance poverty. However, these groups have also experienced the smallest increases in this poverty measure. Families largely thought to be economically secure, specifically those headed by whites, men, married couples, and highly educated individuals, while having the lowest levels of self-reliance poverty, have also experienced the largest increases in that measure. We speculate that the trends in self-reliance poverty stem largely from underlying trends in the U.S. economy, in particular the relative decline of wage rates among whites and men, and the rapidly expanding college-educated group.
Bibliography Citation
Haveman, Robert H. and Brian Knight. "Effect of Labor Market Changes from the Early 1970s to the Late 1980s on Youth Wage, Earnings, and Household Economic Position." Discussion Paper No. 1174-98, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, September 1998.
8. Hoynes, Hilary Williamson
Does Welfare Play Any Role in Female Headship Decisions?
Discussion Paper No. 1078-95, Institute for Research on Poverty, September 1995.
Also: http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/dps/pdfs/dp107895.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Endogeneity; Family Structure; Household Composition; Racial Differences; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

During the last thirty years, the composition of white and black families in the United States has changed dramatically. In 1960, less than 10 percent of families with children were headed by a single mother, while in 1990 more than 20 percent of families with children were female-headed households. A large body of research has focused on the role of the U.S. welfare system, and in particular, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, in contributing to these dramatic changes in family structure. Most studies use cross-sectional data and identify the effect of welfare on female headship through interstate variation in the AFDC program. Recent research finds that controlling for state effects has a large impact on the estimated welfare effect. This paper examines why state effects matter for estimating the role of welfare in female headship decisions by examining the importance of individual effects and policy endogeneity. A natural explanation for why state effects matter is that the composition of the population across the states differs, and the composition is related to the generosity of the state's welfare program. If that is true, then controlling for individual effects should have the same result as controlling for state effects. Second, the endogeneity of AFDC policy is examined by including controls representing the determinants of state welfare generosity. The results show that after controlling for individual effects, there is no evidence that welfare contributes to increasing propensities to form female-headed households for either whites or blacks. Further, the results suggest that welfare-induced migration among blacks leads to an upward bias in the estimated welfare effect in previous studies.
Bibliography Citation
Hoynes, Hilary Williamson. "Does Welfare Play Any Role in Female Headship Decisions?" Discussion Paper No. 1078-95, Institute for Research on Poverty, September 1995.
9. Institute for Research on Poverty
Paternity Establishment: A Public Policy Conference; Vol. II: Studies of the Circumstances of Mothers and Fathers. Special Report #56B
Special Report #56B, Special Report Series, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, August 1992
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Fatherhood; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Conference reports. This is the second volume of a two-volume IRP Special Report containing papers presented at a conference held in Washington, D.C., in February 1992, entitled "Paternity Establishment: A Public Policy Conference." The conference was sponsored by the Institute for Research on Poverty and two divisions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation and the Administration on Children and Families. A summary overview of the conference is in Volume I. For more on the conference, see the Summer 1992 issue of Focus the newsletter of the IRP. All opinions and conclusions expressed in the papers are those of the authors alone and not of the sponsoring institutions.
Bibliography Citation
Institute for Research on Poverty. "Paternity Establishment: A Public Policy Conference; Vol. II: Studies of the Circumstances of Mothers and Fathers. Special Report #56B." Special Report #56B, Special Report Series, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, August 1992.