Search Results

Source: Industrial and Labor Relations Review
Resulting in 73 citations.
1. Addison, John T.
Chen, Liwen
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Occupational Skill Mismatch: Differences by Gender and Cohort
ILR Review published online (16 September 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0019793919873864.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0019793919873864
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Occupational Choice; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Skills

The authors deploy a measure of occupational mismatch based on the discrepancy between the portfolio of skills required by an occupation and the array of abilities possessed by the worker for learning those skills. Using data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97), they report distinct gender differences in match quality and changes in match quality over the course of careers. They also show that a substantial portion of the gender wage gap stems from match quality differences among the college educated. College-educated females show a significantly greater likelihood of mismatch than do males. Moreover, individuals with children and those in more flexible occupations tend to experience a larger degree of mismatch. Cohort effects are also evident in the data: College-educated males of the younger cohort (NLSY97) are worse off in terms of match quality compared to the older cohort (NLSY79), even as the younger cohort of women is doing better on average.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Liwen Chen and Orgul Demet Ozturk. "Occupational Skill Mismatch: Differences by Gender and Cohort." ILR Review published online (16 September 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0019793919873864.
2. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
The Occupational Feminization of Wages
Industrial Relations and Labor (IRL) Review 71,1 (January 2018): 208-241.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0019793917708314
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender Differences; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Wages

This article updates the 1995 study by Macpherson and Hirsch that used monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 1973 to 1993 to examine the effects of occupational gender composition on earnings. In the updating process, the authors correct for biases in this data set that are attributable to the inclusion of imputed earners and the misreporting of occupation. They use CPS data from 1996 to 2010 to provide cross-sectional estimates of the impact of the feminization of occupations on wages, as well as its contribution to the gender wage gap. Longitudinal CPS data indicate that the negative effects of gender composition on earnings observed in cross-sectional data are lessened when researchers control for observed heterogeneity and are much reduced when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. These findings are confirmed using much longer panels from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). Finally, the use of synthetic panels of aging cohorts suggests that wage penalties are largest for younger cohorts in predominantly female occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "The Occupational Feminization of Wages." Industrial Relations and Labor (IRL) Review 71,1 (January 2018): 208-241.
3. Anderson, Deborah J.
Binder, Melissa
Krause, Kate
The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work-Schedule Flexibility
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,2 (January 2003): 273-295.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3590938
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; High School Completion/Graduates; Human Capital; Mothers, Income; Skills; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women; Work Hours

This paper seeks an explanation for the well-documented wage disadvantage of mothers compared to women without children. An analysis of data from the 196888 National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women shows that human capital inputs and unobserved heterogeneity explain 5557% of the gap. Further analysis suggests that mothers tended to face the highest wage penalty when they first returned to work. A finding that medium-skill mothers (high school graduates) suffered more prolonged and severe wage losses than either low- or high-skill mothers casts doubt on the work-effort explanation for the wage gap, according to which women reduce work effort in response to childcare duties. The authors instead cite variable time constraints: high school graduates are likely to hold jobs requiring their presence during regular office hours, and are unlikely to gain flexibility by finding work at other hours or by taking work home in the evening. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Deborah J., Melissa Binder and Kate Krause. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work-Schedule Flexibility." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,2 (January 2003): 273-295.
4. Anderson, Deborah J.
Shapiro, David
Racial Differences in Access to High-Paying Jobs and the Wage Gap Between Black and White Women
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,2 (January 1996): 273-286.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524943
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Educational Returns; Human Capital; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Women

A study examines the role that racial differences in access to high-paying occupations played in determining the racial wage gap in the 1980s. Analyzing data on black and white women aged 34-44 from the National Longitudinal Surveys for 1968-1988, the study estimates the effects of human capital characteristics and discrimination on segregation into high- and low-wage jobs by race. It is found that differences in workers' measured characteristics explain little of either the observed occupational segregation by race or the racial wage gap in 1988. Further analysis suggests that several changes in the wage structure for women during the 1980s, notably a widening of occupational wage differentials and an increase in the returns on education, abetted direct discrimination in enlarging the racial wage gap among women. (Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1996)
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Deborah J. and David Shapiro. "Racial Differences in Access to High-Paying Jobs and the Wage Gap Between Black and White Women." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,2 (January 1996): 273-286.
5. Antecol, Heather
Bedard, Kelly
The Relative Earnings of Young Mexican, Black, and White Women
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,1 (October 2002): 122-136.
Also: www.jstor.org/stable/3270652
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Wage Gap

This analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates that young Mexican women and young black women earned, respectively, 9.5% and 13.2% less than young white women in 1994. Differences in education appear to be the most important explanation for the Mexican-white wage gap, whereas differences in labor force attachment are the most important determinant of the black-white wage gap. The authors show that accounting for actual labor market experience, rather than simply imputing experience based on years since leaving school, is crucially important in such analyses. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Antecol, Heather and Kelly Bedard. "The Relative Earnings of Young Mexican, Black, and White Women." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,1 (October 2002): 122-136.
6. Antel, John J.
The Wage Effects of Voluntary Labor Mobility With and Without Intervening Unemployment
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 44,2 (January 1991): 299-306.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524810
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Mobility; Mobility, Job; Unemployment; Wage Effects

Although theory generally suggests that voluntary job change should improve wages, the literature offers contradictory predictions concerning the effect of an intervening unemployment spell on mobility wage gains. One hypothesis holds that the search and mobility costs associated with unemployment between jobs are compensated for by increased wage gains resulting from more intensive job search. Opposing hypotheses suggest that unemployed job changers are at a disadvantage because they have fewer job contacts than job changers who move directly from one job to another or because they are unable to gain new skills or develop good work habits while unemployed. An analysis of 1979-1981 data from the NLS of Young Men supports the first hypothesis: an unemployment spell between jobs is associated with wage gains higher than those obtained when the job change was made with no intervening unemployment. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Antel, John J. "The Wage Effects of Voluntary Labor Mobility With and Without Intervening Unemployment." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 44,2 (January 1991): 299-306.
7. Artz, Benjamin
Does the Impact of Union Experience on Job Satisfaction Differ by Gender?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 65,2 (2012): 225-243.
Also: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/vol65/iss2/2/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Satisfaction; Unions

The author investigates gender differences in the impact of accumulated union experience on job satisfaction. Because there are fewer women than men in both public and private sector unions, and women are disproportionately underrepresented in union leadership, their collective bargaining power is not equivalent to that of men. As a result, women’s preferences for job characteristics and benefits may be overlooked, contributing to reduced job satisfaction as their tenure in the union increases. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) panel data from 1979–2004, the author demonstrates that the accumulation of union experience negatively affects women’s job satisfaction more severely than it does men’s. This is particularly the case in private sector unions, in which women are more likely to be under-represented in both union membership and leadership positions.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin. "Does the Impact of Union Experience on Job Satisfaction Differ by Gender?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 65,2 (2012): 225-243.
8. Artz, Benjamin
Goodall, Amanda H.
Oswald, Andrew J.
Boss Competence and Worker Well-Being
ILR Review 70,2 (March 2017): 419-450.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0019793916650451
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Supervisor Characteristics

Nearly all workers have a supervisor or "boss." Yet little is known about how bosses influence the quality of employees' lives. This study offers new evidence. First, the authors find that a boss's technical competence is the single strongest predictor of a worker's job satisfaction. Second, they demonstrate using longitudinal data, after controlling for fixed-effects, that even if a worker stays in the same job and workplace, a rise in the competence of a supervisor is associated with an improvement in the worker's well-being. Third, the authors report a variety of robustness checks, including tentative instrumental variable results. These findings, which draw on U.S. and British data, contribute to an emerging literature on the role of "expert leaders" in organizations.
Bibliography Citation
Artz, Benjamin, Amanda H. Goodall and Andrew J. Oswald. "Boss Competence and Worker Well-Being." ILR Review 70,2 (March 2017): 419-450.
9. Bartel, Ann P.
Wages, Nonwage Job Characteristics, and Labor Mobility
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 35,4 (July 1982): 578-589.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522669
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility; Mobility, Labor Market; Quality of Employment Survey (QES); Quits; Wages; Working Conditions

The effects of a set of nonwage job attributes on the quit decisions of young and middle-aged men are examined. The data set was constructed by merging data in the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young and Mature Men with data from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles file and the Bureau of Economic Analysis file on fringe benefits. The empirical analysis demonstrates that some nonwage job attributes have significant influence on worker quit behavior and that there are important differences in the impact of the nonwage job attributes across age groups. Young men are significantly more likely than older men to quit repetitious jobs, for example, whereas the presence of bad working conditions is a more important element in the quit decisions of the older cohort. The results also indicate that, for the older men, fringe benefits have a stronger impact on quit decisions than wages do. Further evidence on age differences is furnished through an analysis of panel data from the Quality of Employment Survey. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Bartel, Ann P. "Wages, Nonwage Job Characteristics, and Labor Mobility." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 35,4 (July 1982): 578-589.
10. Berger, Mark Charles
Cohort Size and the Earnings Growth of Young Males
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37,4 (July 1984): 582-591.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2523674
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; College Graduates; Earnings; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates

This paper examines the impact of cohort size on human capital investment decisions and age-earnings profiles. In general, larger cohorts appear to have slower earnings growth and flatter earnings profiles. Thus, the negative effect of cohort size on earnings levels found by other researchers not only persists as workers age but also increases. Increases in cohort size depress the earnings growth of college graduates more severely than lesser educated workers. These larger depressant effects combined with more rapid increases in cohort size for college graduates caused their earnings to grow more slowly than high school graduates during the seventies.
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Mark Charles. "Cohort Size and the Earnings Growth of Young Males." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37,4 (July 1984): 582-591.
11. Berger, Mark Charles
Predicted Future Earnings and Choice of College Major
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 41,3 (April 1988): 418-429.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2523907
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): College Education; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Earnings; Educational Returns

Various models have been suggested to determine how individuals predict future earnings when choosing a college major. These competing models are tested by estimating conditional logit models that incorporate alternative predicted future earnings measures. Information from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men is utilized. Predicted beginning earnings and predicted future earnings streams are used to compare the results to determine whether individuals are myopic or forward-looking when making their college major decisions. The findings show that, holding family background characteristics constant, individuals are likely to choose majors offering greater streams of future earnings rather than, as some have argued, majors with higher beginning earnings at the time of choice. In addition, earnings profiles corrected for self-selection bias have flattened for more recent graduates in business, liberal arts, and education. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Berger, Mark Charles. "Predicted Future Earnings and Choice of College Major." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 41,3 (April 1988): 418-429.
12. Blau, Francine D.
Kahn, Lawrence M.
Race and Sex Differences in Quits by Young Workers
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,4 (July 1981): 563-577.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522478
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Heterogeneity; Job Training; Marital Status; Mobility, Job; Quits; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Unions

This study uses data from the NLS of Young Men and Women to analyze race and sex differences in the probability and consequences of quitting. The authors find that overall quit rates in this group are higher for women than for men and about the same for blacks and whites. When several personal and job characteristics are held constant, however, the quit rates of young men and women are about the same and young blacks actually quit less frequently than young whites. When an instrumental variable approach is used to account for sample heterogeneity, it is found that, for all race and sex groups, quitting improved both current wages and long-term earnings prospects. Further, the improvement in long- term earnings prospects is found to be greater than the gain in current earnings, suggesting that training opportunities are an important consideration in the job shifts of all young people.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, Francine D. and Lawrence M. Kahn. "Race and Sex Differences in Quits by Young Workers." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,4 (July 1981): 563-577.
13. Booth, Jonathan E.
Budd, John W.
Munday, Kristen M.
First-Timers and Late-Bloomers: Youth-Adult Unionization Differences in a Cohort of the U.S. Labor Force
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 64,1 article 3 (2010): p.
Also: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/vol64/iss1/3
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Unions

The authors analyze youth-adult unionization differences by using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) to follow a single cohort of individuals from the ages of 15/16 to 40/41. They find that the differences between youth and adults are greatest at ages 15 to 17 and largely disappear by the age of 23. Though currently unionized workers are most likely to be in their forties or fifties, research also demonstrates that younger workers have a greater opportunity or are more inclined to be unionized than adults and that many individuals report having had a unionized job by the age of 25. The authors also find that whereas the stock of unionized workers is largest at middle age, the flow of workers into unionized jobs is greatest between the ages of 16 and 25.
Bibliography Citation
Booth, Jonathan E., John W. Budd and Kristen M. Munday. "First-Timers and Late-Bloomers: Youth-Adult Unionization Differences in a Cohort of the U.S. Labor Force." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 64,1 article 3 (2010): p.
14. Borjas, George J.
Job Mobility and Earnings over the Life Cycle
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,3 (April 1981): 365-376.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522783
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Earnings; Job Patterns; Job Training; Job Turnover; Life Cycle Research; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Wages; Work Experience

Previous studies have shown that in the short run quits generally lead to wage increases on the next job and layoffs to no increase or to a wage cut. The author of this study argues, however, that the prospect of a job change for any reason creates a disincentive for a worker to invest in training that is specific to the current job, and therefore those who change jobs frequently may earn less over their life cycle than those who, other things equal, seldom change jobs. An analysis of data from the NLS of Older Men supports that expectation, showing that for white males job separations usually lead to wage gains in the short run but nonmobile workers tend to achieve significantly higher wages over the long run.
Bibliography Citation
Borjas, George J. "Job Mobility and Earnings over the Life Cycle." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,3 (April 1981): 365-376.
15. Bronchetti, Erin Todd
McInerney, Melissa P.
What Determines Employer Accommodation of Injured Workers? The Influence of Workers' Compensation Costs, State Policies, and Case Characteristics
Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review, 68, 3 (May 2015): 558–583.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Firm Size; Geocoded Data; Health and Retirement Study (HRS); Injuries, Workplace; State-Level Data/Policy

Despite a recent dramatic increase in the rate of employer accommodation of injured workers, the extant literature provides little evidence on the determinants of accommodation or the reasons for this upward trend. In this study, the authors take a comprehensive approach to estimating the determinants of workplace accommodation, assessing the influence of employer workers' compensation (WC) costs; WC market features and state WC laws; and characteristics of firms, injured workers, and their injuries. Using state-level data from the BLS, they find that employer WC costs, WC market features, and state return-to-work (RTW) policies all have an impact on accommodation, but the effects are small and explain only one-fifth of the increase in restricted work. With data on injured workers from the NLSY79 and HRS, the authors study case-specific determinants of accommodation. Results suggest that employer and injury characteristics matter most, and these results are consistent with accommodation occurring mostly at large, experience-rated employers.
Bibliography Citation
Bronchetti, Erin Todd and Melissa P. McInerney. "What Determines Employer Accommodation of Injured Workers? The Influence of Workers' Compensation Costs, State Policies, and Case Characteristics ." Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review, 68, 3 (May 2015): 558–583.
16. Brown, Randall S.
Moon, Marilyn
Zoloth, Barbara S.
Occupational Attainment and Segregation by Sex
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33,4 (July 1980): 506-517.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522696
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Male

The authors use multinomial logit and multiple discriminant analyses to predict the probabilities that an individual will attain each of several occupational categories based on the individual's characteristics and qualifications. By estimating the parameters of this model from a sample of men and then applying them to a sample of women, the authors simulate the occupational distribution that these women would have attained had they been treated as if they were men. Even after making adjustments for taste differences between men and women, the authors find that their hypothetical results vary substantially from women's actual occupational distribution. They conclude that a significant proportion of occupational segregation by sex can be attributed to discrimination.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Randall S., Marilyn Moon and Barbara S. Zoloth. "Occupational Attainment and Segregation by Sex." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33,4 (July 1980): 506-517.
17. Budd, John W.
McCall, Brian P.
The Effect of Unions on the Receipt of Unemployment Insurance Benefits
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 50,3 (April 1997): 478-492.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525186
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Unemployment Compensation; Unemployment Insurance; Unions

Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data for the period 1979-1991, a study analyzes the effect of union representation on the likelihood that individuals eligible for unemployment insurance (UI) benefits actually received those benefits. The study finds that unions had no statistically significant effect on the probability of benefit receipt among white-collar workers, but among eligible blue-collar workers, those who were laid off from union jobs were roughly 23% more likely than comparable nonunion workers to receive UI benefits. Although the analyze does not identify the reasons for this difference, 2 factors it appears to rule out as determinants are union- negotiated supplemental unemployment benefit plans and differences between union and nonunion workers in expected unemployment durations. Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1997. Fulltext online. Photocopy available from ABI/INFORM.
Bibliography Citation
Budd, John W. and Brian P. McCall. "The Effect of Unions on the Receipt of Unemployment Insurance Benefits." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 50,3 (April 1997): 478-492.
18. Defreitas, Gregory
Unionization Among Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 46,2 (January 1993): 284-301.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524873
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Hispanics; Immigrants; Job Requirements; Minorities; Racial Differences; Unions

Using data on 23-30-year olds from the 1979-1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the first comparative economic analysis of union coverage among black, Hispanic, Asian, and white workers in the US is carried out. Coverage is found to be highest in this age group for blacks, followed by Hispanics, non- Hispanic whites, and Asians. Most empirical research on the union status of workers has been based on a single-equation model in which various demographic and job characteristics of individuals are used to explain whether a worker is likely to be in a union. The present analysis uses an approach pioneered by Abowd and Farber (1982). Contrary to common belief, immigrants average higher rates of unionization than natives. Once the regression analysis takes into account the larger proportions of urban, immigrant, and less-educated workers in the Hispanic sample, the differences in demand for unionization among comparable whites, Asians, and Hispanics fall to insignificance. Blacks tend to exhibit a markedly stronger demand for representation than comparable workers from the other groups. (Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1992)
Bibliography Citation
Defreitas, Gregory. "Unionization Among Racial and Ethnic Minorities." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 46,2 (January 1993): 284-301.
19. Donado, Alejandro
Why Do Unionized Workers Have More Nonfatal Occupational Injuries?
Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 153-183.
Also: http://ilr.sagepub.com/content/68/1/153.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Injuries, Workplace; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Unions

Most empirical studies have estimated a positive union-nonunion "injury gap," suggesting that unionized workers are more likely than their nonunion counterparts to have a nonfatal occupational injury. Using individual-level panel data for the first time in this type of study, the author explores several explanations for this puzzling result. He finds that controlling for time-invariant individual fixed effects already reduces the gap by around 40%. Some of the explanations he studies contribute to reducing this gap even further. The author does not, however, find evidence of the gap becoming negative, and the impact of unions on nonfatal injuries appears to be insignificant at best.
Bibliography Citation
Donado, Alejandro. "Why Do Unionized Workers Have More Nonfatal Occupational Injuries?" Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 153-183.
20. Duncan, Gregory M.
Leigh, Duane E.
Wage Determination in the Union and Nonunion Sectors: A Sample Selectivity Approach
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,1 (October 1980): 2-33.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522631
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Marital Status; Schooling; Unions; Vocational Training; Wage Differentials

This paper re-examines the question of whether wages are determined differently in the union and nonunion sectors. This study uses a methodology proposed by Heckman and Lee to correct for the possibility that wage differences may determine the union status of workers as well as vice versa. The authors find that union status is strongly related to the predicted union-nonunion wage differential, but their evidence nevertheless reinforces Bloch and Kuskin's empirical finding that the union earnings function is less sensitive than nonunion earnings function to changes in nearly every observable attribute of workers, such as education and experience. The authors also conclude that previous studies using separately estimated union and nonunion wage equations may have understated the success of unions in raising the relative wages of their members.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Gregory M. and Duane E. Leigh. "Wage Determination in the Union and Nonunion Sectors: A Sample Selectivity Approach." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,1 (October 1980): 2-33.
21. Even, William E.
MacPherson, David A.
Employer Size and Labor Turnover: The Role of Pensions
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,4 (July 1996): 707-728.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524518
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Firm Size; Job Turnover; Pensions; Quality of Employment Survey (QES)

The well-documented lower labor turnover in large firms than in smaller firms has been cited as evidence that large firms pay workers above their opportunity wage. This study investigates whether the relationship between firm size and turnover can instead be accounted for in part by size-related differences in the availability, portability, or generosity of pension plans. Analyzing extensive data for the years 1973-93, the authors find that pension coverage was associated with a greater reduction in worker turnover in large firms than in small firms. They also find that when appropriate controls for worker characteristics are employed, there is virtually no association between firm size and labor turnover for workers not covered by a pension. (Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1996)
Bibliography Citation
Even, William E. and David A. MacPherson. "Employer Size and Labor Turnover: The Role of Pensions." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,4 (July 1996): 707-728.
22. Gardecki, Rosella M.
Neumark, David B.
Order from Chaos? The Effects of Early Labor Market Experiences on Adult Labor Market Outcomes
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 51,2 (January 1998): 299-322.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525220
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility; Mobility, Labor Market; Transition, School to Work

This paper examines the consequences of initial periods of "churning" or "mobility" in the labor market, to help assess whether faster transitions to stable employment relationships--as envisioned by advocates of school-to-work programs--would be likely to lead to better adult labor market outcomes. An analysis of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data for the years 1979-92 yields modest evidence, at best, linking early job market stability to better labor market outcomes. The authors find that for both genders, adult labor market outcomes (defined as of the late 20s or early to mid-30s) are for the most part unrelated to early labor market experiences. This evidence does not support efforts to explicitly target the school-to-work transition, insofar as doing so implies changing the structure of youth labor markets so that workers form earlier and firmer attachments to employers, industries, or occupations. Copyright by Cornell University.
Bibliography Citation
Gardecki, Rosella M. and David B. Neumark. "Order from Chaos? The Effects of Early Labor Market Experiences on Adult Labor Market Outcomes." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 51,2 (January 1998): 299-322.
23. Gill, Andrew Matthew
The Role of Discrimination in Determining Occupational Structure
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 42,4 (July 1989): 610-623.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524033
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Human Capital; Modeling, Logit; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Choice; Occupations; Racial Differences

This study attempts to isolate the role of discrimination in determining racial differences in occupational structure. Logit techniques are used to identify and distinguish between determinants of the probability that an individual will choose an occupation and the probability that an individual will be hired for a desired job. The empirical results indicate that much of the under-representation of blacks in managerial, sales and clerical, and craft occupations can be attributed to employment discrimination. These findings thus seriously challenge human capital models, which treat occupational distribution as resulting from individual choice.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew. "The Role of Discrimination in Determining Occupational Structure." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 42,4 (July 1989): 610-623.
24. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Michaels, Robert J.
Does Drug Use Lower Wages?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 419-434.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524269
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Employment; Labor Force Participation; Wages

Microdata from the 1980 and 1984 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLS-Y) were used to examine the effects of drug use on wages and employment. It was shown that, once an allowance is made for self-selection effects, drug users actually received higher wages than nondrug users. Data on marijuana and cocaine use from the 1984 NLS-Y were used to examine the hypothesis that drug use reduces labor market productivity, as measured by wages. It was found that, although long-term and on-the-job use of marijuana negatively affected wages, the net productivity effect for all marijuana users was positive. No statistically significant association was found between cocaine use and productivity. The results of the 2 studies indicate that drug use, apparently irrespective of frequency, does not degrade earnings. (ABI/Inform)
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew and Robert J. Michaels. "Does Drug Use Lower Wages?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 419-434.
25. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Michaels, Robert J.
Employment and Earnings Effects of Drug Use: Discussion by the Authors
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 449-451.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524271
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Earnings; Employment; Endogeneity; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Substance Use; Wage Levels; Wage Models

In Does Drug Use Lower Wages?, Andrew M. Gill and Robert J. Michaels examine the effects of drug use on wages and employment, based on microdata from the 1980 and 1984 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey. In contrast to previous research, these findings indicate that, if an allowance is made for self-selection effects, drug users actually received higher wages than nonusers. Another surprising finding is that, while all drug users as a sample population had lower employment levels than nonusers, users of hard drugs did not. In Labor Market Effects of Marijuana and Cocaine Use among Men, Charles A. Register uses data from the 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 12,686 respondents) to examine the hypothesis that drug use reduces labor market productivity, as measured by wages. Controlling for the probability of employment and the endogeneity of drug use, it is found that, although long-term and on-the-job use of marijuana negatively affects wages, the net productivity effect for all marijuana users is positive. It is concluded that no statistically significant association exists between cocaine use and productivity. In Employment and Earnings Effects of Drug Use, Discussion by the Authors Gill and Michaels discuss questions left unanswered by Register and Williams, e.g., how drug use might reduce employment and the long-term labor market effects of drug use, and explore future research strategies to estimate fixed-effects specifications of the drug use-earnings relationship. Register and Williams comment on the consistency between their findings and those of Gill and Michaels, but also point out differences, including their divergent methodological styles, Gill's and Michaels's inclusion of women in their study, and different definitions of drug use. Policy implications are briefly discussed. (Copyright 1992, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew and Robert J. Michaels. "Employment and Earnings Effects of Drug Use: Discussion by the Authors." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 449-451.
26. Gittleman, Maury
Kleiner, Morris M.
Wage Effects of Unionization and Occupational Licensing Coverage in the United States
Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 69,1 (January 2016): 142-172.
Also: http://ilr.sagepub.com/content/69/1/142
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Training; Unions; Wage Determination; Wage Effects

Recent estimates in standard models of wage determination for both unionization and occupational licensing have shown wage effects that are similar across the two institutions. These cross-sectional estimates use specialized data sets, with small sample sizes, for the period 2006 to 2008. The authors' analysis examines the impact of unions and licensing coverage on wage determination using new data collected on licensing statutes that are then linked to longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2010. They develop several approaches, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, to measure the impact of these two labor market institutions on wage determination. The estimates of the economic returns to union coverage are greater than those for licensing statutes.
Bibliography Citation
Gittleman, Maury and Morris M. Kleiner. "Wage Effects of Unionization and Occupational Licensing Coverage in the United States." Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 69,1 (January 2016): 142-172.
27. Grant, Darren
The Effect of Implicit Contracts on the Movement of Wages over the Business Cycle: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,3 (April 2003): 393-409.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3590915
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, NLSY97, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Unemployment; Wage Determination; Wage Growth; Wage Models; Wage Theory

A 1991 study by Paul Beaudry and John DiNardo found evidence of internal labor markets that augment incumbent workers' wages when the external labor market is tight (when unemployment is low) and shield their wages when it is slack. Current wages, they found, depend on the tightest labor market conditions observed since a worker was hired, not current labor market tightness or labor market tightness at the time of hiring. This paper replicates and extends that research using data from six cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys that together span more than three decades, as well as an estimation framework more robust than that in the original study. The author finds strong support for Beaudry and DiNardo's key prediction. Supplementary regressions confirm other implications of the theory as well. Recently, at least, the effect of implicit contracting on wages has been similar for men and women. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Grant, Darren. "The Effect of Implicit Contracts on the Movement of Wages over the Business Cycle: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,3 (April 2003): 393-409.
28. Gustman, Alan L.
Steinmeier, Thomas L.
The Relation Between Vocational Training in High School and Economic Outcomes
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 36,1 (October 1982): 73-87.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522294
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Returns; High School Completion/Graduates; NLS of H.S. Class of 1972; Vocational Training

This paper examines the relationships between various economic outcomes and vocational training in high school for those who have completed exactly twelve years of schooling. The authors attempt to determine whether the findings remain robust when different surveys and time periods of analysis, different measures of the quality and kind of vocational training, and other variations in specifications are used. Using some samples with particular specifications, the authors find evidence of positive returns to vocational schooling. For white females enrolled in business programs the evidence is strongest. For white males the evidence is much weaker, but the authors do find that trade and industry courses may have a positive influence on subsequent yearly earnings. Sample sizes for minorities are small, and so the findings for them remain unclear. Within specific sex and race groups the findings vary, sometimes widely, depending on the samples, time periods, and dependent variables used and on the specification of the estimating equation.
Bibliography Citation
Gustman, Alan L. and Thomas L. Steinmeier. "The Relation Between Vocational Training in High School and Economic Outcomes." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 36,1 (October 1982): 73-87.
29. Hamermesh, Daniel S.
12 Million Salaried Workers Are Missing
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 55,4 (July 2002): 649-666.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3270627
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Wage Dynamics; Wages, Adult

Evidence from Current Population Surveys, various cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys, and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics suggests that the fraction of American employees who were paid salaries held constant from the late 1960s through the late 1970s, and continued to hold constant or perhaps fell slightly thereafter through the late 1990s. An analysis that accounts for the changing industrial, occupational, demographic, and economic structure of the work force shows that this fraction was 9 percentage points below what would have been expected in the late 1970s. This shortfall is not explained by growth in the temporary help industry, declining unionization, institutional changes in overtime or wage payment regulation, the increasing openness of American labor and product markets, or convergence of nonwage aspects of hourly and salaried employment. The author suggests several alternative explanations.
Bibliography Citation
Hamermesh, Daniel S. "12 Million Salaried Workers Are Missing." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 55,4 (July 2002): 649-666.
30. Hill, Elizabeth T.
Labor Market Effects of Women's Post-School-Age Training
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,1 (October 1995): 138-149.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524917
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training; Training, Post-School; Unions; Wage Growth; Wages, Women

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey Mature Women's Cohort were used to examine association between training and wages from 1967 to 1984. Women who received post-school-age training (formal education and other training) experienced a greater rise in wages and participated in the labor force at older ages than did women who received no postschool training. (SK)
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Elizabeth T. "Labor Market Effects of Women's Post-School-Age Training." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,1 (October 1995): 138-149.
31. Hills, Stephen M.
The Attitudes of Union and Nonunion Male Workers toward Union Representation
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 38,2 (January 1985): 179-194.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2523828
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Industrial Relations; Racial Differences; Unions

Using as its data base the National Longitudinal Surveys cohort of Young Men, this study found that striking differences in attitudes toward certification appear between union and nonunion sectors of the U.S. work-force. In addition, strongly persistent attitudes are observed across industries and by race within the nonunion sector. Four job characteristics (autonomy, security, pay adequacy, and the degree of danger associated with the work) were significantly related to positive attitudes toward certification. Forces other than job characteristics or economic environment must lie behind the conversion to pro-certification attitudes. Likely candidates are the relative power of individual actors in the industrial relations system, the legal provisions which help to establish power relationships, and the character of management structure in specific industries.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M. "The Attitudes of Union and Nonunion Male Workers toward Union Representation." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 38,2 (January 1985): 179-194.
32. Holzer, Harry J.
Job Search by Employed and Unemployed Youth
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 40,4 (July 1987): 601-611.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524061
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Job Search; Work Histories

New evidence is presented on search choices and outcomes for employed and unemployed young men. In particular, the search choices analyzed include the reported reservation wage, the number of search methods used, and the time spent per method by each searcher. The employment outcomes considered are the likelihood of gaining new employment by receiving and accepting job offers and the wages of offers received and accepted. The data used come from the NLSY. The results indicate that young unemployed job seekers chose higher levels of search effort (as measured by number of methods used and time spent per method) and lower reservation wages (relative to offered wages) than did comparable employed job seekers in 1981. These differences in search selections at least partly explain search outcomes between the 2 groups: unemployed searchers were more likely than employed searchers to obtain new employment, and the wages they gained were slightly lower. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Holzer, Harry J. "Job Search by Employed and Unemployed Youth." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 40,4 (July 1987): 601-611.
33. Kaestner, Robert
New Estimates of the Effect of Marijuana and Cocaine Use on Wages
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47,3 (April 1994): 454-470.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524977
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Heterogeneity; Illegal Activities; Wage Effects

Using the 1984 and 1988 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study provides an update of several previous cross-sectional estimates of the effect of illicit drug use on wages, as well as the first longitudinal estimates of that effect. The cross-sectional results, which are generally consistent with the surprising findings of previous research, suggest that illicit drug use has a large, positive effect on wages. The longitudinal estimates, which control for unobserved heterogeneity in the sample, are mixed: among men, the estimated wage effects of both marijuana and cocaine use are negative, but among women, the effect of cocaine use remains positive and large. Because the longitudinal model is imprecisely estimated, however, those results are inconclusive. (Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1994)
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert. "New Estimates of the Effect of Marijuana and Cocaine Use on Wages." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47,3 (April 1994): 454-470.
34. Kalachek, Edward
Mellow, Wesley
Raines, Fredric Q.
The Male Labor Supply Function Reconsidered
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 31,3 (April 1978): 356-367.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522907
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Unemployment; Wages; Work Attitudes

The failure to achieve an adequate theoretical grounding for either the wage or the labor supply concept partly accounts for the wide variety of results yielded by econometric investigations of the labor supply function based on individual households. The theoretical background can be supplied by decomposing wages into permanent and transitory components and by expanding labor supply to include unemployment time. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey was used to examine the labor supply function for older males and findings suggest that prior labor supply studies are irrelevant for assessing the impact of public policy proposals. An exaggerated emphasis appears to have been placed on the position of the budget line. This emphasis does not reflect the parameters affecting labor supply decisions. Labor supply variation derives less from wage variations than from variations in attitudes, health, and demographic factors. Unemployment time for mature males is also actually desired work time and must be considered as such when examining policy issues.
Bibliography Citation
Kalachek, Edward, Wesley Mellow and Fredric Q. Raines. "The Male Labor Supply Function Reconsidered." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 31,3 (April 1978): 356-367.
35. Kalachek, Edward
Raines, Fredric Q.
Larson, Donald
The Determination of Labor Supply: A Dynamic Model
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 32,3 (April 1979): 367-737.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522266
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Family Background; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Work Attitudes; Work Hours

This paper specifies a model of labor supply change to test the sensitivity of static results and estimate the speed of labor supply response to discrepancies between actual and desired hours of work. Employing data from the 1966, 1969 and 1973 waves of the NLS of Older Men, the authors find that workers respond rapidly to changes in desired labor supply, fully adjusting actual hours within a two-year interval, but that pre-existing labor supply disequilibrium is liquidated more slowly. The authors infer that institutional constraints on hours are of limited importance but those imposed by area- or industry- specific demand fluctuations are of more importance.
Bibliography Citation
Kalachek, Edward, Fredric Q. Raines and Donald Larson. "The Determination of Labor Supply: A Dynamic Model." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 32,3 (April 1979): 367-737.
36. Keith, Kristen K.
McWilliams, Abagail
The Returns to Mobility and Job Search by Gender
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 52,3 (April 1999): 460-477.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525145
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Patterns; Job Search; Mobility, Occupational; Wage Growth

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors estimate the returns to job search, mobility, and the interaction of search and mobility for young men and women. They find statistically significant gender differences in mobility patterns and search behavior, but not in the returns to a given behavior. Both men and women engaged in substantial job search and mobility early in their careers, which resulted in wage growth premiums. There is evidence of an interactive effect: returns to search were realized through mobility, and returns to mobility were augmented by search. COPYRIGHT: Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1999.
Bibliography Citation
Keith, Kristen K. and Abagail McWilliams. "The Returns to Mobility and Job Search by Gender." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 52,3 (April 1999): 460-477.
37. Keith, Kristen K.
McWilliams, Abagail
The Wage Effects of Cumulative Job Mobility
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,1 (October 1995): 121-137.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524916
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Industrial Training; Layoffs; Mobility, Job; Quits; Schooling; Skills; Training; Wage Differentials; Wage Effects; Wage Levels

This analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth shows that cumulative job mobility had statistically significant effects on wages in the years 1979-88. The direction of the wage effects (positive or negative) and their magnitude varied depending on the type of cumulative mobility examined: employee-initiated versus employer-initiated separations, economic versus family-related quits, layoffs versus discharges. The results also indicate that although men and women had different mobility histories--men, for example, had been discharged more often than women, and women had quit for family-related reasons more often than men--the wage effects of each type of cumulative mobility (economic quits, family-related quits, layoffs, and discharges) were similar for men and women.
Bibliography Citation
Keith, Kristen K. and Abagail McWilliams. "The Wage Effects of Cumulative Job Mobility." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,1 (October 1995): 121-137.
38. Kramer, Amit
Son, Jooyeon
Who Cares about the Health of Health Care Professionals? An 18-Year Longitudinal Study of Working Time, Health, and Occupational Turnover
Industrial Relations and Labor (IRL) Review 69,4 (August 2016): 939-960.
Also: http://ilr.sagepub.com/content/69/4/939
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Job Turnover; Occupations; Work Hours

Health care workers are employed in a complex, stressful, and sometimes hazardous work environment. Studies of the health of health care workers tend to focus on estimating the effects of short-term health outcomes on employee attitudes and performance, which are easier to observe than long-term health outcomes. Research has paid only scant attention to work characteristics that are controlled by the employer and its employees, and their relationship to employees' long-term physical health and organizational outcomes. The authors use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) from 1992 to 2010 to estimate the relationships among working time, long-term physical health, job satisfaction, and turnover among health care employees. Using a between- and within-person design, they estimate how within-person changes in work characteristics affect the within-person growth trajectory of body mass index (BMI) over time and the relationship between working-time changes and physical health, and occupational turnover. The study finds that health care employees who work more hours suffer from a higher level of BMI and are more likely to leave their occupation.
Bibliography Citation
Kramer, Amit and Jooyeon Son. "Who Cares about the Health of Health Care Professionals? An 18-Year Longitudinal Study of Working Time, Health, and Occupational Turnover." Industrial Relations and Labor (IRL) Review 69,4 (August 2016): 939-960.
39. Krashinsky, Harry
Evidence on Adverse Selection and Establishment Size in the Labor Market
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,1 (October 2002): 84-96.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3270650
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Labor Market Demographics; Layoffs; Wage Effects

A commonly suggested explanation for the finding that laid-off workers have greater mean post-displacement earnings losses than workers who lose their jobs through plant closings is that the former are of lower quality than the latter. But there is also an alternative explanation for this result: laid-off workers suffer larger earnings losses because, as a group, they have more to lose in the first place, having been displaced from larger, higher-wage establishments. An analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth confirms this hypothesis. Accounting for establishment size removes virtually all of the difference in wage losses from the two groups of displaced workers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Krashinsky, Harry. "Evidence on Adverse Selection and Establishment Size in the Labor Market." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 56,1 (October 2002): 84-96.
40. Kruse, Douglas L.
Mahony, Douglas
Illegal Child Labor in the United States: Prevalence and Characteristics
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 54,1 (October 2000): 17-40.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2696030
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Child Labor; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Earnings; Illegal Activities; Occupations; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wages, Youth; Work Hours

Using the Current Population Survey, the National Longitudinal Survey, and other sources, the authors provide the first comprehensive estimates of the number of minors working in violation of federal and state child labor laws (working excessive hours or in hazardous occupations), their characteristics, their wages, and trends in illegal child labor. Although illegal employment of 15-17-year-olds has declined since the 1970s, some 154,000 minors are employed illegally in an average week, and 301,000 in a year. Illegal work hours total about 110 million per year. Whites, males, and 15-year-olds are the most likely to be working in violation of child labor laws. Youths working illegally in hazardous jobs earn, on average, $1.38 per hour less than legal young adults in the same occupations, which, combined with savings from employing youths for excessive hours, adds up to employer cost savings of roughly $136 million per year. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Bibliography Citation
Kruse, Douglas L. and Douglas Mahony. "Illegal Child Labor in the United States: Prevalence and Characteristics." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 54,1 (October 2000): 17-40.
41. Leigh, Duane E.
The Effect of Unionism on Workers' Valuation of Future Pension Benefits
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,4 (July 1981): 510-521.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522474
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Pensions; Retirement; Unions; White Collar Jobs

The author focuses on the impact of unionism on pension benefits that middle-aged male workers expect to receive at retirement. The valuation of future benefits is examined because expected benefits rather than actual expenditures by employers in pensions should be the more important variable in explaining the labor market behavior of individual workers. Data from the NLS of Older Men 45-59 suggest that union workers are more knowledgeable than non-union workers about their retirement benefits. Among firms providing benefits, expected benefits are actually lower in union firms than in non-union establishments; however, nonunion firms are less likely to to provide pension benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "The Effect of Unionism on Workers' Valuation of Future Pension Benefits." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,4 (July 1981): 510-521.
42. Leigh, Duane E.
Unions and Nonwage Racial Discrimination
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 32,4 (July 1979): 439-450.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522960
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Job Training; Labor Market Outcomes; Pensions; Schooling; Unions

This paper departs from earlier studies of racial differences in union impact by concentrating on differences on two nonwage labor market outcomes: the exit propensity of individual workers and their opportunities for occupational upgrading. Using data from the NLS of Young and Older Men, the author finds that unionism lengthens tenure and reduces quits for blacks and whites alike in both categories. Similarly, no systematic racial difference is found in the opportunities for occupational advancement available to unionized blacks in comparison to unionized whites. The author concludes that union bargaining over nonwage conditions of employment does not have the effect of negating the positive impact of unions on the ratio of black to white wages documented in previous studies.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Unions and Nonwage Racial Discrimination." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 32,4 (July 1979): 439-450.
43. Leuthold, Jane H.
The Effect of Taxation on the Hours Worked by Married Women
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 31,4 (July 1978): 520-526.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522240
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Husbands, Influence; Taxes; Wives; Work Attitudes

In this article, the author examines the effect of taxation on the labor supply of married working women. Tax increases have a negative impact on female labor supply. Regardless if the women were white or black, the presence of preschool children decreases the number of hours worked and husband's approval of working increases the number of hours worked.
Bibliography Citation
Leuthold, Jane H. "The Effect of Taxation on the Hours Worked by Married Women." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 31,4 (July 1978): 520-526.
44. Levine, Phillip B.
Spillover Effects Between the Insured and Uninsured Unemployed
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47,1 (October 1993): 73-86.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524233
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment Insurance

This paper considers the effect of changing the level of unemployment insurance (UI) benefits on workers who do not receive UI. It is hypothesized that a spillover effect between insured and uninsured workers exists so that an increase in the UI benefits, which leads to longer durations of unemployment for insured workers, will lead to a reduction in the duration of unemployment for the uninsured. This prediction is tested using data from several March Current Population Surveys and the NLSY. In both samples, it was found that an increase in UI benefits leads to a reduction in the duration of unemployment for uninsured workers. Furthermore, using several years of state level data, the estimated effect on unemployment for the entire labor force was roughly zero when the author allowed for the spillover effect.
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Phillip B. "Spillover Effects Between the Insured and Uninsured Unemployed." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47,1 (October 1993): 73-86.
45. Levine, Phillip B.
Gustafson, Tara A.
Velenchik, Ann D.
More Bad News for Smokers? The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Wages
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 50,3 (April 1997): 493-509.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525187
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Benefits; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Wage Differentials

Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, a study examines the effect of smoking on wages. The analysis controls for differences in individual characteristics that may be correlated with both smoking and wages, including unobservable person-specific characteristics that are constant over time, and unobservable characteristics that are constant within a family. Estimates from alternative specifications indicate that smoking reduces wages by roughly 4%-8%. Empirical tests of 3 potential explanations for this finding yield no conclusive results. Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1997. Fulltext online. Photocopy available from ABI/INFORM
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Phillip B., Tara A. Gustafson and Ann D. Velenchik. "More Bad News for Smokers? The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Wages." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 50,3 (April 1997): 493-509.
46. Loewenstein, Mark A.
Spletzer, James R.
Delayed Formal On-the-Job Training
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 51,1 (October 1997): 82-99.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525036
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Human Capital; Job Tenure; Job Training; Manpower Programs; Mobility, Job; Occupational Choice; Training, On-the-Job

The training literature assumes that job training is concentrated at the beginning of the employment relationship. The authors argue, however, that if there is belated information about employees' future mobility, it may be optimal to delay their training, even if doing so means forgoing the returns to training during the early part of the employment relationship. Results of an analysis of the relationship between tenure and the probability of ever having received training, using data from the Current Population Survey and the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, indicate that delayed formal training is the norm rather than the exception.
Bibliography Citation
Loewenstein, Mark A. and James R. Spletzer. "Delayed Formal On-the-Job Training." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 51,1 (October 1997): 82-99.
47. Long, James E.
Jones, Ethel B.
Married Women in Part-Time Employment
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,3 (April 1981): 413-425.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522788
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Husbands, Income; Job Tenure; Part-Time Work; Schooling; Wages; Work Experience

This study examines three aspects of the part-time employment pattern of working wives: (1) wives' characteristics; (2) the level and structure of their earnings in part-time jobs; and (3) the duration of their employment when part-time jobs are available to them. The findings indicate that husband's income, family size, and the wife's health, race, and previous work experience are among the variables influencing the probability that the wife works part time. In addition, the level of wages and returns to some investments in human capital are relatively lower in the part-time labor market. There are also similarities between earnings structure of part- time and full-time jobs. In conclusion, part-time work opportunities appear to increase the length of the working life of married women.
Bibliography Citation
Long, James E. and Ethel B. Jones. "Married Women in Part-Time Employment." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,3 (April 1981): 413-425.
48. Long, James E.
Link, Albert N.
The Impact of Market Structure on Wages, Fringe Benefits, and Turnover
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 36,2 (January 1983): 239-250.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2523075
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Government Regulation; Job Turnover; Pensions; Quits; Unions; Wages; Work History

This paper examines the relationship between labor compensation and the structure of the product market, which is measured by the industry concentration ratio and by dummy variables for the existence and type of government regulation. Unlike previous studies that have estimated the impact of concentration and regulation on wages or earnings, this study extends the analysis to include the effect of market structure on employer-provided pensions and insurance and on voluntary labor turnover. The hypothesis that product market power raises labor compensation is supported by empirical results indicating that concentration increases wages and fringes but lowers voluntary labor turnover. Regulations that set minimum prices and restrict entry raise labor compensation, since wage premiums due to regulation are not offset by lower pensions and insurance or higher turnover. Other forms of regulation, such as profit regulation in public utilities, are found to reduce labor compensation, as evidenced by higher turnover or lower wages and fringes, or both.
Bibliography Citation
Long, James E. and Albert N. Link. "The Impact of Market Structure on Wages, Fringe Benefits, and Turnover." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 36,2 (January 1983): 239-250.
49. Maclean, Johanna Catherine
The Lasting Effects of Leaving School in an Economic Downturn on Alcohol Use
Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 120-152.
Also: http://ilr.sagepub.com/content/68/1/120
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Economic Changes/Recession; Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Labor Market Outcomes; Schooling; State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment Rate

The author tests whether leaving school in an economic downturn persistently affects alcohol use. She models alcohol use in middle age as a function of the state unemployment rate at school-leaving in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The results suggest that men, but not women, who leave school in an economic downturn consume more drinks and are more likely to report heavy and binge drinking than otherwise similar men. Findings are robust to addressing the endogeneity of the time and location of school-leaving and contribute to the literature on the lasting consequences of leaving school in an economic downturn.
Bibliography Citation
Maclean, Johanna Catherine. "The Lasting Effects of Leaving School in an Economic Downturn on Alcohol Use." Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 120-152.
50. Mangum, Stephen L.
Ball, David E.
The Transferability of Military-Provided Occupational Training in the Post-Draft Era
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 42,2 (January 1989): 230-245.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2523356
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Military Draft; Military Training; Training, Occupational; Transfers, Skill

Using a sample drawn from the NLSY, the authors have documented significant amounts of skill transfer between military-provided training and civilian employment. The probability of skill transfer of those receiving military training was not significantly different than that of individuals trained by nonmilitary providers of occupational training outside the institutional structure of internal labor market mechanisms facilitating the training to work transfer. Based on the analysis of this data set, there is little reason to doubt the viability of the military as a training provider offering access to the world of work, though the analysis does suggest exploration of alternative schemes for improving linkages between training providers and employment opportunities to be a potentially valuable area for further policy discussion. [Note: this article was previously published as a 1987 Working Paper Series with the title, "Military Provided Occupational Training and Skill Transfer in the Post-Draft Era"]
Bibliography Citation
Mangum, Stephen L. and David E. Ball. "The Transferability of Military-Provided Occupational Training in the Post-Draft Era." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 42,2 (January 1989): 230-245.
51. Maxwell, Nan L.
The Effect on Black-White Wage Differences of Differences in the Quantity and Quality of Education
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47,2 (January 1994): 249-264.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524419
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Racial Differences; Schooling; Wage Differentials

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for black-white differences in educational attainment, educational quality, and unmeasured individual ability can explain black-white wage differences. An analysis that corrects for both selectivity and ability biases inherent in estimating the education-wage relationship shows that the main source of the black-white wage differential is the racial difference in the quality rather than quantity of schooling. In fact, the author concludes, closing the racial gap in the basic skills learned in school could reduce the wage differential by two-thirds. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Bibliography Citation
Maxwell, Nan L. "The Effect on Black-White Wage Differences of Differences in the Quantity and Quality of Education." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47,2 (January 1994): 249-264.
52. McGee, Andrew Dunstan
How the Perception of Control Influences Unemployed Job Search
Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 184-211.
Also: http://ilr.sagepub.com/content/68/1/184.full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Control; Job Search; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The author considers how locus of control--the degree to which one believes one's actions influence outcome--is related to an unemployed person's job search. He finds evidence that "internal" job seekers (who believe their actions determine outcomes) set higher reservation wages than do their more "external" counterparts (who believe their actions have little effect on outcomes) and weak evidence that internal job seekers search more intensively. Consistent with the assumption that locus of control influences job search through an effect on beliefs about the return to search effort, internal job seekers are no better at converting search effort into job offers and earn no more than their peers upon finding employment.
Bibliography Citation
McGee, Andrew Dunstan. "How the Perception of Control Influences Unemployed Job Search." Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 184-211.
53. McHenry, Peter
Does Low Wealth Constrain Long-Distance Migration?
Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 79-119.
Also: http://ilr.sagepub.com/content/68/1/79.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Assets; Debt/Borrowing; Geocoded Data; Migration; Mobility, Residential; Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Some families may have too little wealth (or liquidity) to finance a long-distance move, which may involve transportation costs and foregone earnings. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the author assesses whether wealth holdings directly influence migration decisions in the United States. The analysis focuses on long-distance migration and shows consistently that migration is common among households with little or negative net worth and that greater wealth does not increase the likelihood of migration. In addition, differential wealth holdings do not explain why minority groups and the less-educated are relatively unlikely to undertake long-distance moves. The author also finds little evidence that wealth holdings influence a person’s migration response to local labor demand shocks.
Bibliography Citation
McHenry, Peter. "Does Low Wealth Constrain Long-Distance Migration?" Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,1 (January 2015): 79-119.
54. Murnane, Richard J.
Willett, John B.
Boudett, Kathryn Parker
Does a GED Lead to More Training, Post-Secondary Education, and Military Service for School Dropouts?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 51,1 (October 1997): 100-116.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525037
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Military Service; Military Training; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for the years 1979-1991 is used to investigate how school dropouts' acquisition of a General Educational Development certificate (GED) affected the probability that they would obtain training, post-secondary education, or military service. It is found that the probability that a dropout participated in post-secondary education or non-company training was greater after GED receipt than before for both men and women. Still, less that 1/2 of GED recipients obtained post-secondary education or training by age 26. Photocopy available from ABI/INFORM.
Bibliography Citation
Murnane, Richard J., John B. Willett and Kathryn Parker Boudett. "Does a GED Lead to More Training, Post-Secondary Education, and Military Service for School Dropouts?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 51,1 (October 1997): 100-116.
55. Oettinger, Gerald S.
Does High School Employment Affect High School Academic Performance?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 53,1 (October 1999): 136-151.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2696166
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; Racial Differences; School Performance

This paper analyzes how school year employment affected high school academic performance among a sample of young people surveyed between 1979 and 1983. Regular employment at modest weekly hours was associated with higher grades within each grade level, but between grade transitions into and out of employment were accompanied by very slight performance declines and gains, respectively. While the average effect of school year employment was quite small, extensive school year employment had a large, statistically significant negative impact on the academic performance of racial minorities. Summer employment did not affect grades, suggesting that school year employment affected grades by "crowding out" study time.
Bibliography Citation
Oettinger, Gerald S. "Does High School Employment Affect High School Academic Performance?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 53,1 (October 1999): 136-151.
56. Parent, Daniel
Methods of Pay and Earnings: A Longitudinal Analysis
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 53,1 (October 1999): 71-86.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2696162
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Children; Schooling; Wage Effects; Wages; Work Experience

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1988-90), the author investigates the relationship between methods of pay, including piece rates and bonuses, and the level and variance of wages. Among men, piece rate workers earned a premium compared to other workers, but the evidence on bonuses is mixed. The author finds evidence that female piece rate workers earned more than other female workers once a control variable for the presence of dependents is interacted with the piece rate variable. With controls for the wage effects of schooling and experience, unobserved worker productivity is found to have accounted for most of the wage variance among both male and female piece rate workers; wage variance among workers not having explicit pay for performance schemes, in contrast, was predominantly due to other factors.
Bibliography Citation
Parent, Daniel. "Methods of Pay and Earnings: A Longitudinal Analysis." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 53,1 (October 1999): 71-86.
57. Pellizzari, Michele
Do Friends and Relatives Really Help in Getting a Good Job?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 63,3 (April 2010): Article 7.
Also: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1362&context=ilrreview
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; European Community Household Panel (ECHP); Job Search; Wage Effects

The available empirical evidence on the wage effect of finding jobs through informal contacts is mixed. This author theorizes that, depending upon the efficiency of formal search methods, the use of personal contacts can lead either to a wage premium or to a wage penalty. Using data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), the author finds new evidence to suggest that across many of the countries in the European Union, premiums and penalties to finding jobs through personal contacts are equally frequent and are of about the same size. Such cross-country variation seems to reflect differences in the efficiency of formal search channels. In particular, the wage effect of finding jobs through personal contacts is higher in countries with more labor market intermediaries. Differences-in-differences estimates based on the Italian liberalization of the labor recruitment industry confirm this result.
Bibliography Citation
Pellizzari, Michele. "Do Friends and Relatives Really Help in Getting a Good Job?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 63,3 (April 2010): Article 7.
58. Pergamit, Michael R.
Veum, Jonathan R.
What is a Promotion?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 52,4 (July 1999): 581-601.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525065
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Hispanics; Job Promotion; Job Satisfaction; Racial Differences; Training, Employee; Wages, Youth; Work Attachment

Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, the authors analyze the determinants and consequences of a promotion among young workers. Most events that workers called "promotions" involved no change in position or duties, but were simply an upgrade of the current position. Typically, only one person was considered for the promotion. Men were more likely to be promoted than women, and whites more likely than blacks or Hispanics. The acquisition of company training and the receipt of a prior promotion were two of the most important predictors of promotion. Consequences of promotion included increased wages, training receipt, supervisory responsibilities, and increased job satisfaction. There is little evidence that promotion had a direct impact on job attachment. Copyright: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations 1999.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. and Jonathan R. Veum. "What is a Promotion?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 52,4 (July 1999): 581-601.
59. Pinkston, Joshua C.
A Test of Screening Discrimination with Employer Learning
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 59,2 (January 2006): 267-284.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25067520
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Discrimination; Discrimination, Employer; Discrimination, Job; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Minorities; Minority Groups

This paper tests for the presence of screening discrimination, a type of statistical discrimination that occurs when employers are less able to evaluate the ability of workers from one group than from another. Using data from the 2000 release of the NLSY79, the author examines wage equations in a framework of employer learning to test the hypothesis that the market receives less reliable productivity signals at labor market entry from black men than from white men. The estimation results support this hypothesis. Variables that are difficult for employers to observe, such as the AFQT score, had less influence on the wages of black men (and easily observed variables had more influence) than on the wages of white men. The influence of hard-to-observe variables on wages, however, increased faster with experience for black men.
Bibliography Citation
Pinkston, Joshua C. "A Test of Screening Discrimination with Employer Learning." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 59,2 (January 2006): 267-284.
60. Register, Charles A.
Williams, Donald R.
Labor Market Effects of Marijuana and Cocaine Use Among Young Men
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 435-448.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524270
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Religious Influences; Substance Use; Tests and Testing; Wages

Employment related drug testing is becoming increasingly common in the U.S. Interestingly, relatively little empirical evidence exists to support the premise underlying such testing -- that drug use significantly reduces a worker's productivity. The authors test this proposition by using data from the 1984 NLSY to estimate standard log-wage equations which control for the probability of employment and include endogenous marijuana and cocaine use variables. The findings indicate that while long-term and on-the-job use of marijuana are negatively related to wages, general marijuana use has a positive impact. No significant cocaine use impacts are found. Consequently, while testing for on-the- job marijuana use seems defensible, no support is given to general marijuana testing or cocaine testing.
Bibliography Citation
Register, Charles A. and Donald R. Williams. "Labor Market Effects of Marijuana and Cocaine Use Among Young Men." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45,3 (April 1992): 435-448.
61. Renna, Francesco
Alcohol Abuse, Alcoholism, and Labor Market Outcomes: Looking for the Missing Link
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 62,1 (October 2008): 92-103.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25249186
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Earnings; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling; Wages; Work Hours

There is puzzling evidence that alcohol abuse and alcoholism reduce labor earnings but have no effect on either hours worked or the hourly wage. This study revisits the link between problem drinking and earnings using data from the 1989 and 1994 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Questions about problem drinking were keyed to a table of symptoms for alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The author finds no effects associated with alcohol abuse. In OLS regressions, alcoholism appears to have had negative effects on both labor market outcomes. In the lag variable and in the first difference regressions, alcoholism's negative effect on wages disappears, but its negative effect on hours of work remains, suggesting that the negative effect of alcoholism on earnings operates through reduced work hours. These results of the two-stage least squares are inconclusive. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Renna, Francesco. "Alcohol Abuse, Alcoholism, and Labor Market Outcomes: Looking for the Missing Link." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 62,1 (October 2008): 92-103.
62. Rodgers, William M., III
Spriggs, William E.
Accounting for the Racial Gap in AFQT scores: Comment on Nan L. Maxwell, "The Effect on Black-White Wage Differences of Differences in the Quantity and Quality of Education"
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 55,3 (April 2002): 533-541.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2696055
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Discrimination; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Human Capital; Racial Differences; Skills; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Wage Equations; Wage Gap

The authors comment on the black-white wage gap, concentrating on recent studies that have attempted to explain the wage gap by focusing on racial differences in skills that are not fully captured by standard human capital measures. Scores on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT), which was administered to respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), are used to proxy for these skills. Studies by Neal and Johnson (1996) and Rodgers and Spriggs (1996) are discussed, with particular focus on Nan L. Maxwell's paper, 'The Effect on Black-White Wage Differences of Differences in the Quantity and Quality of Education,' published in 1994 edition of this journal.

What explains the black-white wage gap? This has been and continues to be an active area of research by social scientists. In their quest to explain the large and persistent wage gap, recent studies have focused on racial differences in skills that are not fully captured by standard human capital measures. Scores on the Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT), which was administered to respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), are used to proxy for these skills. A variety of studies have shown that when the AFQT score is placed in a standard human capital wage equation, the education and standard human capital characteristics explain approximately one-half of the black-white wage gap. AFQT difference explain the remained of the gap, although Neal and Johnson (1996) argued that AFQT explains the entire gap. The key interpretation given to this result is that pre-labor market discrimination can explain the large and persistent wage gap. That arguments would be very convincing is the racial different in test scores could be explained by racial differences in the factors likely to increase skill attainment, and those factors could be linked to pre-labor market discrimination.

Bibliography Citation
Rodgers, William M., III and William E. Spriggs. "Accounting for the Racial Gap in AFQT scores: Comment on Nan L. Maxwell, "The Effect on Black-White Wage Differences of Differences in the Quantity and Quality of Education"." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 55,3 (April 2002): 533-541.
63. Rothstein, Donna S.
Supervisory Status and Upper-Level Supervisory Responsibilities: Evidence from the NLSY79
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 54,3 (April 2001): 663-680.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2695996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Job Promotion; Job Requirements; Job Status; Wage Levels; Wages

This paper examines what it means to be a supervisor, in terms of the associated responsibilities--their nature, who is likely to have them, and how they affect wages. The author examines data from a new series of questions on aspects of supervision included in the 1996 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The results indicate that the wage returns to being a supervisor are not associated with simply having supervisory "status" or a supervisory title, per se, but rather with having associated upper-level supervisory responsibilities. Women were less likely than men to attain supervisory status, and once they did so they were slightly less likely to have higher-level supervisory responsibilities.
Bibliography Citation
Rothstein, Donna S. "Supervisory Status and Upper-Level Supervisory Responsibilities: Evidence from the NLSY79." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 54,3 (April 2001): 663-680.
64. Royalty, Anne Beeson
The Effects of Job Turnover on the Training of Men and Women
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,3 (April 1996): 506-521.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524200
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Economics of Discrimination; Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Human Capital Theory; Job Turnover; Labor Market Demographics; Layoffs; Occupational Choice; Quits; Retirement; Training, On-the-Job; Unemployment

Human capital theory predicts that workers will be more likely to invest in job training the longer they expect to remain working. The author tests that prediction using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth by examining the effect of the predicted probability of job turnover on the probability of receiving training. She finds that predicted turnover is significantly related to receiving training. Her preliminary analysis confirms the finding of previous studies that men undergo more training than women. The gender difference in training is 25% smaller, however, in an analysis that controls for the predicted probability of job turnover - an approach not taken in previous studies. Another finding is that the positive effect of education on training that has been reported previously is due to differences in turnover by education level rather than a pure complementarity between education and training. (Copyright New York State School of Industrial & Labor Relations 1996)
Bibliography Citation
Royalty, Anne Beeson. "The Effects of Job Turnover on the Training of Men and Women." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49,3 (April 1996): 506-521.
65. Sandell, Steven H.
Job Search by Unemployed Women: Determinants of the Asking Wage
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33,3 (April 1980): 368-378.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522573
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior; Husbands, Income; Job Search; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Wages, Reservation; Wives

This study uses actual observations of women's reservation wages to show that the behavior of unemployed women is consistent with the predictions of the job-search paradigm. Using a two-stage least squares procedure to estimate the model, those variables reflecting wage expectations and unemployment duration are generally statistically significant in the anticipated directions. In particular, one of the most striking findings shows that unemployed women significantly reduce their reservation wages as the unemployment period progresses. In addition, women who receive unemployment insurance benefits request substantially higher wages. Overall, the results show that these women are committed to finding work and thus respond to economic incentives in their job search behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. "Job Search by Unemployed Women: Determinants of the Asking Wage." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33,3 (April 1980): 368-378.
66. Schoenberg, Uta
Wage Growth Due to Human Capital Accumulation and Job Search: A Comparison Between the United States and Germany
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 60,4 (July 2007): 562-586.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25249110
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Germany, German; Human Capital; Job Search; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Mobility, Labor Market; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth

This paper compares the sources of wage growth of young male workers in two countries with very different labor market institutions, the United States and Germany. The author first develops a simple method for decomposing wage growth into components due to general human capital accumulation, firm-specific human capital accumulation, and job search. The empirical analysis uses data from administrative records (Germany) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (United States) for cohorts entering the labor market in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Although the two countries differed substantially in mobility rates, they were similar in the sources of wage growth, with general human capital accumulation being the most important single source and job search accounting for an additional 25% or more of total wage growth. There is no evidence that returns to firm-specific human capital accumulation were higher for German apprentices than for U.S. high school dropouts or graduates. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Industrial & Labor Relations Review is the property of Cornell University and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Schoenberg, Uta. "Wage Growth Due to Human Capital Accumulation and Job Search: A Comparison Between the United States and Germany." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 60,4 (July 2007): 562-586.
67. Shapiro, David
Relative Wage Effects of Unions in the Public and Private Sectors
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 31,2 (January 1978): 193-203.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522387
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions; Wage Effects; White Collar Jobs

This study focuses on wage differentials in unionized and non-unionized employment, in both the government and private sectors. One important aspect of this analysis is that it considers workers across a wide range of occupations and for all levels of government. The author concludes that public sector unions have not been successful in raising the earnings of white-collar workers but that they have raised the earnings of blue-collar workers. The author finds, however, that union wage effects in the public sector are generally comparable to or smaller than union wage effects in the private sector.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David. "Relative Wage Effects of Unions in the Public and Private Sectors." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 31,2 (January 1978): 193-203.
68. Shapiro, David
Wage Differentials Among Black, Hispanic, and White Male Youth
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37,4 (July 1984): 570-581.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2523673
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Hispanics; Job Tenure; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wages, Youth; Work Experience

This paper uses the 1979 NLSY to examine the hypothesis that racial wage differences have vanished from the labor market for male youths. In addition, the relationship between racial differences in youth wages and accumulation of work experience as well as the extent to which adjustment for sample selection bias affects measured racial differentials in wage rates and also analyzed. The empirical evidence indicates that there is a significant black white difference in hourly wage rates among non-enrolled male youth, ceteris paribus. Among students, race is not associated with wage rates. Hispanic white wage differences are not significant among either students or nonstudents. Accumulation of job tenure contributes to significantly higher wage rates among nonenrolled whites, white tenure wage profiles for nonenrolled blacks are essentially flat. Further, the magnitude of the estimated wage premium of whites over blacks among nonenrolled male youths increases by more than 40 percent (from 7-10 percent to 11-15 percent) once sample selection bias is taken into account.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David. "Wage Differentials Among Black, Hispanic, and White Male Youth." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 37,4 (July 1984): 570-581.
69. Solberg, Eric J.
Laughlin, Teresa Laine Clarke
The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48,4 (July 1995): 692-708.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524351
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Demography; Economics of Gender; Human Capital; Labor Market Demographics; Schooling; Skills; Training; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Differentials; Wage Levels

Using data from the 1991 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors estimate earnings equations for each of seven occupational categories and the aggregate sample. When fringe benefits are excluded from the compensation measure, a gender coefficient is statistically significant (that is, women are found to have received significantly lower compensation than men) within six of the seven occupational categories, the exception being the most female-dominated category. When an index of compensation that includes fringe benefits is used, however, a gender coefficient is significant in only one category, which contains relatively heterogeneous jobs. Gender-specific regressions are used to estimate what part of the earnings gap between men and women is due to differences in traits. The results indicate that occupational assignment is the primary determinant of the pay gap, a result that is consistent with a 'crowding' explanation of that gap.
Bibliography Citation
Solberg, Eric J. and Teresa Laine Clarke Laughlin. "The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48,4 (July 1995): 692-708.
70. Spivey, Christy
Time Off at What Price? The Effects of Career Interruptions on Earnings
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 59,1 (October 2005): 119-140.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25063018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Labor Economics; Unemployment Duration; Wage Effects; Wages

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, the author explores how nonemployment spells and career expectations affected men's and women's wages. Wage profiles were affected by total nonemployment time, by recent work interruptions, and by some past interruptions. Statistically significant interruptions were more numerous for women than men, but the wage loss associated with any given interruption was less severe for women. Future career interruptions, which workers presumably anticipate in many cases, affected current investment in human capital to some degree for both sexes. The wage effects of the timing of experience (defined by the fraction of weeks worked, by specific years) correspond closely to the wage effects of interruptions (calendar years without work): when the analysis accounts for the former, little additional penalty is found to have been associated with the latter. A very small fraction of the gender wage gap was attributable solely to timing of experience. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Spivey, Christy. "Time Off at What Price? The Effects of Career Interruptions on Earnings." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 59,1 (October 2005): 119-140.
71. Veum, Jonathan R.
Sources of Training and Their Impact on Wages
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48,4 (July 1995): 812-826.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524358
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; Educational Status; Occupational Aspirations; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training; Training, Occupational; Vocational Training; Wage Effects; Wage Levels; Wages

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1986 to 1990, the author investigates the wage impact of various sources of training--among them, company training programs, apprenticeships, business schools, vocational and technical institutes, correspondence courses, and seminars outside the workplace. Time spent in training (of whatever kind) apparently did not affect 1990 wage levels. The incidence of two kinds of training, however--company training and seminars outside work--was positively related to wage levels as well as to wage change between 1986 and 1990; that is, workers who undertook such training enjoyed higher wages than those who did not. Time spent in vocational schools was also positively associated with wage change, though not with 1990 wage levels. The other forms of training had no apparent impact on either wage levels or wage change.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Sources of Training and Their Impact on Wages." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48,4 (July 1995): 812-826.
72. Weaver, Andrew
Is Credit Status a Good Signal of Productivity?
Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,4 (August 2015): 742-770.
Also: http://ilr.sagepub.com/content/68/4/742
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Credit/Credit Constraint; Debt/Borrowing; Net Worth; Wage Growth; Wages

In this article, the author uses a unique identification strategy along with credit proxy variables in a national data set to test whether credit status reveals information about an employee's character that is predictive of employee productivity. Many employers screen new hires by examining the credit reports of job applicants. The practice has sparked debate, with opponents asserting that it amounts to discrimination and proponents maintaining that it is an important tool by which employers can ensure the quality of new employees. To date, little evidence exists on the validity of credit status as a screening device. The issue is complicated both by the lack of available data and by the difficulty in establishing causality. Results indicate that the character-related portion of credit status is not a significant predictor of worker productivity.
Bibliography Citation
Weaver, Andrew. "Is Credit Status a Good Signal of Productivity?" Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) Review 68,4 (August 2015): 742-770.
73. Western, Bruce
Punishment and Inequality in America
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 60,4 (2007): Article 87.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/view/25249115
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Crime; Incarceration/Jail; Minorities; Minorities, Youth; Minority Groups; Punishment, Criminal; Racial Equality/Inequality

If you are a black unemployed high school dropout, are convicted of a crime, and spend a few months in jail, you will have a high probability of remaining unemployed, untrained, and undereducated and of returning to jail more than once over your lifetime. As a result of various punitive laws enacted over the past two generations, declining support for rehabilitation efforts, and the advent of technologies making it easier to track individuals, prison has become a way of life for many in the United States. It is too often a revolving door of crime, prison, release, lack of employment, crime, and return to prison. But (a) does incarceration cause unemployment, or does unemployment cause criminal behavior and subsequent imprisonment? And (b) what are the economic costs and benefits of increased U.S. imprisonment?
Bibliography Citation
Western, Bruce. "Punishment and Inequality in America." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 60,4 (2007): Article 87.