Search Results

Source: IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor
Resulting in 44 citations.
1. Addison, John T.
Chen, Liwen
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Occupational Match Quality and Gender over Two Cohorts
IZA Discussion Paper No. 11114, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2017.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp11114.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Mobility, Job; Occupations; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Job mobility, especially early in a career, is an important source of wage growth. This effect is typically attributed to heterogeneity in the quality of employee-employer matches, with individuals learning of their abilities and discovering the tasks at which they are most productive through job search. That is, job mobility enables better matches, and individuals move to better their labor market prospects and settle once they find a satisfactory match. In this paper, we show that there are gender differences in match quality and changes in match quality over the course of careers. In particular, we find that females are mismatched more than males. This is true even for females with the best early-career matches. However, the direction of the gender effect differs significantly by education. Only females among the college educated are more mismatched and are more likely to be over-qualified then their male counterparts. These results are seemingly driven by life events, such as child birth. For their part, college-educated males of the younger cohort are worse off in terms of match quality compared to the older cohort, while the new generation of women is doing better on average.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Liwen Chen and Orgul Demet Ozturk. "Occupational Match Quality and Gender over Two Cohorts." IZA Discussion Paper No. 11114, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2017.
2. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
Promotion and Wages in Mid-Career: Gender, Unionism, and Sector
IZA Discussion Paper No. 6873, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Promotion; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions; Wage Growth; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers the role of gender in the promotion process and the impact of promotion on wages and wage growth, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79).
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "Promotion and Wages in Mid-Career: Gender, Unionism, and Sector." IZA Discussion Paper No. 6873, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2012.
3. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
The Occupational Feminization of Wages
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9078, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp9078.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender Differences; Occupations; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper updates the major study by Macpherson and Hirsch (1995) of the effect of the gender composition of occupations on female (and male) earnings. Using large representative national samples of employees from the Current Population Survey, cross-sectional estimates of the impact of proportion female in an occupation (or feminization) on wages are first provided, paying close attention to the role of occupational characteristics. Specification differences in the effects of feminization across alternative subsamples are examined as well as the contribution of the feminization argument to the explanation of the gender wage gap. An updated longitudinal analysis using the CPS data is also provided. This examination of two-year panels of individuals is supplemented using information from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth which has the advantage of offering a longer panel. Analysis of the former suggests the reduction in gender composition effects observed for females in cross section with the addition of controls for occupational characteristics becomes complete after accounting for unobserved individual heterogeneity. This is not the case for the latter dataset, most likely reflecting heritage effects of discrimination in what is an aging cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "The Occupational Feminization of Wages." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9078, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015.
4. Agan, Amanda Y.
Non-Cognitive Skills and Crime
Presented: Bonn, Germany: IZA Workshop: Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills, 25-27 January 2011,
Also: http://www.iza.org/conference_files/CoNoCoSk2011/agan_a6558.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Differences; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Background; High School Completion/Graduates; Noncognitive Skills; Risk-Taking; Skill Formation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

To enhance our understanding of the effect of childhood skills and personality on criminal outcomes I explore evidence from longitudinal data. The main source of data is the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-Children and Young Adults Survey (CNLSY) which follows children of the women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and includes measures of behavior, risk, impulsivity, and academic achievement (cognitive skills) during childhood as well self-reports of adult criminal behavior. I find that non-cognitive skills measured by externalizing and internalizing behavior as well as impulsivity and risk preference have important effects on criminal participation even after controlling for family background and high school graduation. These effects are generally larger than those of cognitive skills.
Bibliography Citation
Agan, Amanda Y. "Non-Cognitive Skills and Crime." Presented: Bonn, Germany: IZA Workshop: Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills, 25-27 January 2011,.
5. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Bansak, Cynthia
The Impact of Amnesty on Labor Market Outcomes: A Panel Study Using the Legalized Population Survey
Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London, CReAM Discussion Paper Series, number 1106. 2010 & 2011 versions: IZA Discussion Papers 5576, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM)
Keyword(s): Amnesty / Legalized Population; Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA); Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Demographics; Labor Market Outcomes; Legalized Population Survey (LPS)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper tests whether amnesty, a provision of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), affected the labor market outcomes of the legalized population. Using the Legalized Population Survey (LPS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1987-1992, a quasi-experimental framework is developed to assess the differential impact of amnesty on the legalized population relative to a comparison group. After the implementation of the amnesty program, employment fell and unemployment rose for newly legalized men relative to the comparison group of already legal U.S. residents. For women, employment also fell and transitions out of the workforce increased among the newly legalized population. Increasing returns to skill, as captured by English proficiency, only played an important role in explaining the employment of newly legalized women. Finally, newly legalized men and women enjoyed higher wage growth rates than their working native counterparts, perhaps owing to their comparatively growing returns to U.S. educational attainment over this period.
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Cynthia Bansak. "The Impact of Amnesty on Labor Market Outcomes: A Panel Study Using the Legalized Population Survey." Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London, CReAM Discussion Paper Series, number 1106. 2010 & 2011 versions: IZA Discussion Papers 5576, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)..
6. Anderson, D. Mark
Hansen, Benjamin
Rees, Daniel I.
Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use
IZA Discussion Paper No. 6592 [Rev.], Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2012.
Also: http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=6592
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Drug Use; Legislation; Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While at least a dozen state legislatures are considering bills to allow the consumption of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the federal government has recently intensified its efforts to close medical marijuana dispensaries. Federal officials contend that the legalization of medical marijuana encourages teenagers to use marijuana and have targeted dispensaries operating within 1,000 feet of schools, parks and playgrounds. Using data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and the Treatment Episode Data Set, we estimate the relationship between medical marijuana laws and marijuana use. Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that legalization leads to increased use of marijuana by teenagers.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, D. Mark, Benjamin Hansen and Daniel I. Rees. "Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use." IZA Discussion Paper No. 6592 [Rev.], Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2012.
7. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
The Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Non-Cognitive Skills
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9173, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2015.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp9173.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Accidents; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Educational Attainment; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Illnesses; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Obesity; Program Participation/Evaluation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 1993, the benefit levels of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) were changed significantly based on the number of children in the household. Employing a difference-indifferences plus mother fixed-effects framework, we find better mother-rated health for children of unmarried black mothers and married white and Hispanic mothers, lower accident rates for children of married white and Hispanic mothers, and improved home environment quality for children of unmarried white and Hispanic mothers. Our results provide new evidence of the effects of the 1993 EITC expansion and therefore have important policy implications.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "The Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Non-Cognitive Skills." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9173, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2015.
8. Barlevy, Gadi
Nagaraja, H.N.
Identification of Search Models with Initial Condition Problems
IZA Discussion Paper No. 2061, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2006.
Also: http://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/12166.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Job Search; Mobility, Job; Wages, Reservation; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper extends previous work on the identification of search models in which observed worker productivity is imperfectly observed. In particular, it establishes that these models remain identified even when employment histories are left-censored (i.e. we do not get to follow workers from their initial job out of unemployment), as well as when workers set different reservation wages from one another. We further show that allowing for heterogeneity in reservation can affect the empirical estimates we obtain, specifically estimates of the rate at which workers receive job offers.
Bibliography Citation
Barlevy, Gadi and H.N. Nagaraja. "Identification of Search Models with Initial Condition Problems." IZA Discussion Paper No. 2061, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2006.
9. Bellido, Hector
Molina, Jose Alberto
Solaz, Anne
Stancanelli, Elena G. F.
Which Children Stabilize Marriage?
IZA Discussion Paper No. 7858, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), December 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Children; Fertility; Marital Disruption; Marital Stability

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children can be considered as a marriage-specific investment that increases the value of the marriage, making a divorce more costly. We exploit the richness of pre- and post-marital information from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79, for the United States, to investigate the relation between fertility and marriage instability. In our model of marriage breakdown, we use the number of siblings of the respondent and, alternatively, multiple births, to instrument the number of children conceived during first marriage. Our results indicate that the presence of children significantly reduces the probability of marital disruption. In addition, the younger the children, the greater the deterrent effect. In contrast, we conclude that children conceived before first marriage increase the risk of marital disruption. Finally, the higher the parents' level of education, the larger the positive effect of fertility on marital stability.
Bibliography Citation
Bellido, Hector, Jose Alberto Molina, Anne Solaz and Elena G. F. Stancanelli. "Which Children Stabilize Marriage?" IZA Discussion Paper No. 7858, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), December 2013.
10. Bellou, Andriana
Male Wage Inequality and Marital Dissolution: Is There a Link?
IZA Discussion Paper No. 7331, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2013.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7331.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marital Dissolution; Marital Instability; Wage Gap; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

After almost a century-long pattern of rising marital instability, divorce rates leveled off in 1980 and have been declining ever since. The timing of deceleration and decline in the rates of marital disruption interestingly coincides with a period of substantial growth in wage inequality. This paper establishes a connection between the two phenomena and explores potential explanations for the underlying link. Using individual data on female marital histories in a duration analysis framework combined with regional and temporal variation in the pattern of male wage dispersion, I show that inequality has a significant stabilizing effect on the marital relationship. Quantitatively, increases in male wage dispersion can roughly explain up to 30% of the fall in the mean separation probability between 1979 and 1990. Several plausible explanations for this relationship are assessed: changes in spousal labor supplies, female wage inequality, income uncertainty, social capital as well as a hypothesis of “on-themarriage” search. The results are most supportive of the search interpretation. No strong quantitative support was found for the remaining mechanisms.
Bibliography Citation
Bellou, Andriana. "Male Wage Inequality and Marital Dissolution: Is There a Link?." IZA Discussion Paper No. 7331, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2013.
11. Belzil, Christian
Hansen, Jörgen
Unobserved Ability and the Return to Schooling
IZA Discussion Paper No. 508, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2002.
Also: ftp://ftp.iza.org/dps/dp508.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling; Schooling; Schooling, Post-secondary; Wage Equations; Wage Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We estimate a structural dynamic programming model of schooling decisions with unobserved heterogeneity in school ability and market ability on a sample taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Both the instantaneous utility of attending school and the wage regression function are estimated flexibly. The null hypothesis that the local returns to schooling are constant is strongly rejected in favor of a convex wage regression function composed of 8 spline segments. The local returns are very low until grade 11 (1% per year or less), increase to 3.7% in grade 12 and exceed 10% only from grade 14 to grade 16. The average return increases smoothly from 0.4% (grade 7) to 4.6% (grade 16). The convexity of the log wage regression function implies that those who obtain more schooling also experience higher average returns. We strongly reject the null hypothesis that unobserved market ability is uncorrelated with realized schooling attainments, which underlies many previous studies that have used OLS to estimate the return to schooling. The correlation between realized schooling and market ability is found to be positive and is consistent with the existence of a positive “Ability Bias”.
Bibliography Citation
Belzil, Christian and Jörgen Hansen. "Unobserved Ability and the Return to Schooling." IZA Discussion Paper No. 508, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2002.
12. Black, Sandra E.
Devereux, Paul J.
Recent Developments in Intergenerational Mobility
IZA Discussion Paper No. 4866, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2010.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp4866.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Occupational; Mobility, Social

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Economists and social scientists have long been interested in intergenerational mobility, and documenting the persistence between parents and children’s outcomes has been an active area of research. However, since Gary Solon’s 1999 Chapter in the Handbook of Labor Economics, the literature has taken an interesting turn. In addition to focusing on obtaining precise estimates of correlations and elasticities, the literature has placed increased emphasis on the causal mechanisms that underlie this relationship. This chapter describes the developments in the intergenerational transmission literature since the 1999 Handbook Chapter. While there have been some important contributions in terms of measurement of elasticities and correlations, we will focus primarily on advances in our understanding of the forces driving the relationship and less on the precision of the correlations themselves.
Bibliography Citation
Black, Sandra E. and Paul J. Devereux. "Recent Developments in Intergenerational Mobility." IZA Discussion Paper No. 4866, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2010.
13. Blau, David M.
van der Klaauw, Wilbert
A Demographic Analysis of the Family Structure Experiences of Children in the United States
IZA Discussion Paper No. 3001, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), August 2007
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Support; Cohabitation; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Divorce; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Structure; Fathers, Presence; Hispanics; Household Composition; Marital Status; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper provides the first comprehensive demographic analysis of the family structure experiences of children. Childbearing and transitions among co-residential union states defined by single, cohabiting, and married are analyzed jointly. A novel contribution is to distinguish men by their relationship to children: biological father or stepfather. This distinction is rarely made when analyzing union formation, but it is critical for understanding the family structure experiences of children. The analysis uses data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). The results are used to address the following issues: (1) What fraction of their childhood do children spend with the biological father, stepfathers, and no father? (2) How do these fractions vary by the mother's marital status at the time of the child's birth and at the time of the child's conception? (3) How do the family structure experiences of the children of white, black, and Hispanic mothers differ, and what are the proximate demographic determinants of these differences? A key finding is that children of black mothers spend on average only 34.1% of their childhood living with the biological father and mother, compared to 72.8% for whites and 64.1% for Hispanics. The two most important proximate demographic determinants of this large racial gap are the much higher propensity of black women to conceive children outside of a union, and the lower rate of "shotgun" unions for blacks compared to whites and Hispanics. Another notable finding is that cohabitation plays a negligible role in the family structure experiences of children of white and Hispanic mothers, and even for children of black mothers accounts for only one fifth of time spent living with both biological parents. Finally, we find that children of black, Hispanic, and white mothers spend similar proportions of their lives with stepfathers present, but this similarity masks a much higher stepfather "turnover" rate among blacks, who are more likely than the other groups to experience a larger number of shorter spells with different stepfathers.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, David M. and Wilbert van der Klaauw. "A Demographic Analysis of the Family Structure Experiences of Children in the United States." IZA Discussion Paper No. 3001, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), August 2007.
14. Blau, David M.
van der Klaauw, Wilbert
What Determines Family Structure?
IZA Discussion Paper No. 4912, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2010.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1599010
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Child Support; Childhood Residence; Cohabitation; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Divorce; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Structure; Fathers, Presence; Hispanics; Household Composition; Marital Status; Residence; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We estimate the effects of policy and labor market variables on the fertility, union formation and dissolution, type of union (cohabiting versus married), and partner choices of the NLSY79 cohort of women. These demographic behaviors interact to determine the family structure experienced by the children of these women: living with the biological mother and the married or cohabiting biological father, a married or cohabiting step father, or no man. We find that the average wage rates available to men and women have substantial effects on family structure for children of black and Hispanic mothers, but not for whites. The tax treatment of children also affects family structure. Implementation of welfare reform and passage of unilateral divorce laws had much smaller effects on family structure for the children of this cohort of women, as did changes in welfare benefits. The estimates imply that observed changes from the 1970s to the 2000s in the policy and labor market variables considered here contributed to a reduction in the proportion of time spent living without a father by children of the NLSY79 cohort of women. This suggests that the observed increase in this non-traditional family structure in the U.S. in the last three decades was caused by other factors.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, David M. and Wilbert van der Klaauw. "What Determines Family Structure?." IZA Discussion Paper No. 4912, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2010.
15. Borghans, Lex
Golsteyn, Bart H.H.
Job Mobility in Europe, Japan and the United States
IZA Discussion Paper No 5386, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), December 2010.
Also: http://www.politiquessociales.net/IMG/pdf/n2_dp5386.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Britain, British; British Household Panel Survey (BHPS); Careers after Higher Education: a European Research Study (CHEERS); College Graduates; Cross-national Analysis; France, French; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Germany, German; Mobility, Job; Norway, Norwegian; Sweden, Swedish

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evidence about job mobility outside the U.S. is scarce and difficult to compare crossnationally because of non-uniform data. We document job mobility patterns of college graduates in their first three years in the labor market, using unique uniform data covering 11 European countries and Japan. Using the NLSY, we replicate the information in this survey to compare the results to the U.S. We find that (1) U.S. graduates hold more jobs than European graduates. (2) Contrasting conventional wisdom, job mobility in Japan is only somewhat lower than the European average. (3) There are large differences in job mobility within Europe. Keywords: job mobility, graduates, Europe, Japan, U.S.
Bibliography Citation
Borghans, Lex and Bart H.H. Golsteyn. "Job Mobility in Europe, Japan and the United States." IZA Discussion Paper No 5386, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), December 2010.
16. Borghans, Lex
Golsteyn, Bart H.H.
Heckman, James J.
Humphries, John Eric
What Grades and Achievement Tests Measure
IZA Discussion Paper No. 10356, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November 2016.
Also: http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=10356
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); British Cohort Study (BCS); CESD (Depression Scale); Cross-national Analysis; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; I.Q.; Mid-Life in the United States (MIDUS); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Voting Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intelligence quotient (IQ), grades, and scores on achievement tests are widely used as measures of cognition, yet the correlations among them are far from perfect. This paper uses a variety of data sets to show that personality and IQ predict grades and scores on achievement tests. Personality is relatively more important in predicting grades than scores on achievement tests. IQ is relatively more important in predicting scores on achievement tests. Personality is generally more predictive than IQ of a variety of important life outcomes. Both grades and achievement tests are substantially better predictors of important life outcomes than IQ. The reason is that both capture personality traits that have independent predictive power beyond that of IQ.
Bibliography Citation
Borghans, Lex, Bart H.H. Golsteyn, James J. Heckman and John Eric Humphries. "What Grades and Achievement Tests Measure." IZA Discussion Paper No. 10356, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November 2016.
17. Brown, Sarah (UK)
McHardy, Jolian
Taylor, Karl
Intergenerational Analysis of Social Interaction
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5621, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2011.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp5621.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Britain, British; British Cohort Study (BCS); Extracurricular Activities/Sports; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parent-Child Interaction; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction; Volunteer Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We explore the relationship between the social interaction of parents and their offspring from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. Our theoretical framework establishes possible explanations for the intergenerational transfer of social interaction whereby the social interaction of the parent may influence that of their offspring and vice versa. The empirical evidence, based on four data sets covering Great Britain and the U.S., is supportive of our theoretical priors. We find robust evidence of intergenerational links between the social interaction of parents and their offspring supporting the existence of positive bi-directional intergenerational effects in social interaction.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Sarah (UK), Jolian McHardy and Karl Taylor. "Intergenerational Analysis of Social Interaction." IZA Discussion Paper No. 5621, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2011.
18. Carneiro, Pedro M.
Meghir, Costas
Parey, Matthias
Maternal Education, Home Environments and the Development of Children and Adolescents
IZA Discussion Paper No. 3072, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2007.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Progress; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We study the intergenerational effects of maternal education on children's cognitive achievement, behavioral problems, grade repetition and obesity. We address endogeneity of maternal schooling by instrumenting with variation in schooling costs when the mother grew up. Using matched data from the female participants of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and their children, we can control for mother's ability and family background factors. Our results show substantial intergenerational returns to education. For children aged 7-8, for example, our IV results indicate that an additional year of mother's schooling increases the child's performance on a standardized math test by almost 0.1 of a standard deviation, and reduces the incidence of behavioral problems. Our data set allows us to study a large array of channels which may transmit the effect of maternal education to the child, including family environment and parental investments at different ages of the child. We find that income effects, delayed childbearing, and assortative mating are likely to be important, and we show that maternal education leads to substantial differences in maternal labor supply. We investigate heterogeneity in returns, and we present results focusing both on very early stages in the child's life as well as adolescent outcomes. We present a falsification exercise to support the validity of our instruments, and our results are found to be robust in a sensitivity analysis. We discuss policy implications and relate our findings to intergenerational mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Carneiro, Pedro M., Costas Meghir and Matthias Parey. "Maternal Education, Home Environments and the Development of Children and Adolescents." IZA Discussion Paper No. 3072, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2007.
19. Chaudhuri, Saraswata
Rose, Elaina
Estimating the Veteran Effect with Endogenous Schooling When Instruments are Potentially Weak
IZA Discussion Paper No. 4203, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), June 2009
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Military Draft; Military Service; Schooling; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Instrumental variables estimates of the effect of military service on subsequent civilian earnings either omit schooling or treat it as exogenous. In a more general setting that also allows for the treatment of schooling as endogenous, we estimate the veteran effect for men who were born between 1944 and 1952 and thus reached draft age during the Vietnam era. We apply a variety of state-of-the-art econometric techniques to gauge the sensitivity of the estimates to the treatment of schooling. We find a significant veteran penalty.
Bibliography Citation
Chaudhuri, Saraswata and Elaina Rose. "Estimating the Veteran Effect with Endogenous Schooling When Instruments are Potentially Weak." IZA Discussion Paper No. 4203, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), June 2009.
20. Chute, Benjamin W.
Wunnava, Phanindra V.
Is There a Link Between Employer-Provided Health Insurance and Job Mobility? Evidence from Recent Micro Data
IZA Discussion Paper No. 8989, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2015.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp8989.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Insurance, Health; Job Turnover; Mobility, Job

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the prevalence and severity of job immobility induced by the provision of employer-sponsored health insurance -- a phenomenon known as 'job-lock'. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1994 to 2010, job-lock is identified by measuring the impact of employer-sponsored health insurance on voluntary job turnover frequency. Estimates from a logistic regression with random effects indicate that job-lock reduces voluntary job turnover by 20% per year. These results that are consistent with past research and are also supported by two alternative identification strategies employed in this paper. Our results indicate a persistence of the job-lock effect, despite two major policy interventions designed to mitigate it (COBRA and HIPAA) and signal a fundamental misunderstanding of its causes. Both policies made health insurance more portable between employers, but this paper presents evidence from a quasi-natural experiment to suggest that the problem is a lack of viable alternative private sources of health insurance. In this model, we find evidence that access to health insurance through one's spouse or partner dramatically increases voluntary job turnover. This finding has significant bearing on predicted impacts of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) and the individual health insurance exchanges catalyzed by it; these new markets will create risk pools that may 'unlock' a job-locked individual by providing them a viable alternative to employer-sponsored health insurance.
Bibliography Citation
Chute, Benjamin W. and Phanindra V. Wunnava. "Is There a Link Between Employer-Provided Health Insurance and Job Mobility? Evidence from Recent Micro Data." IZA Discussion Paper No. 8989, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2015.
21. Farré-Olalla, Lídia
Vella, Francis
Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Role Attitudes and its Implications for Female Labor Force Participation
IZA Discussion Paper No. 2802, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Labor Force Participation; Parental Influences; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a sample of mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the Young Adults of the NLSY79 we explore the relationship between a woman's attitudes towards the role of females in the labor market and the attitudes of her children. We also examine whether this intergenerational cultural link has implications for the labor market behavior of the females in the NLSY79. We find that a woman's attitudes have a statistically significant effect on her children's views towards working women. Furthermore we find that this cultural transmission influences female labor market decisions. Our results imply that a woman's view regarding the role of females in the labor market and family not only affects the labor market force participation decision of her daughter, but also has an equally strong association with the labor force participation of the wife of her son. These results indicate that the transmission of gender role attitudes contributes to the persistence of economic status across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Farré-Olalla, Lídia and Francis Vella. "Intergenerational Transmission of Gender Role Attitudes and its Implications for Female Labor Force Participation." IZA Discussion Paper No. 2802, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2007.
22. Frijters, Paul
Johnston, David W.
Shah, Manisha
Shields, Michael A.
Intra-household Resource Allocation: Do Parents Reduce or Reinforce Child Cognitive Ability Gaps?
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5153, Institute for the Study of Labor, August 2010.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp5153.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Accidents; Cognitive Development; Digit Span (also see Memory for Digit Span - WISC); Handedness; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Injuries; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Parental Influences; Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Do parents invest more or less in their high ability children? We provide new evidence on this question by comparing observed ability differences and observed investment differences between siblings in the NLSY. To overcome endogeneity issues we use sibling differences in handedness as an instrument for cognitive ability differences, since handedness is a strong determinant of cognitive ability. We find that parents invest more in high ability children, with a one standard deviation increase in child cognitive ability increasing parental investments by approximately one-third of a standard deviation. Consequently, differences in child cognitive ability are enhanced by differential parental investments. This finding has important implications for education policy.
Bibliography Citation
Frijters, Paul, David W. Johnston, Manisha Shah and Michael A. Shields. "Intra-household Resource Allocation: Do Parents Reduce or Reinforce Child Cognitive Ability Gaps?." IZA Discussion Paper No. 5153, Institute for the Study of Labor, August 2010.
23. Gihleb, Rania
Lifshitz, Osnat
Dynamic Effects of Educational Assortative Mating on Labor Supply
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9958, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2016.
Also: http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=9958
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Human Capital; Husbands; Labor Supply; Marriage; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap; Wives

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 30% of young American couples the wife is more educated than the husband. Those women are characterized by a substantially higher employment (all else equal), which in turn amplifies income inequality across couples. Using NLSY79, we formulate and structurally estimate a dynamic life-cycle model of endogenous marriage and labor supply decisions in a collective framework. We establish that the education gap at the time of marriage, produces dynamic effects due to human capital accumulation and implied wage growth. Inequality between couples is largely driven by the persistence in labor supply choices and only slightly affected by assortative matching.
Bibliography Citation
Gihleb, Rania and Osnat Lifshitz. "Dynamic Effects of Educational Assortative Mating on Labor Supply." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9958, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2016.
24. Hashimoto, Masanori
Percy, Rick
Schoellner, Teresa
Weinberg, Bruce A.
The Long and Short of It: Maternity Leave Coverage and Women’s Labor Market Outcomes
IZA Discussion Paper No. 1207, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2004.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp1207.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Job Tenure; Labor Market Outcomes; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the effects of maternity leave coverage on women’s post-birth wages, job tenure, and labor market attachment. We pay particular attention to unobservable characteristics that are correlated with maternity leave coverage and that affect labor market outcomes. We use a control sample, as well as a range of control variables, to address unobserved heterogeneity. We find evidence of substantial selection based on unobserved heterogeneity. Maternity leave effects on the three outcomes are found to be small and shortlived. This finding is understandable given that most policies in the United States allow leaves for only 12 weeks at most.
Bibliography Citation
Hashimoto, Masanori, Rick Percy, Teresa Schoellner and Bruce A. Weinberg. "The Long and Short of It: Maternity Leave Coverage and Women’s Labor Market Outcomes." IZA Discussion Paper No. 1207, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2004.
25. Heckman, James J.
Humphries, John Eric
Mader, Nicholas S.
The GED
IZA Discussion Paper No. 4975, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2010.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1631110&
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Educational Returns; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; High School Dropouts; Labor Market Outcomes; Schooling, Post-secondary; Tests and Testing; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The General Educational Development (GED) credential is issued on the basis of an eight hour subject-based test. The test claims to establish equivalence between dropouts and traditional high school graduates, opening the door to college and positions in the labor market. In 2008 alone, almost 500,000 dropouts passed the test, amounting to 12% of all high school credentials issued in that year. This chapter reviews the academic literature on the GED, which finds minimal value of the certificate in terms of labor market outcomes and that only a few individuals successfully use it as a path to obtain post-secondary credentials. Although the GED establishes cognitive equivalence on one measure of scholastic aptitude, recipients still face limited opportunity due to deficits in noncognitive skills such as persistence, motivation and reliability. The literature finds that the GED testing program distorts social statistics on high school completion rates, minority graduation gaps, and sources of wage growth. Recent work demonstrates that, through its availability and low cost, the GED also induces some students to drop out of school. The GED program is unique to the United States and Canada, but provides policy insight relevant to any nation's educational context.
Bibliography Citation
Heckman, James J., John Eric Humphries and Nicholas S. Mader. "The GED." IZA Discussion Paper No. 4975, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2010.
26. Heckman, James J.
Humphries, John Eric
Veramendi, Gregory
Returns to Education: The Causal Effects of Education on Earnings, Health and Smoking
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9957, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2016.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp9957.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Returns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Skills; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper estimates returns to education using a dynamic model of educational choice that synthesizes approaches in the structural dynamic discrete choice literature with approaches used in the reduced form treatment effect literature. It is an empirically robust middle ground between the two approaches which estimates economically interpretable and policy-relevant dynamic treatment effects that account for heterogeneity in cognitive and non-cognitive skills and the continuation values of educational choices. Graduating college is not a wise choice for all. Ability bias is a major component of observed educational differentials. For some, there are substantial causal effects of education at all stages of schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Heckman, James J., John Eric Humphries and Gregory Veramendi. "Returns to Education: The Causal Effects of Education on Earnings, Health and Smoking." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9957, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2016.
27. Holzer, Harry J.
Collateral Costs: The Effects of Incarceration on the Employment and Earnings of Young Workers
IZA Discussion Paper No 3118, Institute for the Study of Labor, October 2007.
Also: http://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/34750/1/548722005.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Crime; Earnings; Education; Employment; Incarceration/Jail; Racial Studies; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper I review the empirical evidence on the effects of incarceration on the subsequent employment and earnings of less-educated young prisoners. In this discussion I include evidence from: 1) Employer surveys and audit studies of hiring; 2) Survey data (mostly from the NLSY79) and administrative data; and 3) state-level incarceration data linked to micro employment data for young black men. The strengths and weaknesses of each type of analysis are discussed as well. The preponderance of the evidence considered suggests that, all else equal, spells of incarceration do tend to reduce subsequent employment and earnings for those with criminal records.
Bibliography Citation
Holzer, Harry J. "Collateral Costs: The Effects of Incarceration on the Employment and Earnings of Young Workers." IZA Discussion Paper No 3118, Institute for the Study of Labor, October 2007.
28. Imbens, Guido W.
Lynch, Lisa M.
Re-Employment Probabilities over the Business Cycle
IZA Discussion Paper No. 2167, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), June 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Re-employment; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a Cox proportional hazard model that allows for a flexible time dependence in order to incorporate business cycle effects, we analyze the determinants of reemployment probabilities of young workers in the U.S. from 1978-1989. We find considerable changes in the chances of young workers finding jobs over the business cycle despite the fact that personal characteristics of those starting jobless spells do not vary much over time. Therefore, government programs that target specific demographic groups may change individuals' positions within the queue of job seekers, but may only have a more limited impact on average re-employment probabilities. Living in an area with high local unemployment reduces re-employment chances as does being in a long spell of nonemployment. However, the damage associated with being in a long spell seems to be reduced somewhat if a worker is unemployed in an area with high overall unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Imbens, Guido W. and Lisa M. Lynch. "Re-Employment Probabilities over the Business Cycle." IZA Discussion Paper No. 2167, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), June 2006.
29. Kahn, Lisa B.
Asymmetric Information between Employers
IZA Discussion Paper No. 7147, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2013.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7147.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Firms; Learning, Asymmetric; Wages; Workers Ability

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Employer learning about workers' abilities plays a key role in determining how workers sort into jobs and are compensated. This study explores whether learning is symmetric or asymmetric, i.e., whether potential employers have the same information about worker ability as the incumbent firm. I develop a model of asymmetric learning that nests the symmetric learning case and allows the degree of asymmetry to vary, yielding testable implications for the prevalence of asymmetric learning. I then show how predictions in the model can be tested using compensation data. Using the NLSY, I test the model and find strong support for asymmetric information. I first exploit the fact that groups of workers differ in their variances in ability – based on economic conditions at time of entry into a firm – to show that incumbent wages track differences in ability distributions more closely than do outside firm wages. Second, I show that learning about ability is more symmetric for occupations that require more communication outside the firm. Finally, I show how to uncover the key parameter of interest in my model representing the degree to which information is asymmetric. My estimates imply that in one period, outside firms reduce the average expectation error over worker ability by roughly a third of the reduction made by incumbent firms. Thus outside firms retain sizeable expectation errors due to asymmetric information.
Bibliography Citation
Kahn, Lisa B. "Asymmetric Information between Employers." IZA Discussion Paper No. 7147, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2013.
30. Lehmann, Jee-Yeon K.
Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana
Vidal-Fernández, Marian
Explaining the Birth Order Effect: The Role of Prenatal and Early Childhood Investments
IZA Discussion Paper No. 6755 (July 2012), Institute for the Study of Labor. Updated December 2012.
Also: http://www.iza.org/de/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=6755
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Breastfeeding; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Motor and Social Development (MSD); Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Racial Differences; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine within-family differences in key prenatal and early childhood inputs in an effort shed light on the possible early origins of birth order differences in adult labor and education outcomes. Taking advantage of the rich information on in utero and early childhood conditions in the Children of the NLSY 1979, we find that, mothers are less likely to seek prompt prenatal care, breastfeed, and provide a high quality home environment for their later-born children. This negative relationship between birth order and early inputs is reflected in children’s early motor and social development scores, with children of higher birth order scoring up to 0.3 standard deviations lower than their older siblings. We find that birth order differences in early inputs and outcomes are most prominent in white families and among children of mothers with low AFQT scores.
Bibliography Citation
Lehmann, Jee-Yeon K., Ana Nuevo-Chiquero and Marian Vidal-Fernández. "Explaining the Birth Order Effect: The Role of Prenatal and Early Childhood Investments." IZA Discussion Paper No. 6755 (July 2012), Institute for the Study of Labor. Updated December 2012.
31. Liu, Xingfei
Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants: A U.S.-Canada Comparison
IZA Discussion Paper No. 8685, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Canada, Canadian; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Immigrants; Transition, School to Work; Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), Canada

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, I analyze educational outcomes for second generation immigrants and compare them to those of natives. I use a dynamic structural model and focus on transition paths from school to work for youths in Canada and the U.S. Using data extracted from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the 2000 Youth in Transition Survey, I find that family background is closely related to educational attainment of white children of immigrants in both countries. Moreover, cognitive abilities seem to be more important in determining youths' educational attainment in the U.S. than in Canada. However, I find no evidence suggesting that the effects of key family environment variables on educational attainment differ between children of immigrants and children of natives. Results from counterfactual simulations suggest that incentive-based educational reforms, such as providing educational subsidies to reduce the costs of secondary and post-secondary education, are more effective in increasing overall educational attainment for both groups. In addition, the desired dollar amount of these educational subsidies are smaller in Canada than in the U.S. On the other hand, immigration policies designed to admit only highly educated individuals have modest effects on educational attainment of second generation immigrants. Finally, there is very little difference in educational outcomes between the two groups in Canada and the U.S. despite very different immigration policies, at least for the ethnic group (whites) considered in this paper.
Bibliography Citation
Liu, Xingfei. "Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants: A U.S.-Canada Comparison." IZA Discussion Paper No. 8685, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November 2014.
32. Okumura, Tsunao
Usui, Emiko
Intergenerational Transmission of Skills and Differences in Labor Market Outcomes for Blacks and Whites
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9662, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2016.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp9662.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT); Earnings; Fathers and Sons; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Occupations; Racial Differences; Skills; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates, theoretically and empirically, differences between blacks and whites in the U.S. concerning the intergenerational transmission of occupational skills and the effects on sons' earnings. The father-son skill correlation is measured by the correlation coefficient (or cosine of the angle) between the father's skill vector and the son's skill vector. The skill vector comprises an individual's occupational characteristics from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). According to data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), white sons earn higher wages in occupations that require skills similar to those of their fathers, whereas black sons in such circumstances incur a wage loss. A large portion of the racial wage gap is explained by the father-son skill correlation. However, a significant unexplained racial wage gap remains at the lower tail of the wage distribution.
Bibliography Citation
Okumura, Tsunao and Emiko Usui. "Intergenerational Transmission of Skills and Differences in Labor Market Outcomes for Blacks and Whites." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9662, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2016.
33. Papps, Kerry Liam
Female Labour Supply and Spousal Education
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5348. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November 2010.
Also: http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=5348
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Husbands; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Three hypotheses are given to explain why a married woman's work hours might be related to her husband's education, even controlling for his wage rate. Data for a single cohort of women from the NLSY 1979 suggest that women's work hours are positively related to spousal education at the time of marriage but also fall more rapidly over time after marriage among those with the most educated husbands. Cross-sectional data from the CPS for 1980-2010 indicate that the latter effect appears to have increased since 2000. Both men's and women's preferences for a traditional division of labour within the household are found to be negatively related to the husband’s education among newlyweds but to rise faster over the course of a marriage when the husband is highly educated. Overall, the results provide evidence consistent with both marital sorting on the basis of attitudes to female work and changes in tastes that are influenced by marital quality. Little support is found for the argument that spousal education measures non-market productivity.
Bibliography Citation
Papps, Kerry Liam. "Female Labour Supply and Spousal Education." IZA Discussion Paper No. 5348. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), November 2010.
34. Polachek, Solomon W.
Das, Tirthatanmoy
Thamma-Apiroam, Rewat
Heterogeneity in the Production of Human Capital
IZA Discussion Paper No. 7335, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2013.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7335.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Earnings; Human Capital; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Skill Depreciation; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We derive a tractable nonlinear earnings function which we estimate separately for each individual in the NLSY79 data. These estimates yield five important parameters for each individual: three ability measures (two representing the ability to learn and one the ability to earn), a rate of skill depreciation, and a time discount rate. In addition, we obtain a population wide estimate of the rental rate of human capital. To illustrate heterogeneity in the production of human capital, we plot the distribution of these parameters along with NLSY79 reported AFQT scores. By utilizing these parameters, we are able to verify a number of heretofore untested theorems based on the life-cycle human capital model. In addition, we are able to show how these human capital production function parameters relate to cognitive ability, personality traits, and family background. Among our results, we find: Black-white differences in ability are smaller than those exhibited in standardized tests. Blacks have higher time discount and skill depreciation rates than whites. Individuals with higher time discount rates and greater rates of skill depreciation have fewer years of school. Individuals with both a high internal locus of control and self-esteem exhibit greater ability, lower skill depreciation, and smaller time discount rates. Individuals inclined towards depression have higher time discount rates. Agreeable, open, conscientious and extrovert individuals have a greater ability to learn but not necessarily a greater ability to earn. Neurotic individuals have a lower ability to learn. Higher parental education is associated with a greater ability to learn, lower skill depreciation, and a smaller time discount rate. Educational stimuli, such as growing up in a household that subscribed to magazines, are associated with higher ability. Conversely, growing up poor is associated with lower ability.
Bibliography Citation
Polachek, Solomon W., Tirthatanmoy Das and Rewat Thamma-Apiroam. "Heterogeneity in the Production of Human Capital." IZA Discussion Paper No. 7335, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), April 2013.
35. Posadas, Josefina
Vidal-Fernández, Marian
Grandparents’ Childcare and Female Labor Force Participation
IZA Discussion Paper No. 6398, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), February 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Child Care; Grandmothers; Grandparents; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the U.S., grandparents look after one in five preschool children of employed women. Does this source of informal childcare increase female labor force participation and if so, up to what extent? The main challenge to answer this question is that a positive relationship between grandparents’ childcare and female labor force participation might not be causal. We use the maternal grandmother’s death as an instrument of grandparents’ childcare to measure the effect of grandparents’ childcare on maternal labor force participation (MLFP). We compare OLS and IV estimates and find that grandparents’ childcare increases MLFP by 15 percentage points on average. We argue that most of the effect is driven by families from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds.

A more recent version of this article appears in IZA Journal of Labor Policy 2013, 2:14 at http://www.izajolp.com/content/2/1/14.

Bibliography Citation
Posadas, Josefina and Marian Vidal-Fernández. "Grandparents’ Childcare and Female Labor Force Participation." IZA Discussion Paper No. 6398, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), February 2012.
36. Ransom, Michael R.
Ransom, Tyler
Do High School Sports Build or Reveal Character?
IZA Discussion Paper No. 11110, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2017.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp11110.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Activities, After School; Educational Attainment; Exercise; High School Curriculum; Labor Force Participation; National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Obesity; Sports (also see ATHLETICS); Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the extent to which participation in high school athletics has beneficial effects on future education, labor market, and health outcomes. Due to the absence of plausible instruments in observational data, we use recently developed methods that relate selection on observables with selection on unobservables to estimate bounds on the causal effect of athletics participation. We analyze these effects in the US separately for men and women using three different nationally representative longitudinal data sets that each link high school athletics participation with later-life outcomes. We do not find consistent evidence of individual benefits reported in many previous studies – once we have accounted for selection, high school athletes are no more likely to attend college, earn higher wages, or participate in the labor force. However, we do find that men (but not women) who participated in high school athletics are more likely to exercise regularly as adults. Nevertheless, athletes are no less likely to be obese.
Bibliography Citation
Ransom, Michael R. and Tyler Ransom. "Do High School Sports Build or Reveal Character?" IZA Discussion Paper No. 11110, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2017.
37. Rendon, Silvio Roberto
Quella, Núria
Behind the Great Recession: Job Search and Housing Decisions
IZA Discussion Paper No. 7773 , Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), December 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Credit/Credit Constraint; Home Ownership; Housing/Housing Characteristics/Types; Job Search; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we analyze a mechanism that is particularly relevant to the workings of the Great Recession: we explain how easier home financing and higher homeownership rates increase unemployment rates. To this purpose we build a model of job search with liquid wealth accumulation and consumption of housing that can be rented, bought on credit, or sold. In our model, more relaxed house credit conditions increase workers' reservation wages, making them more selective in their job search. More selective job searches deteriorate employment transitions: job finding and job-to-job transitions rates decline while job loss rates increase, causing the overall unemployment rate to rise.We estimate this model structurally using NLSY data from 1978 until 2005. We find that more relaxed housing lending conditions, particularly lower downpayment requirements, increase unemployment rates by 6 percent points. We also find that declining labor demand decreases homeownership rates by 14 percent points.
Bibliography Citation
Rendon, Silvio Roberto and Núria Quella. "Behind the Great Recession: Job Search and Housing Decisions." IZA Discussion Paper No. 7773 , Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), December 2013.
38. Ribar, David C.
What Do Social Scientists Know About the Benefits of Marriage? A Review of Quantitative Methodologies
IZA Discussion Paper No. 998, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2004.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp998.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Benefits; Children, Well-Being; Cohabitation; Earnings; Family Structure; Health Factors; Marriage; Modeling; National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parents, Single; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study critically reviews quantitative methods that have been employed and evidence that has been gathered to assess the benefits of marriage and consequences of other family structures. The study begins by describing theoretical models of the determinants of different well-being outcomes and the role of family structure in producing those outcomes. It also discusses models of the determinants of marriage. The study then overviews specific statistical techniques that have been applied in empirical analyses of the effects of marriage, including standard regression, instrumental variables, selection and switching models, matching, non-parametric bounds, fixed effects, and latent factor (correlated random effects) methods. The study then reviews selected studies that have been completed in three domains of well-being outcomes: children's well-being, adults' earnings, and adults' physical health.
Bibliography Citation
Ribar, David C. "What Do Social Scientists Know About the Benefits of Marriage? A Review of Quantitative Methodologies." IZA Discussion Paper No. 998, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2004.
39. Rodgers, William M., III
Stratton, Leslie S.
The Male Marital Wage Differential: Race, Training, and Fixed Effects
IZA DP No. 1745, Institute for the Study of Labor, September 2005.
Also: ftp://repec.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp1745.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Family Background; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Married white men have higher wages and faster wage growth than unmarried white men. Using the NLSY, we examine whether racial differences in intrahousehold specialization and formal training explain married men's faster wage growth, and individual-specific data on cognitive skills, family background, and self-esteem contribute to married men's higher wages. African American households engage in less intrahousehold specialization and experience no differential wage growth – a finding consistent with an intrahousehold specialization argument. However, while married men have more training, cognitive ability, and self-esteem than unmarried men, controlling for these differences does not explain any component of the marital wage differential.
Bibliography Citation
Rodgers, William M., III and Leslie S. Stratton. "The Male Marital Wage Differential: Race, Training, and Fixed Effects." IZA DP No. 1745, Institute for the Study of Labor, September 2005.
40. Tabasso, Domenico
With or Without You: Divorce Rates and Intra-Household Allocation of Time
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5292, Institute for the Study of Labour (IZA), October, 2010.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1704265
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Divorce; Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Gender Differences; Household Demand; Leisure; Marriage; Time Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates the relationship between the probability of divorce and marriage specific investments. As these investments in terms of childcare and household activities are likely to increase the marital surplus, they are consequently likely to decrease the risk of divorce. All such activities, however, are characterized by gender role bias through, for example, social norms. In periods in which married women enjoy greater outside options (e.g., by increasing their labor force participation), it is expected that ouseholds in which the husband takes on typically female chores are less likely to dissolve, while couples in which the wife takes on typically male chores are more likely to divorce. The paper tests this hypothesis using data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Mature Women, the NLS Young Women, and the NLSY79. The prediction is strongly supported by the data with respect to older cohorts while it loses empirical relevance when tested on younger individuals. Furthermore, asymmetric effects between genders gain importance over time. Finally, an explanation for the relationship between divorce and marital investments is offered in terms of increasing intra-household time consumption complementarities. To this end, data from the American Time Use Surveys from 1965 to 2005 are studied to illustrate how time spent together by partners in the same household has become increasingly crucial in the American family.
Bibliography Citation
Tabasso, Domenico. "With or Without You: Divorce Rates and Intra-Household Allocation of Time." IZA Discussion Paper No. 5292, Institute for the Study of Labour (IZA), October, 2010.
41. Ward, Shannon
Williams, Jenny
van Ours, Jan C.
Bad Behavior: Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9248, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), August 2015.
Also: http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=9248
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Income; Male Sample; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; School Dropouts

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we investigate the effects of delinquency and arrest on school leaving using information on males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We use a multivariate mixed proportional hazard framework in order to account for common unobserved confounders and reverse causality. Our key finding is that delinquency as well as arrest leads to early school leaving. Further investigation reveals that the effect of delinquency is largely driven by income generating crimes, and the effect of both income generating crime and arrest are greater when onset occurs at younger ages. These findings are consistent with a criminal capital accumulation mechanism. On the basis of our sample, we show that taking into account the proportion of young men affected by delinquency and arrest, that the overall reduction in education due to delinquency is at least as large as the reduction due to arrest. This highlights the need for crime prevention efforts to extend beyond youth who come into contact with the justice system.
Bibliography Citation
Ward, Shannon, Jenny Williams and Jan C. van Ours. "Bad Behavior: Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9248, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), August 2015.
42. Williams, Jenny
van Ours, Jan C.
Early Cannabis Use and School to Work Transition of Young Men
IZA Discussion Paper No. 10488, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2017.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp10488.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Transition, School to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We study the impact of early cannabis use on the school to work transition of young men. Our empirical approach accounts for common unobserved confounders that jointly affect selection into cannabis use and the transition from school to work using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard framework in which unobserved heterogeneities are drawn from a discrete mixing distribution. Extended models account for school leavers' option of returning to school rather than starting work as a competing risk. We find that early cannabis use leads young men to accept job offers more quickly and at a lower wage rate compared to otherwise similar males who did not use cannabis. These effects are present only for those who use cannabis for longer than a year before leaving school. Overall, our findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby early non-experimental cannabis use leads to greater impatience in initial labor market decision-making.
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Jenny and Jan C. van Ours. "Early Cannabis Use and School to Work Transition of Young Men." IZA Discussion Paper No. 10488, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2017.
43. Wozniak, Abigail
Educational Differences in the Migration Responses of Young Workers to Local Labor Market Conditions
IZA Discussion Paper No. 1954, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2006.
Also: ftp://repec.iza.org/RePEc/Discussionpaper/dp1954.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Education; Labor Market Demographics; Migration; Migration Patterns

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is unclear whether educational disparities in internal migration levels reflect important economic differences or simply different consumption choices. I answer this question empirically by testing for educational differentials in the likelihood that young workers undertake and succeed at arbitrage migration. I find that young college graduates are two to five times more likely than less educated workers to reside in a state with high labor demand at the time they entered the market. Among college graduates, cross-state migration by college graduates equalizes the wage impact of early career labor demand shocks in their home states. This is not true for less educated workers. The lack of wage convergence is most severe for cohorts who entered the labor market during periods of high spatial variation in state conditions and low national employment growth. My results are consistent with theories of educational differences in migration that assume less educated workers are credit constrained, and cast doubt on several other explanations for the difference.
Bibliography Citation
Wozniak, Abigail. "Educational Differences in the Migration Responses of Young Workers to Local Labor Market Conditions." IZA Discussion Paper No. 1954, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), January 2006.
44. Wunnava, Phanindra V.
Recent Longitudinal Evidence of Size and Union Threat Effects across Genders
IZA Discussion Paper No. 6779, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), August 2012.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp6779.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Firm Size; Gender Differences; Unions; Wage Effects; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth covering years 2000 through 2008, it is evident that both male and female workers in medium/larger establishments receive not only higher wages but also have a higher probability of participating in benefit programs than those in smaller establishments. This reinforces the well-documented ‘size’ effect. Further, the firm size wage effects are much larger for men than women. The union wage effect decreases with establishment size for both genders. This supports the argument that large nonunion firms pay higher wages to discourage the entrance of unions (i.e., the ‘threat’ effect argument). In addition, the union wage premium is higher for males for small and medium firm sizes relative to females. This implies that unions in the large establishments may have a role to play in achieving a narrowing of the gender union wage gap. In other words, the threat of unionization could reduce union wage premiums for both genders as firm size increases. Given the presence of noticeable gender differences in estimated union effects on the different components of the compensation structure, unions should not treat both genders similarly with respect to wages and benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Wunnava, Phanindra V. "Recent Longitudinal Evidence of Size and Union Threat Effects across Genders." IZA Discussion Paper No. 6779, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), August 2012.