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Source: Cambridge University Press
Resulting in 16 citations.
1. Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference for Children?
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children, Well-Being; Family Studies; Fathers; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Overview, Child Assessment Data; Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

First published: 1995. Includes bibliographical references and index. Whose responsibility? An historical analysis of the changing roles of mothers, fathers, and society -- The life circumstances and development of children in welfare families: a profile based on national survey data -- Welfare- to-work through the eyes of children -- Strategies for altering the outcomes of poor children and their families -- Policy issues of child care -- Child care and children of color -- Health policy in the Family Support Act of 1988 -- Economic issues of health care -- Dealing with dads: the changing roles of fathers -- The effects of child support reform on child well-being -- Losing ground or moving ahead? Welfare reform and children -- National surveys as data resources for public policy research on poor children -- An interdisciplinary model and data requirements for studying poor children -- Two-generation programs: a new intervention strategy and directions for future research .
Bibliography Citation
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference for Children? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
2. Corak, Miles
Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe
Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, November 2004
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Earnings; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Germany, German; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Mobility, Economic; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Poverty; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Labour markets in North America and Europe have changed tremendously in the face of increased globalization and technical progress, raising important challenges for policy makers concerned with equality of opportunity. This book examines the influence of both changes in income inequality and of social policies on the degree to which economic advantage is passed on between parents and children in the rich countries. Standard theoretical models of generational dynamics are extended to examine generational income and earnings mobility over time and across space. Twenty contributors from North America and Europe offer comparable estimates of the degree of mobility, how it has changed through time, and the impact of government policy. In so doing, they extend the analytical tool kit used in the study of generational mobility, and offer insights for not only the conduct of future research but also directions for policies dealing with equality of opportunity and child poverty.

Contents
1. Introduction M. Corak; 2. A model of intergenerational mobility variation over time and place G. Solon; 3. Equal opportunity and intergenerational mobility: going beyond intergenerational income transition matrices John E. Roemer; 4. Intergenerational mobility for whom? The experience of high and low earning sons in international perspective N. Grawe; 5. Trends in the intergenerational economic mobility of sons and daughters in the United States S. Mayer and L. Lopoo; 6. Changes in intergenerational mobility in Britain J. Blanden, A. Goodman, P. Gregg and S. Machin; 7. Intergenerational mobility in Britain: new evidence from the British household panel survey J. Ermisch and M. Francesconi; 8. Nonlinear patterns of intergenerational mobility in Germany and the United States K. Couch and D. Lillard; 9. Family structure and labour market success A. Björklund, E. Österbacka, M. Jäntti, O. Raaum and T. Eriksson; 10. New evidence on the intergenerational correlations in welfare participation M. Page; 11. Intergenerational influences on the receipt of unemployment insurance in Canada and Sweden M. Corak, B. Gustafsson and T. Österberg; 12. Unequal opportunities and the mechanisms of social inheritance G. Esping-Andersen; Conclusion.

Bibliography Citation
Corak, Miles. Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, November 2004.
3. Couch, Kenneth A.
Lillard, Dean R.
Nonlinearities in Intergenerational Mobility: A Comparison of Germany and the United States
In: Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe. M. Corak, ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Earnings; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Couch, Kenneth A. and Dean R. Lillard. "Nonlinearities in Intergenerational Mobility: A Comparison of Germany and the United States" In: Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe. M. Corak, ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004
4. Dooley, David
Prause, JoAnn
Social Costs of Underemployment : Inadequate Employment as Disguised Unemployment
Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Birthweight; Depression (see also CESD); Self-Esteem; Underemployment; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Comparing the effects of unemployment and inadequate employment relative to adequate employment, this text studies their effects on self-esteem, alcohol abuse, depression, and birth weight. Using longitudinal methods, it measures controls for reverse causation (selection) and studies a large representative sample of Americans from their late teens in 1979, to their early 30's in the last decade of the twentieth century through stages of different business cycles. The results point to a rethinking of employment status as a continuum.
Bibliography Citation
Dooley, David and JoAnn Prause. Social Costs of Underemployment : Inadequate Employment as Disguised Unemployment. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004..
5. Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Morgan, S. Philip
Adolescent Mothers in Later Life
New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1987
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Children; Educational Attainment; Fertility; First Birth; Marital Status; Mothers, Adolescent; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) are a set of studies designed to examine the sources of variation in labor-market experience and behavior among four age and sex groups in the United States population: women 30-44, men 45-59 and men and women 14-24. The surveys began in 1966 and have been continued through 1984. In 1979 a new cohort was added, youth ages 14-21. In the analysis presented in Table 2.2 the data from the Survey of Young Women aged 29-36 are used. The women were interviewed for the first time in 1968 and followed through 1982. The cohort is represented by a multistage probability sample of 5,533 women, designed to represent the civilian, noninstitutional population of the United States at the time of the initial survey. A weight is used to correct for noninterviews, oversampling of certain population subgroups, sample attrition and chance variation from population distributions. Included in the NLS is information about labor-market experience: current employment status, characteristics of current or more recent job, and work experience; human-capital and other socioeconomic variables: early formative influences, migration, education, training, health, marital and family characteristics, financial characteristics, job and work attitudes, educational and job aspirations, retrospective evaluation of labor-market experiences, socialpsychological measures; and environmental variables.
Bibliography Citation
Furstenberg, Frank F. Jr., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and S. Philip Morgan. Adolescent Mothers in Later Life. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
6. Garfinkel, Irwin
McLanahan, Sara S.
Effects of Child Support Reform on Child Well-Being
In: Escape from Poverty: What Make a Difference for Children? P.L .Chase-Lansdale and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 38-59
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Child Support; Children, Well-Being; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Fathers, Absence; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The child support provisions are part of a broad trend that began during the mid-1970s and has strong bipartisan support, whereas attitudes toward requiring welfare mothers to work have shifted many times in the history of public assistance and are highly controversial at this time (see Chase-Lansdale & Vinovskis, this volume). We believe that the increasing number of married mothers working outside the home lends considerable force to the new set of work provisions. Yet there continues to be widespread resistance from both the left and right to requiring welfare mothers to work (McLanahan & Booth, 1989). Finally, whereas the work provisions allow for considerable local discretion in implementing work requirements' child support reform appears to be moving toward more universal principles. While one cannot be sure that this pattern will continue, the progress thus far has been impressive.
Bibliography Citation
Garfinkel, Irwin and Sara S. McLanahan. "Effects of Child Support Reform on Child Well-Being" In: Escape from Poverty: What Make a Difference for Children? P.L .Chase-Lansdale and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 38-59
7. Grawe, Nathan D.
Intergenerational Mobility for Whom? The Experience of High and Low Earnings Sons in International Perspective
In: Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe. M. Corak, ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Cross-national Analysis; Earnings; German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP); Germany, German; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Poverty; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

No abstract available.
Bibliography Citation
Grawe, Nathan D. "Intergenerational Mobility for Whom? The Experience of High and Low Earnings Sons in International Perspective" In: Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe. M. Corak, ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2004
8. Keister, Lisa A.
Faith and Money: How Religious Belief Contributes to Wealth and Poverty
Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Assets; Debt/Borrowing; Income; Poverty; Religion; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[Editor's note: The NLSY is used in multiple chapters]
Bibliography Citation
Keister, Lisa A. Faith and Money: How Religious Belief Contributes to Wealth and Poverty. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
9. Keister, Lisa A.
Getting Rich: America's New Rich and How They Got That Way
Cambridge, UK and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Family Background; Family Structure; Income Distribution; Life Course; Mobility; Religious Influences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Investigates what behaviors, decisions, and other factors contribute to individual wealth accumulation and wealth mobility in the United States. Bases the analysis primarily, but not exclusively, on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, involving nearly 13,000 young adults who were interviewed annually through 1994 and every other year after that through 2000. Examines trends in wealth mobility. Identifies the richest families in the United States and investigates the sources of their wealth. Proposes a general conceptual model of the processes that lead to wealth accumulation and mobility, highlighting the importance of education, family background, inheritance, work experiences, financial literacy, and adult family. Empirically explores the role that family background plays in adult wealth ownership, including the role of childhood family structure and siblings, and considers the role of religion, family culture and other contributing factors that are somewhat more difficult to quantify. Studies the role of individual differences, including occupational and work behavior, in adult wealth accumulation and mobility. Explores the role of adult family issues, including marriage, divorce, fertility, the timing of life events, and different investment strategies. Considers the importance of context, including such factors as stock market booms and busts, generational effects, and the importance of geography.

Contents
Part I: 1. I'd rather be rich; 2. Trends in wealth mobility; 3. The new rich; 4. Getting rich; Part II: 5. Family background: parents, structure, and siblings; 6. Family background: culture and religion; 7. Individuals: foundations and occupations; 8. Individuals: adult family; 9. Conclusion.

Bibliography Citation
Keister, Lisa A. Getting Rich: America's New Rich and How They Got That Way. Cambridge, UK and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
10. Magnuson, Katherine A.
Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior
In: Developmental Contexts in Middle Childhood: Bridges to Adolescence and Adulthood. A. Huston and M. Ripke, eds., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006: 150-172.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Structure; Neighborhood Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Temperament

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our chapter seeks to assess the extent to which the diverse contexts experienced during middle childhood matter for children's subsequent well-being. Given the established importance of genetic factors and pre-school family background conditions, the extent to which contexts during the middle childhood years play a role in shaping – the achievement and behavior trajectories established during the preschool years is far from clear.

We address three specific questions. First, how much variation in adolescents' academic achievement and problem behaviors are uniquely explained by the contexts they experience in middle childhood? Second, to the extent that middle childhood contexts matter, which contexts matter the most? And third, are the effects of contexts in middle childhood on early adolescents' outcomes different for boys and girls and for poor and middle class children?

Our answers to these questions are based on an analysis of data from a national sample of over 2,000 children followed from birth until adolescence. Family poverty, structure and home environments are measured throughout this time, enabling us to both describe the stability of contexts between early and middle childhood and assess the extent to which middle childhood contexts add to the explanation of adolescent achievement and behavior over and above early environments.

Bibliography Citation
Magnuson, Katherine A., Greg J. Duncan and Ariel Kalil. "Contribution of Middle Childhood Contexts to Adolescent Achievement and Behavior" In: Developmental Contexts in Middle Childhood: Bridges to Adolescence and Adulthood. A. Huston and M. Ripke, eds., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006: 150-172.
11. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Intergenerational Consequences of Social Stressors: Effects of Occupational and Family Conditions on Young Mothers and Their Children
In: Stress and Adversity Over the Life Course: Trajectories and Turning Points. I. H. Gotlib and B. Wheaton, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

EXCERPT: Here, I focus on how variation in much more ordinary but persistent social variables - particularly parental occupational circumstances - are likely to have effects on both parents' and children's life chances. Barring major societal dislocations or reorganizations, individuals' occupational and economic locations within a society tend to be relatively stable. Changes in one's occupation tend to be relatively circumscribed: I may move from being a waitress to a cashier, or from being an elementary to a high-school teacher, but it is not likely that I will move from one to the other of these two groups unless I suspend employment and seek additional education or training. Thus, the cumulating consequences of unremarkable variations in occupational conditions can be powerful forces for continuity in individual lives...
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Intergenerational Consequences of Social Stressors: Effects of Occupational and Family Conditions on Young Mothers and Their Children" In: Stress and Adversity Over the Life Course: Trajectories and Turning Points. I. H. Gotlib and B. Wheaton, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1997
12. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Social Stressors in Childhood and Adolescence
In: A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health: Social Contexts, Theories, and Systems. A.V. Horwitz and T.L. Scheid, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Mehaghan argues that the major mental health concerns in children and adolescents are linked to behavioral problems and various high-risk behaviors. She defines and examines two dimensions of such problems: externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Social stressors linked to family composition, occupation, and various economic factors are realted to the development of behavior problems. Large family size, unstable family composition, difficult working conditions, and inadequate incomes have negative impacts on parenting abilities and also exacerbate developmental problems in children. Individual characteristics of parents and children also shape the development and course of behavior problems, the socialization experience of children and the quality of interaction between parents and children. Further research is needed to determine the causal linkages between social stressors, parent and child characteristics, and the quality of child-parent interactions as well as to develop effective interventions for reducing the number of children with behavioral problems. What types of stressors seem most critical to the development of childhood mental health problems? What types of interventions (see Chapter 5) would have the most impact on children's mental health?
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Social Stressors in Childhood and Adolescence" In: A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health: Social Contexts, Theories, and Systems. A.V. Horwitz and T.L. Scheid, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1999
13. Shapiro, David
Shaw, Lois B.
Labor Force Attachment of Married Women Age 30 to 34: an Intercohort Comparison
In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Labor Force Participation; Sex Roles; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The most important factors contributing to recent increases in labor force attachment of white married women in their early thirties were their increasing levels of education, decreasing family size, and more favorable attitudes toward working outside the home. Increases in husband's earnings and an unfavorable economic climate had a depressing effect; increases in labor force participation and weeks worked might have been even larger in a different economic environment. Educational attainment became a stronger influence on the labor force participation of both white and black women. The authors did not find evidence for any decrease in the importance of husband's earnings or family structure in affecting white women's labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Lois B. Shaw. "Labor Force Attachment of Married Women Age 30 to 34: an Intercohort Comparison" In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
14. Shaw, Lois B.
Statham, Anne
Fertility Expectations and the Changing Role of Women
In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Fertility; Sex Roles; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Between 1973 and 1978 there was virtually no change in the average birth expectations of white married women, while black married women expected slightly larger families in 1978 than in 1973. Individual revisions of plans were related to the woman's own work experience or work plans and to their perceptions of women's proper social roles rather than their husband's earnings potential or changes in their husband's earnings. Easterlin's hypothesis that husbands' earnings potential relative to that of their parents' generation is the major force behind recent fertility trends receives little support. The analysis supports the conclusion of Butz and Ward that women's own work opportunities are important.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and Anne Statham. "Fertility Expectations and the Changing Role of Women" In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
15. Zill, Nicholas
National Surveys as Data Resources for Public Policy Research on Poor Children
In: Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 272-290
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Education; Overview, Child Assessment Data; Vocational Rehabilitation; Vocational Training; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The eventual impact of welfare reform, such as the Family Support Act of 1988, depends greatly on the vigor and imagination with which regulations are implemented by the states. A resource that would aid both implementation and evaluation is accurate, up-to-date information on the characteristics of the welfare population of each state and of the nation as a whole. Data on the characteristics of current welfare recipients would be useful in helping state officials understand the needs and capabilities of dependent families. In order to plan services and get a sense of the kinds of occupations at which AFDC parents can realistically be expected to work, it would be helpful if state agencies had profiles of their dependent population that included assessments of physical health and disability, functional literacy, work motivation, psychiatric impairment, and drug and alcohol use, as well as measures of educational attainment, vocational training, and work experience. Such infor mation would make it possible to estimate the numbers of parents who would be eligible for immediate employment and the numbers who would require basic education, vocational training, or rehabilitation. Ideally, one would also like to know how many recipients need relatively limited services and how many require extensive rehabilitation and support if they are to have any hope of becoming self-sufficient.
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas. "National Surveys as Data Resources for Public Policy Research on Poor Children" In: Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 272-290
16. Zill, Nicholas
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Smith, Ellen Wolpow
Stief, Thomas
Coiro, Mary Jo
Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data
In: Escape from Poverty: What Make a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 38-59
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Health Factors; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Racial Studies; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One child in seven in the United States is in a family that receives "welfare," or cash income through the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. As of September 1992 some 9.4 million children under the age of 18 were receiving AFDC (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993). Because families move on and off welfare, a larger proportion of children receive AFDC for some period between birth and adulthood. Estimates by Martha Hill, Greg Duncan, and their colleagues at the University of Michigan, based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, are that 22% of U.S. children born in the early 1970s received welfare for at least 1 year before reaching their 15th birthday. For African-American children born during these years, an estimated 55% were dependent for some childhood (Committee on Ways and Means, 1991, p. 643).
Bibliography Citation
Zill, Nicholas, Kristin Anderson Moore, Ellen Wolpow Smith, Thomas Stief and Mary Jo Coiro. "Life Circumstances and Development of Children in Welfare Families: A Profile Based on National Survey Data" In: Escape from Poverty: What Make a Difference for Children? Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995: pp. 38-59