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Source: IZA Discussion Paper series
Resulting in 15 citations.
1. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Kimmel, Jean
Moonlighting Behavior over the Business Cycle
IZA Discussion Paper No. 1671, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, Bonn, Germany, 2005.
Also: http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp%5Fid=1671
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Economic Changes/Recession; Economics, Demographic; Gender Differences; Sample Selection

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the cyclicality by sex of moonlighting and moonlighting hours. We find that, once we account for the sample selection into employment, both men and women exhibit procyclical moonlighting probabilities. Likewise, moonlighting hours for male multiple job holders are procyclical. These findings contradict the frequent claim that moonlighting increases during economic downturns due to economic hardship. Instead, moonlighting appears responsive to growing employment opportunities during economic expansions. At any rate, the systematic variation of moonlighting over the business cycle may have implications for the procyclical nature of real wages. --Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit web site.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Jean Kimmel. "Moonlighting Behavior over the Business Cycle." IZA Discussion Paper No. 1671, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, Bonn, Germany, 2005.
2. Andini, Corrado
Persistence Bias and the Wage-Schooling Model
IZA Discussion Paper No. 7186, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2013.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7186.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Modeling, OLS; Schooling; Wage Dynamics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper provides an expression for the bias of the OLS estimator of the schooling coefficient in a simple static wage-schooling model where earnings persistence is not accounted for. It is argued that the OLS estimator of the schooling coefficient is biased upward, and the bias is increasing with potential labor-market experience and the degree of earnings persistence. In addition, NLSY data are used to show that the magnitude of the persistence bias is non-negligible, and the bias cannot be cured by increasing the control set. Further, it is shown that disregarding earnings persistence is still problematic for the estimation of the schooling coefficient even if individual unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity are taken into account. Overall, the findings support the dynamic approach to the estimation of wage-schooling models recently suggested by Andini (2012; 2013).
Bibliography Citation
Andini, Corrado. "Persistence Bias and the Wage-Schooling Model." IZA Discussion Paper No. 7186, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2013.
3. Beltran, Daniel O.
Das, Kuntal Kumar
Fairlie, Robert W.
Do Home Computers Improve Educational Outcomes? Evidence from Matched Current Population Surveys and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997
IZA Discussion Paper No. 1912, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2006.
Also: ftp://repec.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp1912.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Computer Ownership; Computer Use; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Returns; High School Diploma; Truancy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Nearly twenty million children in the United States do not have computers in their homes. The role of home computers in the educational process, however, has drawn very little attention in the previous literature. We use panel data from the two main U.S. datasets that include recent information on computer ownership among children - the 2000-2003 CPS Computer and Internet Use Supplements (CIUS) matched to the CPS Basic Monthly Files and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 - to explore the relationship between computer ownership and high school graduation and other educational outcomes. Teenagers who have access to home computers are 6 to 8 percentage points more likely to graduate from high school than teenagers who do not have home computers after controlling for individual, parental, and family characteristics. We generally find evidence of positive relationships between home computers and educational outcomes using several estimation strategies, including controlling for typically unobservable home environment and extracurricular activities in the NLSY97, fixed effects models, instrumental variables, future computer ownership and "pencil tests". Some of these estimation techniques, however, provide imprecise estimates. Home computers may increase high school graduation by reducing nonproductive activities, such as truancy and crime, among children in addition to making it easier to complete school assignments.
Bibliography Citation
Beltran, Daniel O., Kuntal Kumar Das and Robert W. Fairlie. "Do Home Computers Improve Educational Outcomes? Evidence from Matched Current Population Surveys and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997." IZA Discussion Paper No. 1912, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2006.
4. Belzil, Christian
Hansen, Jörgen
A Structural Analysis of the Correlated Random Coefficient Wage Regression Model with an Application to the OLS-IV Puzzle
IZA Discussion Paper No. 1585, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2005.
Also: ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp1585.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Educational Returns; Heterogeneity; Modeling; School Entry/Readiness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We estimate a finite mixture dynamic programming model of schooling decisions in which the log wage regression function is set within a correlated random coefficient model and we use the structural estimates to perform counterfactual experiments. We show that the estimates of the dynamic programming model with a rich heterogeneity specification, along with simulated schooling/wage histories, may be used to obtain estimates of the average treatment effects (ATE), the average treatment effects for the treated and the untreated (ATT/ATU), the marginal treatment effect (MTE) and, finally, the local average treatment effects (LATE). The model is implemented on a panel of white males taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) from 1979 until 1994. We find that the average return to experience upon entering the labor market (0.059) exceeds the average return to schooling in the population (0.043). The importance of selectivity based on individual specific returns to schooling is illustrated by the difference between the average returns for those who have not attended college (0.0321) and those who attended college (0.0645). Our estimate of the MTE (0.0573) lies between the ATU and ATT and exceeds the average return in the population. Interestingly, the low average wage return is compatible with the occurrence of very high returns to schooling in some subpopulation (the highest type specific return is 0.13) and the simulated IV estimates (around 0.10) are comparable to those very high estimates often reported in the literature. The high estimates are explained by the positive correlation between the returns to schooling and the individual specific reactions. Moreover, they are not solely attributable to those individuals who are at the margin, but also to those individuals who would achieve a higher grade level no matter what. The structural dynamic programming model with multi-dimensional heterogeneity is therefore capable of explaining the well known OLS/IV puzzle.
Bibliography Citation
Belzil, Christian and Jörgen Hansen. "A Structural Analysis of the Correlated Random Coefficient Wage Regression Model with an Application to the OLS-IV Puzzle." IZA Discussion Paper No. 1585, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2005.
5. Carneiro, Pedro M.
Heckman, James J.
Hansen, Karsten T.
Estimating Distributions of Treatment Effects with an Application to the Returns to Schooling and Measurement of the Effects of Uncertainty on College Choice
IZA Discussion Paper No. 767, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); College Enrollment; Colleges; Educational Returns; LISREL; Modeling; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Also: NBER Working Paper No. 9546, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2003. http://nber.nber.org/papers/w9546

This paper uses factor models to identify and estimate distributions of counterfactuals. We extend LISREL frameworks to a dynamic treatment effect setting, extending matching to account for unobserved conditioning variables. Using these models, we can identify all pairwise and joint treatment effects. We apply these methods to a model of schooling and determine the intrinsic uncertainty facing agents at the time they make their decisions about enrollment in school. Reducing uncertainty in returns raises college enrollment. We go beyond the "Veil of Ignorance" in evaluating educational policies and determine who benefits and who loses from commonly proposed educational reforms. We consider the information on these individuals from age 19 to age 35. For our analysis, we use the random sample of the NLSY and restrict the sample to 1161 white males for whom we have information on schooling, several parental background variables, test scores and behavior.

Bibliography Citation
Carneiro, Pedro M., James J. Heckman and Karsten T. Hansen. "Estimating Distributions of Treatment Effects with an Application to the Returns to Schooling and Measurement of the Effects of Uncertainty on College Choice." IZA Discussion Paper No. 767, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2003.
6. Drago, Francesco
Self-Esteem and Earnings
IZA Discussion Paper No. 3577, Institute for the Study of Labor, June 2008.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1158974#
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Misclassification, Mismeasurement; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem; Self-Reporting; Wage Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings. A major problem in this literature is that from simple cross-sectional wage regressions it is not possible to conclude that self-esteem has a causal impact on earnings. While classical measurement error leads to an attenuation bias, reverse causality and omitted variable are likely to drive the OLS coefficient on self-esteem upward. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale during the 1980 and 1987 interviews, I provide further evidence for the existence of a self-esteem premium by exploiting variation in these measures in the two years. I show that the estimated impact of self-esteem in 1987 on earnings is about two times greater than previous OLS estimates would imply. The main explanation for this result is the large extent of measurement error in the reported self-esteem measure.
Bibliography Citation
Drago, Francesco. "Self-Esteem and Earnings." IZA Discussion Paper No. 3577, Institute for the Study of Labor, June 2008.
7. Eckstein, Zvi
Ge, Suqin
Petrongolo, Barbara
Job and Wage Mobility in a Search Model with Non-Compliance (Exemptions) with the Minimum Wage
IZA Discussion Paper No. 2076, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2006.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp2076.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Job Search; Mobility, Job; Modeling; Wage Growth; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How well does a simple search on-the-job model fit the eighteen years of job and wage mobility of high school graduates? To answer this question we are confronted from the data with a prevalent non-compliance and exemptions from the minimum wage. We incorporate this observation in a job search model with three main ingredients: (i) search on-the-job; (ii) minimum wages, with potentially imperfect compliance or exemptions; and, (iii) exogenous wage growth on-the-job. We use panel data drawn from the NLSY79, US youth panel starting in 1979, to estimate the parameters of our simple job search model and, in particular, the extent of non-compliance/exemptions to the minimum wage. The model is solved numerically and we use simulated moments to estimate the parameters. The estimated parameters are consistent with the model and they provide a good fit for the observed levels and trends of the main job and wage mobility data. Furthermore, the estimated model indicates that the non-compliance and exemption rate with the federal minimum wage translates into a roughly 10% of jobs paying less than the minimum wage. Counterfactual experiment of increase of the compliance/non-exemption rate or the minimum wage shows a small effect on mean accepted wages but a significant negative effect on the non-employment rate.
Bibliography Citation
Eckstein, Zvi, Suqin Ge and Barbara Petrongolo. "Job and Wage Mobility in a Search Model with Non-Compliance (Exemptions) with the Minimum Wage." IZA Discussion Paper No. 2076, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2006.
8. Hamermesh, Daniel S.
The Changing Distribution of Job Satisfaction
IZA Discussion Paper No. 42, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 1999.
Also: ftp://ftp.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp42.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Germany, German; Job Satisfaction; Skills; Wage Rates; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The distribution of job satisfaction widened across cohorts of young men in the U.S. between 1978 and 1988, and between 1978 and 1996, in ways correlated with changing wage inequality. Satisfaction among workers in upper earnings quantiles rose relative to that of workers in lower quantiles. An identical phenomenon is observed among men in West Germany in response to a sharp increase in the relative earnings of high-wage men in the mid-1990s. Several hypotheses about the determinants of satisfaction are presented and examined using both cross-section data on these cohorts and panel data from the NLSY and the German SOEP. The evidence is most consistent with workers' regret about the returns to their investment in skills affecting their satisfaction. Job satisfaction is especially responsive to surprises in the returns to observable skills, less so to surprises in the returns to unobservables; and the effects of earnings shocks on job satisfaction dissipate over time.
Bibliography Citation
Hamermesh, Daniel S. "The Changing Distribution of Job Satisfaction." IZA Discussion Paper No. 42, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 1999.
9. Heckman, James J.
Kautz, Tim
Hard Evidence on Soft Skills
IZA Discussion Paper No. 6580, May 2012.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2080324
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; I.Q.; Illegal Activities; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of “cognitive ability” like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills – personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.
Bibliography Citation
Heckman, James J. and Tim Kautz. "Hard Evidence on Soft Skills." IZA Discussion Paper No. 6580, May 2012.
10. Khieu, Hoang
Walde, Klaus
Capital Income Risk and the Dynamics of the Wealth Distribution
IZA Discussion Paper No. 11840, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2018.
Also: https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/11840/capital-income-risk-and-the-dynamics-of-the-wealth-distribution
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Income Distribution; Income Risk; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we develop and numerically solve a model of idiosyncratic labour income and idiosyncratic interest rates to predict the evolution of a wealth distribution over time. Stochastic labour income follows a deterministic growth trend and it fluctuates between a wage and unemployment benefits. Stochastic interest rates are drawn initially (ex-ante heterogeneity), fluctuate between two values (ex-post heterogeneity) and can differ in their arrival rates (financial types). A low interest rate implies a stationary long-run wealth distribution, a high interest rate implies non-stationary wealth distributions. Our baseline model matches the evolution of the wealth distribution of the NLSY 79 cohort from 1986 to 2008 very well. When we start in 1986 and target 2008, we obtain a fit of 96.1%: The fit for non-targeted years is 77.0% on average. When targeting the evolution of wealth, the fit is 88.9%. With a more flexible interest rate distribution, the fit can even be increased to 96.7%. Comparing calibrated mean returns with data shows that the flexible interest rate distribution has empirically not convincing "superstar states". In the baseline model, mean returns are empirically convincing. Surprisingly, the standard deviation of model returns is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical standard deviation.
Bibliography Citation
Khieu, Hoang and Klaus Walde. "Capital Income Risk and the Dynamics of the Wealth Distribution." IZA Discussion Paper No. 11840, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2018.
11. Lundberg, Shelly
Division of Labor by New Parents: Does Child Gender Matter?
IZA Discussion Paper No. 1787, Institute for the Study of Labor, September 2005.
Also: ftp://repec.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp1787.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): American Time Use Survey (ATUS); Birth Order; Child Care; Dual-Career Families; Fertility; Gender Differences; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper documents some distinct and surprising patterns of specialization among new parents in the NLSY79. Child gender has significant effects on the labor supply of both mothers and father, and these effects are opposite at the two ends of the education spectrum – boys reduce specialization among the college-educated and increase specialization among parents with less than a high school education. Estimates from the recent American Time Use Survey are generally consistent with the NLSY79 findings, and indicate that highly educated parents devote more child care time to young sons. The labor supply results are inconsistent with previous research that found boys substantially increase the work hours of their fathers relative to girls but have no effect on mother's work hours. Possible explanations for the heterogeneous responses to sons and daughters across education groups include a bias towards same-sex parental inputs as desired child quality increases and child gender effects on the relative bargaining power of the mother and father. No evidence of improved maternal bargaining power can be found in the leisure consumption of mothers of young sons in the ATUS, but patterns in parental child care time suggest gender differences in child production functions.
Bibliography Citation
Lundberg, Shelly. "Division of Labor by New Parents: Does Child Gender Matter?" IZA Discussion Paper No. 1787, Institute for the Study of Labor, September 2005.
12. Paserman, Marco Daniele
Job Search and Hyperbolic Discounting: Structural Estimation and Policy Evaluation
IZA Discussion Paper No. 997, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2004.
Also: ftp://repec.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp997.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Job Search; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Wages, Reservation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper estimates the structural parameters of a job search model with hyperbolic discounting and endogenous search effort. It estimates quantitatively the degree of hyperbolic discounting, and assesses its implications for the impact of various policy interventions aimed at reducing unemployment. The model is estimated using data on unemployment spells and accepted wages from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The likelihood function explicitly incorporates all the restrictions implied by the optimal dynamic programming solution to the model. Both observed and unobserved heterogeneity are accounted for. The results point to a substantial degree of hyperbolic discounting, especially for low and medium wage workers. The structural estimates are also used to evaluate alternative policy interventions for the unemployed. Estimates based on a model with exponential discounting may lead to biased inference on the economic impact of policies.
Bibliography Citation
Paserman, Marco Daniele. "Job Search and Hyperbolic Discounting: Structural Estimation and Policy Evaluation." IZA Discussion Paper No. 997, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2004.
13. Ruhm, Christopher J.
Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development
IZA Discussion Paper No. 1673, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2005.
Also: http://www.uncg.edu/eco/cjruhm/papers/maternal.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Family Characteristics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[Revised March 2006.]
This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the outcomes of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited amounts of work by mothers benefit youths who are relatively "disadvantaged" and even long hours, which occur relatively rarely, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By contrast, maternal labor supply is estimated to have much more harmful effects on "advantaged" adolescents. Particularly striking are the reductions in cognitive test scores and increases in excess body weight predicted by even moderate amounts of employment. The negative cognitive effects occur partly because maternal labor supply reduces the time these children spend in enriching home environments. Some of the growth in obesity may be related to determinants of excess weight that are common to the child and mother. Work hours are also associated with relatively large (in percentage terms) increases in early substance use and small decreases in behavior problems; however, neither are statistically significant.
Bibliography Citation
Ruhm, Christopher J. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development." IZA Discussion Paper No. 1673, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2005.
14. Sloczynski, Tymon
Average Gaps and Oaxaca-Blinder Decompositions: A Cautionary Tale about Regression Estimates of Racial Differences in Labor Market Outcomes
IZA Discussion Paper No. 12041, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), December 2018.
Also: https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/12041/average-gaps-and-oaxacablinder-decompositions-a-cautionary-tale-about-regression-estimates-of-racial-differences-in-labor-market-outcomes
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper I demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, that the interpretation of regression estimates of between-group differences in economic outcomes depends on the relative sizes of subpopulations under study. When the disadvantaged group is small, regression estimates are similar to its average loss. When this group is instead a numerical majority, regression estimates are similar to the average gain for advantaged individuals. I analyze black-white test score gaps using ECLS-K data and black-white wage gaps using CPS, NLSY79, and NSW data, documenting that the interpretation of regression estimates varies dramatically across applications. Methodologically, I also develop a new version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition whose unexplained component recovers a parameter referred to as the average outcome gap. Under a particular conditional independence assumption, this estimand is equivalent to the average treatment effect (ATE). Finally, I provide treatment-effects reinterpretations of the Reimers, Cotton, and Fortin decompositions.
Bibliography Citation
Sloczynski, Tymon. "Average Gaps and Oaxaca-Blinder Decompositions: A Cautionary Tale about Regression Estimates of Racial Differences in Labor Market Outcomes." IZA Discussion Paper No. 12041, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), December 2018.
15. Troske, Kenneth R.
Voicu, Alexandru
The Effect of Children on the Level of Labor Market Involvement of Married Women: What is the Role of Education?
IZA DIscussion Paper No. 4074, Institute for the Study of Labor, March 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Fertility; Heterogeneity; Labor Supply; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Probit; Mothers, Education; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We analyze the way women's education influences the effect of children on their level of labor market involvement. We propose an econometric model that accounts for the endogeneity of labor market and fertility decisions, for the heterogeneity of the effects of children and their correlation with the fertility decisions, and for the correlation of sequential labor market decisions. We estimate the model using panel data from NLSY79. Our results show that women with higher education work more before the birth of the first child, but children have larger negative effects on their level of labor market involvement. Differences across education levels are more pronounced with respect to full time employment than with respect to participation. Other things equal, higher wages reduce the effect of children on labor supply. Controlling for wages, women with higher education face larger negative effects of children on labor supply, which suggest they are characterized by a combination of higher marginal product of time spent in the production of child quality and higher marginal product of time relative to the marginal product of other inputs into the production of child quality.
Bibliography Citation
Troske, Kenneth R. and Alexandru Voicu. "The Effect of Children on the Level of Labor Market Involvement of Married Women: What is the Role of Education?" IZA DIscussion Paper No. 4074, Institute for the Study of Labor, March 2009.