Search Results

Source: Health Economics
Resulting in 23 citations.
1. Arkes, Jeremy
Does the Economy Affect Teenage Substance Use?
Health Economics 16,1 (January 2007): 19-36
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Child Care; Children; Drug Use; Fertility; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Logit

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines how teenage drug and alcohol use responds to changes in the economy. In contrast to the recent literature confirming pro-cyclical alcohol use among adults, this research offers strong evidence that a weaker economy leads to greater teenage marijuana and hard-drug use and some evidence that a weaker economy also leads to higher teenage alcohol use. The findings are based on logistic models with state and year fixed effects, using teenagers from the NLSY-1997. The evidence also indicates that teenagers are more likely to sell drugs in weaker economies. This suggests one mechanism for counter-cyclical drug use--that access to illicit drugs is easier when the economy is weaker. These results also suggest that the strengthening economy in the 1990s mitigated what would otherwise have been much larger increases in teenage drug use.
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy. "Does the Economy Affect Teenage Substance Use? ." Health Economics 16,1 (January 2007): 19-36 .
2. Auld, M. Christopher
Sidhu, Nirmal S.
Schooling, Cognitive Ability and Health
Health Economics 14,10 (October 2005): 1019-1034.
Also: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112092939/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Endogeneity; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large literature documents a strong correlation between health and educational outcomes. In this paper we investigate the role of cognitive ability in the health-education nexus. Using NLSY data, we show that one standard deviation increase in cognitive ability is associated with roughly the same increase in health as two years of schooling and that cognitive ability accounts for roughly one quarter of the association between schooling and health. Both schooling and ability are strongly associated with health at low levels but less related or unrelated at high levels. Estimates treating schooling as endogenous to health suggest that much of the correlation between schooling and health is attributable to unobserved heterogeneity; the causal effect of schooling on health is large only for respondents with low levels of schooling and low cognitive ability. An implication is that policies which increase schooling will only increase health to the extent that they increase the education of poorly-educated individuals. Subsidies to college education, for example, are unlikely to increase population health. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Unpublished version, June 2004: http://129.3.20.41/eps/hew/papers/0406/0406001.pdf

Bibliography Citation
Auld, M. Christopher and Nirmal S. Sidhu. "Schooling, Cognitive Ability and Health." Health Economics 14,10 (October 2005): 1019-1034.
3. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
The Effects of Earned Income Tax Credit Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking
Health Economics 22,11 (November 2013): 1344-1359.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.2886/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Children; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Educational Attainment; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Earned Income Tax Credit is the largest antipoverty program in the USA. In 1993, the Earned Income Tax Credit benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we use a triple-difference plus fixed effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-educated mothers. We find that the probability of smoking for White low-educated mothers of two or more children significantly decreased relative to those with only one child, and this result is robust to various specification tests. This result provides new evidence on the protective effect of income on health through changes in a health-related behavior and therefore has important policy implications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "The Effects of Earned Income Tax Credit Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking." Health Economics 22,11 (November 2013): 1344-1359.
4. Baum, Charles L., II
The Effects of Cigarette Costs on BMI and Obesity
Health Economics 18,1 (January 2009): 3-19.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.881/pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Obesity; Taxes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

About 30% of Americans are currently obese, which is roughly a 100% increase from 25 years ago. Public health officials have consequently become alarmed because recent research indicates that societal costs of obesity now exceed those of cigarette smoking and alcoholism. Cigarette taxes may have exacerbated the prevalence of obesity. In 1964, the US Surgeon General issued its first report relating smoking and health, and since that time, federal and state governments have increased cigarette taxes in a successful effort to reduce cigarette smoking. However, because cigarette smoking and obesity seem inversely related, cigarette taxes may have simultaneously increased obesity. This paper examines the effects of cigarette costs on BMI and obesity and finds that they have significant positive effects. This paper attempts to reconcile conflicting evidence in the literature by controlling more carefully for correlation with state-specific time trends using panel data. Results indicate that the net benefit to society of increasing cigarette taxes may not be as large as previously thought, though this research in no way concludes that they should be decreased to prompt weight loss. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Baum, Charles L., II. "The Effects of Cigarette Costs on BMI and Obesity." Health Economics 18,1 (January 2009): 3-19.
5. Baum, Charles L., II
Ford, William F.
The Wage Effects of Obesity: A Longitudinal Study
Health Economics 13,9 (September 2004): 885-899.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.881/pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavioral Differences; Discrimination, Job; Gender; Health Factors; Obesity; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Wage Effects; Wages, Men; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings.
Bibliography Citation
Baum, Charles L., II and William F. Ford. "The Wage Effects of Obesity: A Longitudinal Study." Health Economics 13,9 (September 2004): 885-899.
6. Bray, Jeremy W.
Hinde, Jesse M.
Aldridge, Arnie P.
Alcohol Use and the Wage Returns to Education and Work Experience
Health Economics 27,2 (February 2018): e87-e100.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/hec.3565
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Educational Attainment; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite a widely held belief that alcohol use should negatively impact wages, much of the literature on the topic suggests a positive relationship between nonproblematic alcohol use and wages. Studies on the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment have also failed to find a consistent, negative effect of alcohol use on years of education. Thus, the connections between alcohol use, human capital, and wages remain a topic of debate in the literature. In this study, we use the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a theoretical model of wage determination that links alcohol use to wages via human capital. We find that nonbinge drinking is associated with lower wage returns to education whereas binge drinking is associated with increased wage returns to both education and work experience. We interpret these counterintuitive results as evidence that alcohol use affects wages through both the allocative and productive efficiency of human capital formation and that these effects operate in offsetting directions. We suggest that alcohol control policies should be more nuanced to target alcohol consumption in the contexts within which it causes harm.
Bibliography Citation
Bray, Jeremy W., Jesse M. Hinde and Arnie P. Aldridge. "Alcohol Use and the Wage Returns to Education and Work Experience." Health Economics 27,2 (February 2018): e87-e100.
7. Burgess, Simon M.
Propper, Carol
Early Health Related Behaviours and Their Impact on Later Life Chances: Evidence from the US
Health Economics 7,5 (August 1998): 381-399.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1050%28199808%297:5%3C381::AID-HEC359%3E3.0.CO;2-B/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior, Violent; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Drug Use; Earnings; Health Factors; Illegal Activities; Marital Stability; Marriage

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses evidence from the US to examine the impact of adolescent illegal consumption and violent behaviour on later life chances. Specifically, we look at the effect of such behaviour by young men in late adolescence on productivity and household formation ten years on. We find that alcohol and soft drug consumption have no harmful effects on economic prospects in later life. In contrast, hard drug consumption and violent behaviour in adolescence are both associated with lower productivity even by the time the individuals are in their late twenties. These effects are substantial and affect earnings levels and earnings growth. These results are robust to the inclusion of a rich set of additional controls measuring aspects of the individuals' backgrounds. However, we find no evidence of any of these behaviours significantly affecting household formation.

The data we use in this paper are taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)....The survey is on-going; we use data through 1992. ...The key variables that we focus on arise from questions asked in 1980. These therefore relate to the choices and experiences of the respondents as adolescents (90% are between the ages of 16 and 22).

Bibliography Citation
Burgess, Simon M. and Carol Propper. "Early Health Related Behaviours and Their Impact on Later Life Chances: Evidence from the US." Health Economics 7,5 (August 1998): 381-399.
8. Deza, Monica
The Effects of Alcohol on the Consumption of Hard Drugs: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997
Health Economics 24,4 (April 2015): 419-438.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.3027/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Drug Use; Substance Use; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper estimates the effect of alcohol use on consumption of hard drugs using the exogenous decrease in the cost of accessing alcohol that occurs when individuals reach the minimum legal drinking age. By using a regression discontinuity design and the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, I find that all measures of alcohol consumption, even alcohol initiation increase discontinuously at age 21 years. I also find evidence that consumption of hard drugs decreased by 1.5 to 2 percentage points and the probability of initiating the use of hard drugs decreased by 1 percentage point at the age of 21 years, while the intensity of use among users remained unchanged. These estimates are robust to a variety of specifications and also remain robust across different subsamples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Deza, Monica. "The Effects of Alcohol on the Consumption of Hard Drugs: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997." Health Economics 24,4 (April 2015): 419-438.
9. Galizzi, Monica
On the Recurrence of Occupational Injuries and Workers' Compensation Claims
Health Economics 22,5 (May 2013): 582-599.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.2829/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Health Factors; Injuries, Workplace; Labor Force Participation; Occupations; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper represents the first study to estimate counts of individual occupational injuries and claims over long spells of working life (up to 13 years) in the USA. It explores data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979.

I found that 37% of all surveyed workers who had experienced one on-the-job accident reported at least one additional injury, but only 56% of all occupational injuries and illnesses resulted in workers' compensation claims. I estimated different count models to assess the effect of different individual worker and job characteristics on individual injury counts and workers' compensation claims counts.

Lower educational levels, less tenure, work in dangerous industries and unskilled occupations, and job demands are found to be important determinants of multiple on-the-job injuries. The most interesting results, however, refer to the role played by individuals' pre-injury characteristics: early exposure to dangerous jobs is among the main determinants of higher counts of occupational injuries later in life. Early health limitations are also significant predictors of recurrent workers' compensation claims. These results provide new evidence about the important role played by both the health and the socioeconomic status of young people as determinants of their future occupational injuries. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bibliography Citation
Galizzi, Monica. "On the Recurrence of Occupational Injuries and Workers' Compensation Claims." Health Economics 22,5 (May 2013): 582-599.
10. Han, Euna
Norton, Edward C.
Stearns, Sally C.
Weight and Wages: Fat Versus Lean Paychecks
Health Economics 18,5 (May 2009): 535-548.
Also: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120846690/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Discrimination, Body weight; Economics of Discrimination; Obesity; Occupations; Racial Differences; Wage Effects; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past empirical work has shown a negative relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and wages in most cases. We improve on this work by allowing the marginal effect of non-linear BMI groups to vary by gender, age, and type of interpersonal relationships required in each occupation. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1982-1998). We find that the often-reported negative relationship between the BMI and wages is larger in occupations requiring interpersonal skills with presumably more social interactions. Also, the wage penalty increases as the respondents get older beyond their mid-twenties. We show that being overweight and obese penalizes the probability of employment across all race-gender subgroups except black women and men. Our results for the obesity-wage association can be explained by either consumers or employers having distaste for obese workers. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna, Edward C. Norton and Sally C. Stearns. "Weight and Wages: Fat Versus Lean Paychecks." Health Economics 18,5 (May 2009): 535-548.
11. Jo, Young
Does the Earned Income Tax Credit Increase Children's Weight? The Impact of Policy‐driven Income on Childhood Obesity
Health Economics 27,7 (July 2018): 1089-1102.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.3658
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Obesity; Parent-Child Interaction; Program Participation/Evaluation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I exploit substantial increases in the earned income tax credit to study how a policy‐driven change in family income affects childhood obesity. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, my difference‐in‐differences estimates indicate that the probability of being obese increased by 3 percentage points among children whose families experienced a greater income shock. A further investigation suggests that a reduction in maternal time with children played a greater role in children's weight gain than income. The paper's finding shows that a program that is not designed for health purposes, such as earned income tax credit, can have unintended effects on health outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Jo, Young. "Does the Earned Income Tax Credit Increase Children's Weight? The Impact of Policy‐driven Income on Childhood Obesity." Health Economics 27,7 (July 2018): 1089-1102.
12. Johar, Meliyanni
Katayama, Hajime
Quantile Regression Analysis of Body Mass and Wages
Health Economics 21,5 (May 2012): 597-611.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.1736/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Endogeneity; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Social Capital; Wage Determination; Wage Differentials; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the relationship between body mass and wages. We use quantile regression to provide a broad description of the relationship across the wage distribution. We also allow the relationship to vary by the degree of social skills involved in different jobs. Our results find that for female workers body mass and wages are negatively correlated at all points in their wage distribution. The strength of the relationship is larger at higher-wage levels. For male workers, the relationship is relatively constant across wage distribution but heterogeneous across ethnic groups. When controlling for the endogeneity of body mass, we find that additional body mass has a negative causal impact on the wages of white females earning more than the median wages and of white males around the median wages. Among these workers, the wage penalties are larger for those employed in jobs that require extensive social skills. These findings may suggest that labor markets reward white workers for good physical shape differently, depending on the level of wages and the type of job a worker has. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Johar, Meliyanni and Hajime Katayama. "Quantile Regression Analysis of Body Mass and Wages." Health Economics 21,5 (May 2012): 597-611.
13. Jones, Alison Snow
Richmond, David W.
Causal Effects of Alcoholism on Earnings: Estimates from the NLSY
Health Economics 15,8 (March 2006): 849-871.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.1109/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Earnings; Job Productivity; Labor Force Participation; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Propensity score matching is used to investigate the causal relationship between alcoholism and earnings in a young cohort of males and females drawn from the 1989 and 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in order to investigate productivity losses attributed to alcoholism and to quantify these effects. Results suggest that there are productivity losses attributable to alcoholism; that they become more pronounced over the life cycle; and that they differ between men and women. Ways in which estimates from propensity score matching may or may not improve on instrumental variables estimates are discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Jones, Alison Snow and David W. Richmond. "Causal Effects of Alcoholism on Earnings: Estimates from the NLSY." Health Economics 15,8 (March 2006): 849-871.
14. Kenkel, Donald S.
Lillard, Dean R.
Mathios, Alan D.
Accounting for Misclassification Error in Retrospective Smoking Data
Health Economics 13,10 (October 2004): 1031-1044.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.934/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Data Analysis; Life Course; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Modeling, Probit

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent waves of major longitudinal surveys in the US and other countries include retrospective questions about the timing of smoking initiation and cessation, creating a potentially important but under-utilized source of information on smoking behavior over the life course. In this paper, we explore the extent of, consequences of, and possible solutions to misclassification errors in models of smoking participation that use data generated from retrospective reports. In our empirical work, we exploit the fact that the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 provides both contemporaneous and retrospective information about smoking status in certain years. We compare the results from four sets of models of smoking participation. The first set of results are from baseline probit models of smoking participation from contemporaneously reported information. The second set of results are from models that are identical except that the dependent variable is based on retrospective information. The last two sets of results are from models that take a parametric approach to account for a simple form of misclassification error. Our preliminary results suggest that accounting for misclassification error is important. However, the adjusted maximum likelihood estimation approach to account for misclassification does not always perform as expected. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Kenkel, Donald S., Dean R. Lillard and Alan D. Mathios. "Accounting for Misclassification Error in Retrospective Smoking Data." Health Economics 13,10 (October 2004): 1031-1044.
15. Mellor, Jennifer M.
Do Cigarette Taxes Affect Children's Body Mass Index? The Effect of Household Environment on Health
Health Economics 20,4 (April 2010): 417-431.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.1598/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Childhood Residence; Children, Home Environment; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Family Environment; Geocoded Data; Household Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Behavior; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy; Taxes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Several recent studies demonstrate a positive effect of cigarette prices and taxes on obesity among adults, especially those who smoke. If higher cigarette costs affect smokers' weights by increasing calories consumed or increasing food expenditures, then cigarette taxes and prices may also affect obesity in children of smokers. This study examines the link between child body mass index (BMI) and obesity status and cigarette costs using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-79 (NLSY79). Controlling for various child, mother, and household characteristics as well as child-fixed effects, I find that cigarette taxes and prices increase BMI in the children of smoking mothers. Interestingly, and unlike previous research findings for adults, higher cigarette taxes do not increase the likelihood of obesity in children. These findings are consistent with a causal mechanism in which higher cigarette costs reduce smoking and increase food expenditures and consumption in the household.
Bibliography Citation
Mellor, Jennifer M. "Do Cigarette Taxes Affect Children's Body Mass Index? The Effect of Household Environment on Health." Health Economics 20,4 (April 2010): 417-431.
16. Mulligan, Karen Michelle
Access to Emergency Contraception and its Impact on Fertility and Sexual Behavior
Health Economics 25,4 (April 2016): 455-469.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.3163/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Abortion; Contraception; Fertility; Geocoded Data; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Sexual Behavior; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Half of all pregnancies in the USA are unintended, suggesting a high incidence of either improper or nonuse of contraceptives. Emergency birth control (EBC) provides individuals with additional insurance against unplanned pregnancy in the presence of contraception failure. This study is the first to estimate the impact of switching EBC from prescription to nonprescription status in the USA on abortions and risky sexual behavior as measured by STD rates. Utilizing state-level variation in access to EBC, we find that providing individuals with over-the-counter access to EBC leads to increase STD rates and has no effect on abortion rates. Moreover, individual-level analysis using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicates that risky sexual behavior such as engaging in unprotected sex and number of sexual encounters increases as a result of over-the-counter access to EBC, which is consistent with the state-level STD findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Mulligan, Karen Michelle. "Access to Emergency Contraception and its Impact on Fertility and Sexual Behavior." Health Economics 25,4 (April 2016): 455-469.
17. Renna, Francesco
The Economic Cost of Teen Drinking: Late Graduation and Lowered Earnings
Health Economics 16,4 (April 2007): 407-419.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.1178/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Earnings; Endogeneity; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Students; Occupational Choice

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzes the effect that binge drinking has on the probability of graduating on time from high school and on future earnings. The analysis is conducted on students in their senior year of high school using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Importantly, the usual instruments used to correct for the endogeneity of the drinking variable are found to be robust only for women. This paper finds that heavy drinking decreases the probability of graduating on time. Binge drinking does not have a direct impact on adults' labor earnings, but graduating late results in lower labor income. Because of a late graduation, young men who binge in high school will face an earnings penalty of 1.5-1.84 percentage points. Women also face a penalty, but this seems mostly due to the fact that women who graduate late work in industries and occupations that pay less. (Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.)
Bibliography Citation
Renna, Francesco. "The Economic Cost of Teen Drinking: Late Graduation and Lowered Earnings." Health Economics 16,4 (April 2007): 407-419.
18. Saffer, Henry
Dave, Dhaval
Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents
Health Economics 15,6 (June 2006): 617-637.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.1091/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Gender; Heterogeneity; Market Level Data; Monitoring the Future (MTF); Racial Studies; Television Viewing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Saffer, Henry and Dhaval Dave. "Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents." Health Economics 15,6 (June 2006): 617-637.
19. Saffer, Henry
Dave, Dhaval
Grossman, Michael
A Behavioral Economic Model of Alcohol Advertising and Price
Health Economics 25,7 (July 2016): 816-828.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.3186/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper presents a new empirical study of the effects of televised alcohol advertising and alcohol price on alcohol consumption. A novel feature of this study is that the empirical work is guided by insights from behavioral economic theory. Unlike the theory used in most prior studies, this theory predicts that restriction on alcohol advertising on TV would be more effective in reducing consumption for individuals with high consumption levels but less effective for individuals with low consumption levels. The estimation work employs data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and the empirical model is estimated with quantile regressions. The results show that advertising has a small positive effect on consumption and that this effect is relatively larger at high consumption levels. The continuing importance of alcohol taxes is also supported. Education is employed as a proxy for self-regulation, and the results are consistent with this assumption. The key conclusion is that restrictions on alcohol advertising on TV would have a small negative effect on drinking, and this effect would be larger for heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Saffer, Henry, Dhaval Dave and Michael Grossman. "A Behavioral Economic Model of Alcohol Advertising and Price." Health Economics 25,7 (July 2016): 816-828.
20. Schmeiser, Maximilian D.
Expanding Wallets and Waistlines: The Impact of Family Income on the BMI of Women and Men Eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit
Health Economics 18,11 (November 2009): 1277-1294.
Also: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121606649/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The rising rate of obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is now one of the most serious public health challenges facing the US. However, the underlying causes for this increase are unclear. This paper examines the effect of family income changes on body mass index (BMI) and obesity using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. It does so by using exogenous variation in family income in a sample of low-income women and men. This exogenous variation is obtained from the correlation of their family income with the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program benefits. Income is found to significantly raise the BMI and probability of being obese for women with EITC-eligible earnings, and have no appreciable effect for men with EITC-eligible earnings. The results imply that the increase in real family income from 1990 to 2002 explains between 10 and 21% of the increase in sample women's BMI and between 23 and 29% of their increased obesity prevalence. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Schmeiser, Maximilian D. "Expanding Wallets and Waistlines: The Impact of Family Income on the BMI of Women and Men Eligible for the Earned Income Tax Credit." Health Economics 18,11 (November 2009): 1277-1294.
21. Schmeiser, Maximilian D.
The Impact of Long-Term Participation In the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program on Child Obesity
Health Economics 21,4 (April 2012): 386-404.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.1714/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Growth; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Geocoded Data; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Obesity; State-Level Data/Policy; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

SUMMARY
Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) reached an all-time high of 40.2 million persons in March 2010, which means the program affects a substantial fraction of Americans. A significant body of research has emerged suggesting that participation in SNAP increases the probability of being obese for adult women and has little effect on the probability for adult men. However, studies addressing the effects of participation on children have produced mixed results. This paper examines the effect of long-term SNAP participation on the Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile and probability of being overweight or obese for children ages 5–18 using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults data set. An instrumental variables identification strategy that exploits exogenous variation in state-level program parameters, as well as state and federal expansions of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), is used to address the endogeneity between SNAP participation and obesity. SNAP participation is found to significantly reduce BMI percentile and the probability of being overweight or obese for boys and girls ages 5–11 and boys ages 12–18. For girls ages 12–18, SNAP participation appears to have no significant effect on these outcomes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Schmeiser, Maximilian D. "The Impact of Long-Term Participation In the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program on Child Obesity." Health Economics 21,4 (April 2012): 386-404.
22. Yamada, Tetsuji
Kendix, Michael
Yamada, Tadashi
The Impact of Alcohol Consumption and Marijuana Use on High School Graduation
Health Economics 5,1 (January-February 1996): 77-92.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1050%28199601%295:1%3C77::AID-HEC184%3E3.0.CO;2-W/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Dropouts; Educational Status; High School Completion/Graduates; Modeling; Substance Use; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate the relationship between high school graduation, and alcohol and marijuana use among high school students. We also estimate the demand determinants for each of these substances. Our results show that there are significant adverse effects of alcohol and marijuana use on high school graduation. In particular, increases in the incidence of frequent drinking, liquor and wine consumption, and frequent marijuana use, significantly reduce the probability of high school graduation. Our results also show that beer taxes, liquor prices and marijuana decriminalization have a significant impact on the demand for these substances. These findings have important policy implications. A ten percent increase in beer taxes, reduces alcohol consumption among high school students, which in turn raises the probability of high school graduation by about three percent. A 1 percent increase in liquor prices raises the probability of high school graduation by over 1 percent. Raising the minimum drinking age for liquor also reduces liquor and wine consumption, and thus, improves the probability of high school graduation. Although the relationship between marijuana decriminalization and marijuana use is not significant, decriminalization is found to reduce the probability of becoming a frequent drinker. This result suggests that marijuana use and frequent drinking are substitute activities. Illicit substance abuse reduces the rate of high school completion, reduces expected future earnings and creates potential health problems. Thus, high-school-based preventive programs which discourage alcohol consumption and marijuana use are highly recommended, in order to alleviate these problems.
Bibliography Citation
Yamada, Tetsuji, Michael Kendix and Tadashi Yamada. "The Impact of Alcohol Consumption and Marijuana Use on High School Graduation." Health Economics 5,1 (January-February 1996): 77-92.
23. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Katon, Wayne
Socioeconomic Status, Depression Disparities, and Financial Strain: What Lies Behind the Income-Depression Relationship?
Health Economics 14,12 (December 2005): 1197-1215.
Also: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110504817/ABSTRACT
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Income Level; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior studies have consistently found the incidence and persistence of depression to be higher among persons with low incomes, but causal mechanisms for this relationship are not well understood. This study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to test several hypotheses about the robustness of the depression-income relationship among adults. In regressions of depression symptoms on income and sociodemographic variables, income is significantly associated with depression. However, when controls for other economic variables are included, the effect of income is considerably reduced, and generally not significant. Employment status and the ratio of debts-to-assets are both highly significant for men and for women both above and below the median income. Fixed-effects estimates suggest that employment status and financial strain are causally related to depression, but income is not. Instrumental variable estimates suggest that financial strain may not lead to depression. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. and Wayne Katon. "Socioeconomic Status, Depression Disparities, and Financial Strain: What Lies Behind the Income-Depression Relationship?" Health Economics 14,12 (December 2005): 1197-1215.