Search Results

Source: Economic Inquiry
Resulting in 32 citations.
1. Ahn, Taehyun
Locus of Control and Job Turnover
Economic Inquiry 53,2 (April 2015): 1350-1365.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecin.12173/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Wage Growth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, I investigate how a worker's locus of control, that is, the perception of control over daily events, affects job-to-job and job-to-nonemployment turnover. I find that an increase in internality--the degree to which respondents believe that the outcomes of their life events are determined by their own actions versus external factors--increases job-to-job transitions. In addition, the annual wage growth rate and the wage gains from job-to-job transitions increase with internality. The influence of the locus of control on job-to-nonemployment turnover, however, is insignificant on controlling for the worker's level of attained education.
Bibliography Citation
Ahn, Taehyun. "Locus of Control and Job Turnover." Economic Inquiry 53,2 (April 2015): 1350-1365.
2. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina
Kimmel, Jean
Moonlighting Over the Business Cycle.
Economic Inquiry 47,4 (October 2009): 754-765.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00140.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Economic Changes/Recession; Economics of Gender; Gender; Gender Differences; Work, Atypical

Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the cyclicality of moonlighting by gender. We estimate a random-effects Tobit model of moonlighting among working men and women and find that while male moonlighting behavior does not fluctuate significantly with the business cycle, female moonlighting does. The cyclicality of female moonlighting has, nonetheless, varied over the course of the past 35 yr. Female moonlighting seemed to behave countercyclically during much of the 1980s and early 1990s, confirming the popular media belief that moonlighting is more likely to occur during periods of economic distress. Yet, this countercyclical behavior disappears during the 1993-1999 period to become procyclical by the early twentieth century. The recent procyclicality of female moonlighting supports the idea that female workers respond to a need for "just-in-time" employment following the economic upturn of the mid- to late 1990s. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina and Jean Kimmel. "Moonlighting Over the Business Cycle." Economic Inquiry 47,4 (October 2009): 754-765.
3. Argys, Laura M.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Can Adequate Child Support Be Legislated? Responses to Guidelines and Enforcement
Economic Inquiry 41,3 (July 2003): 463-480.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/ei/cbg021/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Child Support; Divorce; Legislation; Modeling; Parents, Non-Custodial

This article explores the relationship between noncustodial parents' willingness to pay child support, state child support guidelines and enforcement efforts, and child support awards and subsequent compliance. Our game theoretic model, which distinguishes cases of asymmetric information from cases of symmetric information, demonstrates that guidelines and increased enforcement can increase payments when awards are court-ordered but may not increase payments and could even reduce child expenditures when some payment would otherwise have occurred voluntarily. Our analyses of awards to divorced or separated mothers from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are consistent with the model. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M. and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Can Adequate Child Support Be Legislated? Responses to Guidelines and Enforcement." Economic Inquiry 41,3 (July 2003): 463-480.
4. Argys, Laura M.
Rees, Daniel I.
Averett, Susan L.
Witoonchart, Benjama
Birth Order and Risky Adolescent Behavior
Economic Inquiry 44,2 (April 2006): 215-233.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/ei/cbj011/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; Birth Order; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

It is commonly believed that birth order is an important determinant of success. However, previous studies in this area have failed to provide convincing evidence that birth order is related to test scores, education, or earnings. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–1979, we investigate the association between birth order and adolescent behaviors such as smoking, drinking, marijuana use, sexual activity, and crime. Our estimates show that middle borns and last borns are much more likely to use substances and be sexually active than their firstborn counterparts. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that birth order is related to measurable behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., Daniel I. Rees, Susan L. Averett and Benjama Witoonchart. "Birth Order and Risky Adolescent Behavior." Economic Inquiry 44,2 (April 2006): 215-233.
5. Baird, Matthew D.
Labor Supply Estimation Biases from Disregarding Nonwage Benefits
Economic Inquiry 55,2 (April 2017): 1064-1090.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecin.12405/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Occupational Choice; Occupations; Wage Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Labor supply models and research underpinned by labor supply decisions often assume that workers' choices are functions of wage and wage offers. However, the literature shows evidence that such decisions at least partly depend on nonwage benefits encompassed in jobs and occupations. In this paper, I develop and estimate a stochastic dynamic model of occupation and job choice, where nonwage benefits are directly incorporated into the decision alongside wages (a full model). Nested within the full model is a wage model, which represents the common practice in the literature of basing selection solely on wages and disregarding nonwage benefits. I separately estimate the full model and the nested wage model to compare the implications (biases) of omitting nonwage benefits. I compare the two models' estimates of elasticities and an inequality reduction intervention policy. I find that disregarding nonwage benefits generally causes biases. There are cases when the two models predict very similar outcomes and have close estimates, such as in occupation-specific elasticities and job transition elasticities. But these special cases are products of canceling biases. In most cases, ignoring nonwage benefits will bias estimates by overestimating the importance of wage in the selection process and by disregarding changes in relative prices between wage and nonwage benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Baird, Matthew D. "Labor Supply Estimation Biases from Disregarding Nonwage Benefits." Economic Inquiry 55,2 (April 2017): 1064-1090.
6. Barrow, Lisa
An Analysis of Women's Return-to-Work Decisions Following First Birth
Economic Inquiry 37,3 (July 1999): 432-451.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1999.tb01441.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Child Care; Household Composition; Maternal Employment; Work Histories

Women's labor force participation has increased sharply over the last two decades, particularly for married women with young children. This suggests women are spending less time out of the labor force for child bearing and rearing. Using the detailed information available within the NLSY, I explore women's decisions to return to work within one year of their first child's birth, focusing on the effect of child care costs. Consistent with economic theory, women facing lower child care costs are more likely to return to work as are women with higher potential wages and lower family income from other sources.
Bibliography Citation
Barrow, Lisa. "An Analysis of Women's Return-to-Work Decisions Following First Birth." Economic Inquiry 37,3 (July 1999): 432-451.
7. Bender, Keith A.
Skatun, John D. F.
Constrained by Hours and Restricted in Wages: The Quality of Matches in the Labor Market
Economic Inquiry 47,3 (July 2009): 512-529.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00159.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Turnover; Underemployment; Work Hours

This paper examines the explicit loss born by workers who face constraints in their working hours by analyzing differences in actual and desired hours and wages. Men tend to be underemployed while women are evenly split between over- and underemployment. Losses in surplus are generally small, but 10% of underemployed men and women experience losses of more than 34% or 50% of surplus, respectively. The loss measure is also an important determinant in predicting labor market transitions, meaning increases in surplus losses generate a higher probability of changing from workers' present jobs or changing the number of hours.
Bibliography Citation
Bender, Keith A. and John D. F. Skatun. "Constrained by Hours and Restricted in Wages: The Quality of Matches in the Labor Market." Economic Inquiry 47,3 (July 2009): 512-529.
8. Blau, David M.
van der Klaauw, Wilbert
What Determines Family Structure?
Economic Inquiry, 51,1 (January 2013): 579-604.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2010.00334.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Family Structure; Racial Differences; Taxes; Wages; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the effects of policy and labor market variables on the demographic behaviors that determine children's family structure experiences: union formation and dissolution, and fertility. Male and female wages have substantial effects on family structure for children of black and Hispanic mothers. The tax treatment of children also affects family structure. Welfare reform, welfare benefits, and unilateral divorce had much smaller effects on family structure for the children of this cohort of women. Trends in wages and tax rates explain only a small share of the observed changes in family structure in recent decades. (JEL J12)
Bibliography Citation
Blau, David M. and Wilbert van der Klaauw. "What Determines Family Structure?" Economic Inquiry, 51,1 (January 2013): 579-604.
9. Blau, Francine D.
Kahn, Lawrence M.
Causes and Consequences of Layoffs
Economic Inquiry 19,2 (April 1981): 270-296.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1981.tb01134.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Layoffs; Modeling, Probit; Unemployment

Using probit analysis, this article finds that differential treatment accounts for a substantial portion of the higher layoff rates of blacks in comparison to whites. However, women are found to be considerably less prone to layoffs than men with similar characteristics. Among those who obtained subsequent employment (taking into account the possible selectivity bias in such a subsample), white males are hurt more by layoffs than black males in terms of both short-term and long-term earnings growth; women's earnings are not necessarily affected by layoff at all. However, whites and males are found to be more likely to be reemployed than blacks and females, respectively.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, Francine D. and Lawrence M. Kahn. "Causes and Consequences of Layoffs." Economic Inquiry 19,2 (April 1981): 270-296.
10. Blau, Francine D.
Kahn, Lawrence M.
Job Search and Unionized Employment
Economic Inquiry 21,3 (July 1983): 412-430.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00159.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Job Search; Unemployment; Unions; Wages; Wages, Reservation

This study examines the relationship between job search and obtaining a union job. The findings indicate that the presence of a union-nonunion wage differential causes workers to seek high paying union jobs. The results further show that finding a union job is negatively related to weeks of unemployed search, and positively related to a job seeker's other family income, other things equal. In other words, a higher reservation wage increases the likelihood of obtaining unionized employment.
Bibliography Citation
Blau, Francine D. and Lawrence M. Kahn. "Job Search and Unionized Employment." Economic Inquiry 21,3 (July 1983): 412-430.
11. Chyi, Hau
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
The Effects of Single Mothers' Welfare Use and Employment Decisions on Children's Cognitive Development
Economic Inquiry 51,1 (January 2013): 675-706.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00466.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Maternal Employment; Medicaid/Medicare; Mothers; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the effects of single mothers' welfare use and employment decisions on children's short-run cognitive development, as measured by their preschool standardized math test scores. We control for three mechanisms through which these decisions might affect children's outcomes: direct monetary benefits, parental time invested in the child, and nonpecuniary benefits from in-kind transfer programs such as Medicaid. We employ a correction function approach and control for state-fixed effects to address the endogenous nature of welfare participation and employment decisions. Our estimates suggest that although each additional quarter of either mother's employment or welfare use results in only a small increase in a child's standardized math test score, the total effects after several quarters are sizable. We allow mothers' decisions to have varying effects on attainment by children's observed innate ability and by the intensity of welfare use and employment. A child who has the mean level of observed innate ability with a mother who simultaneously worked and used welfare in all 20 quarters after childbirth experiences an 8.25 standardized-point increase in standardized scores. The positive impact is more pronounced for the more disadvantaged children, who tend to be born to mothers with low Armed Forces Qualification Test scores, or have lower birth weights. We also examine the effects using timing of employment and welfare use, as well as children's maturity and gender. (JEL I3, J13, J22)
Bibliography Citation
Chyi, Hau and Orgul Demet Ozturk. "The Effects of Single Mothers' Welfare Use and Employment Decisions on Children's Cognitive Development." Economic Inquiry 51,1 (January 2013): 675-706.
12. Cornwell, Christopher
Rupert, Peter
Unobservable Individual Effects, Marriage and the Earnings of Young Men
Economic Inquiry 35,2 (April 1997): 285-294.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1997.tb01910.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Earnings; Marital Status; Marriage; Wage Effects; Wages; Wages, Young Men

While there is compelling evidence that married men earn more than unmarried men, the source of this premium remains unsettled. Using panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Men, we show that much of the premium normally attributed to marriage is associated with unobservable individual effects that are correlated with marital status and wages. To the extent there is a gain, it is purely an intercept shift and no more than 5% to 7%. Our findings cast doubt on the interpretation that marriage enhances productivity through specialization. (Copyright Western Economic Association International.)
Bibliography Citation
Cornwell, Christopher and Peter Rupert. "Unobservable Individual Effects, Marriage and the Earnings of Young Men." Economic Inquiry 35,2 (April 1997): 285-294.
13. Currie, Janet
Reagan, Patricia Benton
Distance to Hospital and Children's Use of Preventive Care: Is Being Closer Better, and for Whom?
Economic Inquiry 41,3 (July 2003): 378-392.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/ei/cbg015/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Child Health; Children, Health Care; Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Health Care; Neighborhood Effects; Racial Differences

This article examines the effect of distance to hospital on preventive care among children using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's Child-Mother file matched to data from the 1990 American Hospital Association Survey. Among central-city black children, each additional mile from the hospital is associated with a 3-percentage-point decline in the probability of having had a checkup (from a mean baseline of 74%). Moreover, the effects are similar for privately and publicly insured black children. For this group, access to providers is as important as private insurance coverage in predicting use of preventive care. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Patricia Benton Reagan. "Distance to Hospital and Children's Use of Preventive Care: Is Being Closer Better, and for Whom?" Economic Inquiry 41,3 (July 2003): 378-392.
14. Fairlie, Robert W.
Beltran, Daniel O.
Das, Kuntal Kumar
Home Computers and Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY97 and CPS
Economic Inquiry 48,3 (July 2010): 771-792.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2009.00218.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Computer Use; Crime; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Education; Educational Returns; Family Characteristics; High School Completion/Graduates; Home Environment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Truancy

Although computers are universal in the classroom, nearly 20 million children in the United States do not have computers in their homes. Surprisingly, only a few previous studies explore the role of home computers in the educational process. Home computers might be very useful for completing school assignments, but they might also represent a distraction for teenagers. We use several identification strategies and panel data from the two main U.S. data sets that include recent information on computer ownership among children—the 2000–2003 Current Population Survey (CPS) Computer and Internet Use Supplements matched to the CPS basic monthly files and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97)—to explore the causal relationship between computer ownership and high school graduation and other educational outcomes. Teenagers who have access to home computers are 6–8 percentage points more likely to graduate from high school than teenagers who do not have home computers after controlling for individual, parental, and family characteristics. We generally find evidence of positive relationships between home computers and educational outcomes using several identification strategies, including controlling for typically unobservable home environment and extracurricular activities in the NLSY97, fixed effects models, instrumental variables, and including future computer ownership and falsification tests. Home computers may increase high school graduation by reducing nonproductive activities, such as truancy and crime, among children in addition to making it easier to complete school assignments (JEL I2).
Bibliography Citation
Fairlie, Robert W., Daniel O. Beltran and Kuntal Kumar Das. "Home Computers and Educational Outcomes: Evidence from the NLSY97 and CPS." Economic Inquiry 48,3 (July 2010): 771-792.
15. Fan, C. Simon
Wei, Xiangdong
Zhang, Junsen
Soft Skills, Hard Skills, and the Black/White Wage Gap
Economic Inquiry 55,2 (April 2017): 1032-1053.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecin.12406/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Noncognitive Skills; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Racial Differences; Skills; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the relative importance of soft skills versus hard skills across occupations and its impact on the observed wage gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. It posits that the Black/White pay gap may vary across occupations that require the use of different types of skills. We classify occupations into hard-skill intensive versus soft-skill intensive jobs using the skill content measures of different occupations from the Occupational Information Network (O*Net). We then use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and Current Population Survey (CPS) to investigate the impact of job skill type on the wage gap. Consistent with our theoretical predictions, we show that this wage gap in white-collar jobs is smaller for hard-skills jobs than it is for soft-skills jobs. Moreover, we demonstrate that, in response to variations in the wage gap across different occupations, Blacks are more likely to self-select themselves into hard-skills jobs, ceteris paribus. This shows not only that discrimination against Blacks varies across occupations, but also that such discrimination induces the self-selection of Blacks into certain occupations. Moreover, this finding highlights the role played by co-worker/customer discrimination in explaining the racial wage gap in the U.S. labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Fan, C. Simon, Xiangdong Wei and Junsen Zhang. "Soft Skills, Hard Skills, and the Black/White Wage Gap." Economic Inquiry 55,2 (April 2017): 1032-1053.
16. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
The Impact of Psychological and Human Capital on Wages
Economic Inquiry 35,4. (October 1997): 815-829.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1997.tb01966.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Manpower Programs; Occupational Choice; Psychological Effects; Self-Esteem; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wages

Historically, economists have taken the position that psychological capital is either unobservable or unmeasurable; thus, heretofore, little evidence has been available on the contribution of psychological capital to wages. Using data drawn from two different waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors offer evidence that psychological capital has both a direct effect--via self-esteem--and an indirect effect--through locus of control--on an individual's real wage. They find a person's wage is more sensitive to changes in self-esteem than to comparable alterations in human capital. Both relative wages and human capital contribute to self-esteem.
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "The Impact of Psychological and Human Capital on Wages." Economic Inquiry 35,4. (October 1997): 815-829.
17. Keith, Kristen K.
McWilliams, Abagail
Job Mobility and Gender-Based Wage Growth Differentials
Economic Inquiry 35,2 (April 1997): 320-333.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1997.tb01913.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Occupational; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth

Studies of gender differences in the returns to job mobility have yielded conflicting results. The issue of whether there are gender differences in mobility patterns or in the returns to different types of mobility. The results, based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, imply that there are gender differences in mobility patterns, but there are not gender differences in the wage growth associated with different types of mobility. Therefore, it appears that empirical estimates of the gender differences in the returns to job mobility may be misleading if they do not consider the cause of separation.
Bibliography Citation
Keith, Kristen K. and Abagail McWilliams. "Job Mobility and Gender-Based Wage Growth Differentials." Economic Inquiry 35,2 (April 1997): 320-333.
18. Kiker, B. F.
Roberts, R. Blaine
The Durability of Human Capital: Some New Evidence
Economic Inquiry 22,2 (April 1984): 269-281.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1984.tb00684.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Human Capital Theory; Job Search; Mobility, Job; Part-Time Work; Schooling; Unemployment; Unions; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Vocational Training; Work History

This paper analyzes the effect of chronological aging, experience, job search, change of job and/or employer, and formal training on the wage growth of a sample of young men. Following the human capital literature, wage growth directly corresponds to human capital and the analysis allows for the assessment of the durability or rate of depreciation of human capital if further investments are not made. The findings suggest that human capital is not very durable, contrary to some previous estimates given in the literature.
Bibliography Citation
Kiker, B. F. and R. Blaine Roberts. "The Durability of Human Capital: Some New Evidence." Economic Inquiry 22,2 (April 1984): 269-281.
19. Koch, Steven F.
McGeary, Kerry Anne
The Effect of Youth Alcohol Initiation on High School Completion
Economic Inquiry 43,4 (October 2005): 750-765.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/ei/cbi052/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Social Environment

The social environment inherent in schools impacts both alcohol consumption onset and high school completion. The results reported here, based on data from the 1979-96 NLSY panels, show that the social coincidences between alcohol consumption and education are important determinants of both education completion and alcohol onset. Ignoring the social nature of these simultaneous decisions underestimates the impact of alcohol onset on education. After correcting for the presence of an endogenous positive relationship between schooling and alcohol consumption, we find that alcohol initiation before age 14 significantly reduces the probability of timeously completing high school by between 7% and 22%.
Bibliography Citation
Koch, Steven F. and Kerry Anne McGeary. "The Effect of Youth Alcohol Initiation on High School Completion." Economic Inquiry 43,4 (October 2005): 750-765.
20. Locay, Luis
Regan, Tracy Lynn
Diamond, Arthur M., Jr.
The Effects of Spanish-Language Background on Completed Schooling and Aptitude Test Scores
Economic Inquiry 51,1 (January 2013): 527-562.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00458.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Educational Attainment; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Home Environment; Human Capital; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the effect of speaking Spanish at home as a child on completed schooling and aptitude test scores using data from the NLSY79 on Hispanics who grew up in the United States. We model the accumulation of traditional human capital and English fluency, leading to the joint determination of schooling and test scores. We find that speaking Spanish at home reduces test scores, but has no significant effect on completed schooling. The reduction in test scores (1) increases in magnitude in three of the tests when the parents are more educated; (2) is much more dramatic when the choice of home language is made endogenous; and (3) is not systematically greater for the verbal than for the math tests. (JEL I20, J15)
Bibliography Citation
Locay, Luis, Tracy Lynn Regan and Arthur M. Diamond. "The Effects of Spanish-Language Background on Completed Schooling and Aptitude Test Scores." Economic Inquiry 51,1 (January 2013): 527-562.
21. Mellow, Wesley
Search Costs and the Duration of Unemployment
Economic Inquiry 16,3 (July 1978): 423-430.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1978.tb00512.x/pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Job Search; Mobility, Job; Unemployment Duration; Wages, Reservation

This study attempts to test the hypothesis that low search costs increase the duration of unemployment. Findings show that job changers identified as having low search costs have longer subsequent duration of unemployment. In addition, the authors examined the determinants of wage change and found that unemployed time is productive search. The results support two basic contentions of search theory and suggest that worker-specific differences in search costs contribute to the dispersion of wages among workers.
Bibliography Citation
Mellow, Wesley. "Search Costs and the Duration of Unemployment." Economic Inquiry 16,3 (July 1978): 423-430.
22. Menchik, Paul L.
Jianakoplos, Nancy Ammon
Black-White Wealth Inequality: Is Inheritance the Reason?
Economic Inquiry 35,2 (April 1997): 428-442.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1997.tb01920.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Income Dynamics/Shocks; Income Level; Inheritance; Racial Differences; Wealth

Racial differences in the receipt of financial inheritances help to explain why the average difference in wealth between black and white households is larger than the average difference in income.Using data from a panel of prime-aged males and from a representative survey of the U. S. population. We document the greater likelihood of white households receiving an inheritance than Black household. Controlling for other factors which contribute to racial differences in wealth we estimate that financial inheritance may account for between 10% and 20% of the average difference in black-white household wealth. Copyright Western Economic Association International.
Bibliography Citation
Menchik, Paul L. and Nancy Ammon Jianakoplos. "Black-White Wealth Inequality: Is Inheritance the Reason?" Economic Inquiry 35,2 (April 1997): 428-442.
23. Rao, Neel
The Impact of Macroeconomic Conditions in Childhood on Adult Labor Market Outcomes
Economic Inquiry 54,3 (July 2016): 1425-1444.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecin.12327/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; Economic Changes/Recession; Geocoded Data; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Labor Market Outcomes; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Unemployment Rate, Regional

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the influence of business cycles in childhood on economic performance later in life. I relate unemployment rates between the year before one's birth and the year of one's 15th birthday to schooling, employment, and income as an adult. The analysis exploits variation in macroeconomic conditions across states over time. I address a number of identification challenges related to cohort effects, linear trends, current events, and economic persistence. The caregiving behaviors and background characteristics of parents are also studied. The average unemployment rate in childhood normally has a negative effect on human capital in adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Rao, Neel. "The Impact of Macroeconomic Conditions in Childhood on Adult Labor Market Outcomes." Economic Inquiry 54,3 (July 2016): 1425-1444.
24. Regan, Tracy Lynn
Oaxaca, Ronald L.
Burghardt, Galen
A Human Capital Model of the Effects of Ability and Family Background on Optimal Schooling Levels
Economic Inquiry 45,4 (October 2007): 721-738.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2007.00058.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Earnings; Education; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Human Capital; Modeling; Occupational Choice; Schooling; Skills; Wage Levels; Wealth; Work Experience

This paper develops a theoretical model of optimal schooling levels where ability and family background are the central explanatory variables. We derive schooling demand and supply functions based on individual wealth maximization. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, we stratify our sample into 1-year full-time equivalent (FTE) work experience cohorts for 1985-1989. The estimated Mincerian "overtaking" cohort (the years of work experience at which individuals' observed earnings approximately equal what they would have been based on schooling and ability alone) corresponds to 13 FTE years of experience, yielding on average a rate of return of 10.3% and an average (optimal) 11.4 yr of schooling.
Bibliography Citation
Regan, Tracy Lynn, Ronald L. Oaxaca and Galen Burghardt. "A Human Capital Model of the Effects of Ability and Family Background on Optimal Schooling Levels." Economic Inquiry 45,4 (October 2007): 721-738.
25. Reyes, Jessica Wolpaw
Lead Exposure and Behavior: Effects on Antisocial and Risky Behavior Among Children and Adolescents
Economic Inquiry 53,3 (July 2015): 1580-1605.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecin.12202/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Health; Environment, Pollution/Urban Density; Environmental Exposure/Environmental Policy; Epidemiology; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is well known that exposure to lead has numerous adverse effects on behavior and development. Using data on two cohorts of children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this paper investigates the effect of early childhood lead exposure on behavior problems from childhood through early adulthood. I find large negative consequences of early childhood lead exposure, in the form of an unfolding series of adverse behavioral outcomes: behavior problems as a child, pregnancy and aggression as a teen, and criminal behavior as a young adult. At the levels of lead that were the norm in United States until the late 1980s, estimated elasticities of these behaviors with respect to lead range between 0.1 and 1.0. [Note: this paper was also NBER Working Paper No. 20366 in August 2014]
Bibliography Citation
Reyes, Jessica Wolpaw. "Lead Exposure and Behavior: Effects on Antisocial and Risky Behavior Among Children and Adolescents." Economic Inquiry 53,3 (July 2015): 1580-1605.
26. Richey, Jeremiah Alexander
Rosburg, Alicia
Changing Roles of Ability and Education in U.S. Intergenerational Mobility
Economic Inquiry 55,1 (January 2017): 187-201.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecin.12362/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data on young adults from the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we investigate the changing roles of ability and education in the transmission of economic status across generations. We find that ability plays a substantially diminished role for the most recent cohort whereas education plays a much larger role. The first finding results primarily from a smaller effect of children's ability on status, the second from an increased correlation between parental status and educational attainment. A replication of the analysis by gender reveals that the changes in the role of ability are largely driven by men whereas the changes in education's role are largely driven by women.
Bibliography Citation
Richey, Jeremiah Alexander and Alicia Rosburg. "Changing Roles of Ability and Education in U.S. Intergenerational Mobility." Economic Inquiry 55,1 (January 2017): 187-201.
27. Rodgers, William M., III
Stratton, Leslie S.
Male Marital Wage Differentials: Training, Personal Characteristics, and Fixed Effects
Economic Inquiry 48,3 (July 2010): 722-742.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00209.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Family Background; Job Training; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Wage Differentials; Wage Growth

Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we replicate previous estimates of the marital wage differential for white men, extend the analysis to African American men, then explain the within and between race differentials. We first control for formal job training, then for cognitive skills, parental background, and self-esteem with little effect. By contrast, the white differential but not the black differential disappears in fixed-effects estimation. We reconcile the cross-section/panel differentials by focusing on the distinct identification conditions employed by each technique. Men who never change marital status play a significant role in white cross-sectional estimates. ( JEL J31, J12) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Economic Inquiry is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Rodgers, William M., III and Leslie S. Stratton. "Male Marital Wage Differentials: Training, Personal Characteristics, and Fixed Effects." Economic Inquiry 48,3 (July 2010): 722-742.
28. Schiller, Bradley R.
Crewson, Philip E.
Entrepreneurial Origins: A Longitudinal Inquiry
Economic Inquiry 35,3 (July 1997): 523-531.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2006.00002.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Longitudinal Surveys; Self-Employed Workers

Ever since Schumpeter identified the 'animal spirits' of entrepreneurs as the driving force of markets, researchers have been trying to determine who is an entrepreneur and what factors breed entrepreneurial success. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, the authors first determine who pursues self-employment in their youth and then who succeeds. There is a surprisingly high incidence of self-employment but very low success rates. Significant correlates of both entry into self-employment and eventual success differ markedly by gender.
Bibliography Citation
Schiller, Bradley R. and Philip E. Crewson. "Entrepreneurial Origins: A Longitudinal Inquiry." Economic Inquiry 35,3 (July 1997): 523-531.
29. Spivey, Christy
Desperation or Desire? The Role of Risk Aversion in Marriage
Economic Inquiry 48,2 (April 2010): 499-516.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00181.x/full
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; Family Income; Gender Differences; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Risk-Taking; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Because of the uncertainty inherent in searching for a spouse and the uncertainty of the future quality and state of the marriage itself, risk attitudes likely directly impact the timing of marriage. The effect of an individual’s risk aversion, measured via a series of hypothetical gambles over income on time to marriage, is examined using survival analysis. I find risk aversion significantly affects time to marriage, with more risk averse respondents marrying sooner than their more risk-loving counterparts. Within-family analyses using sibling data reveal a similar pattern. In addition, the effect of risk aversion on time to marriage is larger in magnitude and more statistically significant for men. One possible explanation for the different results between the sexes is that women value risk aversion as a desirable trait in potential mates.
Bibliography Citation
Spivey, Christy. "Desperation or Desire? The Role of Risk Aversion in Marriage." Economic Inquiry 48,2 (April 2010): 499-516.
30. Wu, Huoying
Can the Human Capital Approach Explain Life-Cycle Wage Differentials Between Races and Sexes?
Economic Inquiry 45,1 (January 2007): 24-39.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2006.00002.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Labor Economics; Life Cycle Research; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 cohort (NLSY79), this paper shows the importance of postschool human capital investment in describing both gender and racial wage gaps. The empirical results suggest that male-female wage gaps, regardless of race, are mainly caused by gender differences in the human capital production process; generally, men gain more work experience and therefore have lower marginal costs of human capital production. Black-white lifetime wage differentials could partly result from higher implicit interest rates for blacks, while the deterioration of black males' relative economic status as they age can be attributed to higher depreciation rates of their human capital stock. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Economic Inquiry is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Wu, Huoying. "Can the Human Capital Approach Explain Life-Cycle Wage Differentials Between Races and Sexes?" Economic Inquiry 45,1 (January 2007): 24-39.
31. Zalokar, C. Nadja
Male-Female Differences in Occupational Choice and the Demand for General and Occupation-Specific Human Capital
Economic Inquiry 26,1 (January 1988): 59-74.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1988.tb01669.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Choice; Work Histories

A human capital model of occupational choice as demand for general and occupation-specific human capital is presented to demonstrate how women's occupational choices vary with their lifetime labor force participation patterns. Data from the NLS of Mature Women are used to test the model. Simulations that use parameter estimates from the model reveal that, if women were to work continuously through out their lives, then they would enter occupations that require more human capital, particularly more specific human capital. Women's wages would increase because these occupations pay more and because women would be working more and gaining more experience. The model assumes that there is no labor market discrimination against women; how this assumption affects the results depends upon the nature of actual labor market discrimination. [ABI/INFORM]
Bibliography Citation
Zalokar, C. Nadja. "Male-Female Differences in Occupational Choice and the Demand for General and Occupation-Specific Human Capital." Economic Inquiry 26,1 (January 1988): 59-74.
32. Zavodny, Madeline
Technology and Job Separation Among Young Adults, 1980-98
Economic Inquiry 41,2 (April 2003):264-278.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/ei/cbg006/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Human Capital; Job Tenure; Labor Turnover; Layoffs; Occupational Choice; Quits; Skills; Training, On-the-Job

This analysis uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth during the period 1980-98 to examine the relationship between the likelihood that a worker remains at the same job for two years and several measures of technology usage at the industry level. The relationship between job separation and technology usage is generally negative. Quits (not involuntary job loss) generally account for the negative relationship between job separation and technology. Some results suggest that less educated workers are more likely than college graduates to lose jobs in technology intensive industries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Zavodny, Madeline. "Technology and Job Separation Among Young Adults, 1980-98." Economic Inquiry 41,2 (April 2003):264-278.