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Source: Brookings Institution
Resulting in 22 citations.
1. Bauer, Lauren
Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore
The Long-Term Impact of the Head Start Program
Economic Analysis, The Hamilton Project, Brookings Institution, August 19, 2016.
Also: http://www.hamiltonproject.org/papers/the_long_term_impacts_of_head_start
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Children, Behavioral Development; Educational Attainment; Head Start; High School Completion/Graduates; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parenting Skills/Styles; Preschool Children; Siblings

In this Economic Analysis, we investigate the impact of Head Start on a new set of long-term outcomes, extending landmark analyses further into adulthood and considering the effect of Head Start on participants' children.
Bibliography Citation
Bauer, Lauren and Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach. "The Long-Term Impact of the Head Start Program." Economic Analysis, The Hamilton Project, Brookings Institution, August 19, 2016.
2. Chingos, Matthew M.
Do Public Pensions Provide Equal Pay for Equal Work?
Brown Center Chalkboard, Brown Center on Education Policy, Brookings Institution, March 12, 2014.
Also: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/brown-center-chalkboard/posts/2014/03/12-public-pensions-unequal-pay-chingos
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): College Degree; Discrimination; Discrimination, Sex; Labor Force Participation; Pensions; State-Level Data/Policy; Wage Differentials

My analysis is a simulation of pension benefits based on the parameters of Ohio's defined-benefit pension plan for teachers (as described by Costrell and Podgursky) applied to workforce participation histories in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). I restrict my extract of the NLSY data to respondents who had at least a bachelor's degree in 1988 (when they were 25-31 years of age) and responded to all survey waves (throughout the analysis I apply the appropriate panel weights for this subgroup of initial respondents).
Bibliography Citation
Chingos, Matthew M. "Do Public Pensions Provide Equal Pay for Equal Work?." Brown Center Chalkboard, Brown Center on Education Policy, Brookings Institution, March 12, 2014.
3. Currie, Janet
Early Childhood Intervention Programs: What Do We Know?
Working Paper, UCLA, April 2000.
Also: http://www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/es/research/projects/cr/doc/currie20000401.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Head Start; Preschool Children

It is disappointing that numerous studies have not produced more consistent evidence of the long-term effectiveness (or lack of effectiveness) of early intervention. However, all students are not created equal, and better studies tend to find larger and more significant long-term effects. Moreover, we show below that the proven short and medium-term benefits of Head Start already may pay back much of the cost of the program. The exisiting literature also provides some guidelines for the design of early intervention programs. Specifically, it suggests that while it may be useful to intervene before 3 years old, interventions for preschool and for school age children can also be effective. Second, the effects of early intervention are generally larger for more disadvantaged children, which provides a rationale for targeting such programs to these children. Third, the most important aspect of child care quality is the nature of the interaction between the teacher and the child. Small group sizes, better teacher training, and other regulable aspects of quality all make positive interactions more likely. Moreover, even rather loose federal oversight of these observable aspects of quality can be effective in eliminating poor quality programs.
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet. "Early Childhood Intervention Programs: What Do We Know?" Working Paper, UCLA, April 2000.
4. Diamond, Peter A.
Hausman, Jerry A.
Retirement and Unemployment Behavior of Older Men
In: Retirement and Economic Behavior. H. Aaron and G. Burtless, eds., Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, March 1984: 97-132
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s):

Bibliography Citation
Diamond, Peter A. and Jerry A. Hausman. "Retirement and Unemployment Behavior of Older Men " In: Retirement and Economic Behavior. H. Aaron and G. Burtless, eds., Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, March 1984: 97-132
5. Duncan, Greg J.
Magnuson, Katherine A.
The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention and Behavior Problems
Presented: Washington, DC, Brookings Institution Conference, "Rethinking the Role of Neighborhoods and Families on Schools and School Outcomes for American Children", November 19-20, 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Baltimore Beginning School Study (BSS); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); College Enrollment; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Dropouts; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; High School Completion/Graduates; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Completion; Temperament

Our chapter sheds light on the Perry and many other school entry puzzles by turning to theory as well as other empirical studies investigating links between young children's skills and behaviors and their later attainments. We begin with a conceptual framework for understanding the early skills. We argue that the skill categories of “cognitive” and “non-cognitive” used by many economists are both too simplistic and inaccurate. “Cognitive” skills mix together mental acuity (i.e., IQ) with concrete achievement skills such as knowing letters, beginning word sounds and numbers. “Noncognitive” skills encompass a wide variety of diverse capacities such as paying attention (an inherently cognitive task!), getting along with classmates and teachers, and good mental health. We propose and defend the early-skill trichotomy of: achievement, attention and problem behavior and mental health, while at the same time acknowledging that each of these broad categories are related, and can be broken down further into more narrowly defined component parts.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J. and Katherine A. Magnuson. "The Nature and Impact of Early Achievement Skills, Attention and Behavior Problems." Presented: Washington, DC, Brookings Institution Conference, "Rethinking the Role of Neighborhoods and Families on Schools and School Outcomes for American Children", November 19-20, 2009.
6. Graham, Carol
Felton, Andrew
Variance in Obesity Across Cohorts and Countries: A Norms-Based Explanation Using Happiness Surveys
CSED Working Paper No. 44, The Brookings Institution, Washington DC, September 2005.
Also: http://www.brookings.edu/es/dynamics/papers/CSED_wp42.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); CESD (Depression Scale); Cross-national Analysis; Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; General Social Survey (GSS); Obesity; Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS)

We use well being surveys to help explain the variance in obesity incidence across socioeconomic cohorts in the United States and Russia, with a focus on the role of norms. In the U.S., obesity is largely a poor people's problem, and the same groups suffer higher well being costs from being obese. Poor whites have higher obesity-related well being costs than blacks or Hispanics. Respondents in the top income quintile who are obese and those who depart from the weight norm for their profession also suffer higher well being costs than the average. Stigma seems to be higher for those in higher status professions. We find modest evidence that causality runs from overweight to depression rather than the other way around. In Russia, in contrast, obesity and well being are positively correlated. The relationship seems to be driven by the prosperity that is associated with obesity rather than by the excess weight per se, and we find no evidence of stigma. In both countries, there is a wide margin in both countries for tailoring public health messages to marshal the attention of very different cohorts.

For the U.S., we rely on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which has been conducted since 1979 by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and has been following over 12,000 adolescents throughout their lives. While other data sets report trends in obesity in the U.S., this survey is particularly valuable because it has panel data on respondents' health, well-being, and a number of attitudinal variables. Additionally, we merged cohorts from the NLSY and the General Social Survey (GSS). The GSS is a large, over-time (not panel) survey for the U.S. While it does not have the detailed data on height and weight that is in the NLSY, it does have a standard happiness question, which is not in the NLSY. For Russia we rely on the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), a nationally representative panel that has been conducted most years since 1995, with approximately 10,000 respondents in each year's survey and typically 2 or 3 over time observations for each respondent in the survey.

Bibliography Citation
Graham, Carol and Andrew Felton. "Variance in Obesity Across Cohorts and Countries: A Norms-Based Explanation Using Happiness Surveys." CSED Working Paper No. 44, The Brookings Institution, Washington DC, September 2005.
7. Grannis, Kerry Searle
Sawhill, Isabel V.
Improving Children’s Life Chances: Estimates from the Social Genome Model
Report No. 48, Social Genome Project Series, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, October 2013.
Also: http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2013/10/11-improving-childrens-life-chances-sawhill-grannis
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Achievement; Children, Academic Development; Children, Well-Being; Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Gender Differences; Life Course; Mobility, Economic; Modeling, Simulation; School Entry/Readiness

There is ample evidence that children born to poorer families do not succeed at the same rate as children born to the middle class. On average, low-income children lag behind on almost every cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and health measure. These gaps start early—some of the newest research suggests that cognitive gaps are detectable in infancy—and persist throughout childhood and into adulthood. What’s more, the trend has been worsening over time: despite improvements in closing gender and race gaps over the last half century, the difference between average outcomes by socio-economic status has gotten larger in test scores, college enrollment rates, and family formation patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Grannis, Kerry Searle and Isabel V. Sawhill. "Improving Children’s Life Chances: Estimates from the Social Genome Model." Report No. 48, Social Genome Project Series, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, October 2013.
8. Grissmer, David W.
Flanagan, Ann.
Why Did The Black-White Score Gap Narrow In The 1970s And 1980s?
In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks and M. Phillips, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998: pp. 182-226
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Education; National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Grissmer and his colleagues look at several different educational changes that may have had an impact on the rise in black students' test scores. They find that some changes in education appear to have mattered more than others.

To determine how trends in test scores are related to other social changes, the authors relate National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data to family characteristics from the Current Population Survey and the National Education Longitudinal Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

Bibliography Citation
Grissmer, David W. and Ann. Flanagan. "Why Did The Black-White Score Gap Narrow In The 1970s And 1980s? " In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks and M. Phillips, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998: pp. 182-226
9. Haurin, Donald R.
Parcel, Toby L.
Haurin, R. Jean
The Impact of Home Ownership on Child Outcomes
In: Low-income Homeownership: Examining the Unexamined Goal. Nicholas P. Retsinas and Eric S. Belsky, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2002: pp. 427-446
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Home Ownership; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Residence

We analyze the impact of home owning on the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of children. Our study controls for many social, demographic, and economic variables previously found to influence child outcomes. We also address the issue of possible sample selection bias caused by unobserved variables that influence both the parent's choice of whether to own or rent and parental investment in their children.

The study uses four waves of a national data set, permitting a panel data analysis of the relationship of owning a home to three child outcomes: math achievement, reading recognition and behavior problems. Using panel data allows us to control for household and child-specific, unobserved, influential factors. We also use a treatment effects model to address the problem of sample selection bias.

We find that owning a home compared with renting leads to a higher quality home environment, the improvement being 16 to 22 percent. Considering both the direct and indirect effects of home ownership on child outcomes, we find that for children living in owned homes math achievement is up to seven percent higher and reading achievement is up to six percent higher, ceteris paribus. We also find that the measure of a child's behavior problems is up to four percent lower if the child resides in an owned home. Existing literature suggests that these youths' greater cognitive abilities and fewer behavioral problems will result in higher educational attainment, greater future earnings, and a reduced tendency to engage in deviant behaviors

Bibliography Citation
Haurin, Donald R., Toby L. Parcel and R. Jean Haurin. "The Impact of Home Ownership on Child Outcomes" In: Low-income Homeownership: Examining the Unexamined Goal. Nicholas P. Retsinas and Eric S. Belsky, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2002: pp. 427-446
10. Jencks, Christopher
Phillips, Meredith
Black-White Test Score Gap
Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998.
Also: http://www.brook.edu/press/books/blckwhit.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Economics of Discrimination; Genetics; Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

The test score gap between blacks and whites--on vocabulary, reading, and math tests, as well as on tests that claim to measure scholastic aptitude and intelligence--is large enough to have far-reaching social and economic consequences. In their introduction to this book, Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips argue that eliminating the disparity would dramatically reduce economic and educational inequality between blacks and whites. Indeed, they think that closing the gap would do more to promote racial equality than any other strategy now under serious discussion. The book offers a comprehensive look at the factors that contribute to the test score gap and discusses options for substantially reducing it. Table of Contents. The Black-White Test Score Gap: an introduction / Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips -- Test bias, heredity, and home environment. Racial bias in testing / Christopher Jencks -- Race, genetics, and IQ / Richard E. Nisbett -- Family background, parenting practices, and the black-white test score gap / Meredith Phillips, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Greg J. Duncan, Pamela Klebanov, and Jonathan Crane -- How and why the gap has changed. Black-white test score convergence since 1965 / Larry V. Hedges and Amy Nowell -- Why did the black-white score gap narrow in the 1970s and 1980s? / David Grissmer, Ann Flanagan, and Stephanie Williamson -- The impact of schools and culture. Does the black-white test score gap widen after children enter school? / Meredith Phillips, James Crouse, and John Ralph -- Teachers' perceptions and expectations and the black-white test score gap / Ronald F. Ferguson -- Can schools narrow the black-white test score gap? / Ronald F. Ferguson -- The burden of "acting white" : do black adolescents disparage academic achievement? / Philip J. Cook and Jens Ludwig -- Stereotype threat and the test performance of academically successful African Americans / Claude M. Steele and Joshua Aronson --Do test scores matter? Racial and ethnic preferences in college Admissions / Thomas J. Kane --Scholastic aptitude test scores, race, and academic performance in selective colleges and universities / Fredrick E. Vars and William G. Bowen -- Basic skills and the black-white earnings gap / William R. Johnson and Derek Neal -- Commentary. The role of the environment in the black-white test score gap / William Julius Wilson.
Bibliography Citation
Jencks, Christopher and Meredith Phillips. Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998..
11. Johnson, William R.
Neal, Derek A.
Basic Skills and the Black-White Earnings Gap
In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks, and M. Phillips, et al., eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998: pp. 480-497
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Earnings; Education; Ethnic Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Skills; Wage Gap; Wages, Youth

Chapter: Examined the relationship between basic skills and annual earnings, using scores on the Armed Forces Qualification Test for the young members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth as a measure of the skills that young adults bring to the labor market. Labor market outcomes were measured when workers were in their late 20s and early 30s. Findings indicate that skills are important determinants of wages and earnings. Skill differences explain a substantial part of the wage and earnings variation among Blacks, among Whites, and between Blacks and Whites. For men, the Black-White gap in annual earnings is more than twice as large as the gap in hourly wages. Further, the racial difference not explained by skills is three times as large for annual earnings as for hourly wages. The low earnings of Black men are partly attributable to the fact that less educated Black men work significantly fewer hours and weeks than their White counterparts. Less work experience during their early years in the job market has a notable effect on the wage gap faced by less educated Black men in their late 20s and early 30s. Finally, the relationship between basic skills and eventual earnings is stronger among Black men than White men. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, William R. and Derek A. Neal. "Basic Skills and the Black-White Earnings Gap" In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks, and M. Phillips, et al., eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998: pp. 480-497
12. Mayer, Susan E.
Knutson, David
Does the Timing of School Affect How Much Children Learn?
In: Earning and Learning: How School Matters. S. E. Mayer and P. E. Peterson, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution and Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1999: pp. 79-102
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Family Background; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Entry/Readiness; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Mother-Child Files to estimate the effect of age at enrollment in first grade on eight to eleven year old children's cognitive test scores and behavior problems. We find that children who enroll in first grade at a young age score higher on cognitive tests and have fewer behavior problems than children of the same age who enroll at an older age. This is mainly because children who enroll earlier have had more schooling than their same-aged peers who enrolled later. We also find that among children with the same amount of schooling, those who enrolled at a younger age have higher verbal scores than those who enrolled at an older age. This is because they were exposed to schooling at a younger age. We assess the extent to which early gains in test scores attributable to enrolling at a younger age decline as children progress through school and the extent to which the benefit of early enrollment is due to family background characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Mayer, Susan E. and David Knutson. "Does the Timing of School Affect How Much Children Learn?" In: Earning and Learning: How School Matters. S. E. Mayer and P. E. Peterson, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution and Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1999: pp. 79-102
13. McLanahan, Sara S.
Garfinkel, Irwin
Mincy, Ronald B.
Fragile Families, Welfare Reform, and Marriage
Web Brief #10, The Brookings Institute, Washington DC, 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Marital Stability; Marriage; Welfare

Marriage will be an important issue in the upcoming debate over the reauthorization of welfare reform. According to recent studies, both children and adults benefit from marriage. Still, one of three children in the U.S. is born to unmarried parents. At the time of birth, most unmarried parents are committed to each other and to their child and have high hopes of marriage and a future together. But these parents face numerous barriers to creating and maintaining a stable family life, including low education and job skills, lack of jobs, and poor relationship skills. Helping these parents achieve their goal of stability will require new ideas and new policies such as providing services that start at birth; treating the parents as a couple rather than as individuals; offering services that promote communication and increase employability; reducing marriage penalties; and making child support enforcement more reasonable for low-income fathers. While some of these ideas have been tried in the past, others have never been fully implemented, and none has been offered as a single, comprehensive package. Because Congress is unlikely to enact a full package of services, the federal government should consider funding state-run demonstrations to ascertain the benefits and costs of the proposed reforms.

NLSY 79 data is used to establish that about half of unmarried parents who are cohabiting at birth are still living together after six years.

Bibliography Citation
McLanahan, Sara S., Irwin Garfinkel and Ronald B. Mincy. "Fragile Families, Welfare Reform, and Marriage." Web Brief #10, The Brookings Institute, Washington DC, 2001.
14. Phillips, Meredith
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Duncan, Greg J.
Klebanov, Pamela Kato
Crane, Jonathan
Family Background, Parenting Practices, and the Black-White Test Score Gap
In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks, and M. Phillips, et al., eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998: pp. 103-145.
Also: http://brookings.nap.edu/books/0815746091/html/103.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Cognitive Development; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Family Background; Family Environment; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); I.Q.; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Preschool Children; Racial Differences; School Quality; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Chapter: Surveyed recent data from 2 samples of children to investigate R. J. Herrnstein and C. Murray's (see record 1994-98748-000) claims about the association between family background and young children's cognitive skills. The authors examine the contribution of parental education and income to the test score gap among 5- and 6-yr-olds. They then look at a much larger set of family environment indicators, including grandparents' educational attainment, mothers' household size, high school quality, and perceived self-efficacy, children's birth weight, children's household size, and mothers' parenting practices. Most of the analyses use data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, focusing on 1,626 African-American and European- American 5- and 6-yr olds. Data on 315 children from the Infant Health and Development Program were used to supplement the analyses. Even though traditional measures of SES account for no more than a third of the test score gap, results show that a broader index of family environment may explain up to two-thirds of it. The results help to identify the family characteristics that matter most for the gap. They suggest that eliminating environmental differences between Black and White families could help to eliminate the test score gap. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Phillips, Meredith, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Greg J. Duncan, Pamela Kato Klebanov and Jonathan Crane. "Family Background, Parenting Practices, and the Black-White Test Score Gap" In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks, and M. Phillips, et al., eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998: pp. 103-145.
15. Phillips, Meredith
Crouse, James
Ralph, John
Does the Black-White Test Score Gap Widen After Children Enter School?
In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks and M. Phillips eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998: pp. 229-272
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Economics of Discrimination; Genetics; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

Since 1965 eight national surveys have tested black and white students at different ages. This chapter uses these eight surveys to examine how the black-white math, reading, and vocabulary test score gaps change as children grow older.
Bibliography Citation
Phillips, Meredith, James Crouse and John Ralph. "Does the Black-White Test Score Gap Widen After Children Enter School?" In: The Black-White Test Score Gap. C. Jencks and M. Phillips eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998: pp. 229-272
16. Reeves, Richard V.
Cuddy, Emily
Hitting Kids: American Parenting and Physical Punishment
Brookings Policy Memo Series #4, Center on Children and Families, Brookings Institution, November 2014.
Also: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/social-mobility-memos/posts/2014/11/06-parenting-hitting-mobility-reeves
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parenting Skills/Styles; Punishment, Corporal

Why do adults hit children? Whichever euphemism is used - "spank,": "smack," "pop," "whup/whip: - the goal is typically the same: to correct or to punish a child's behavior by causing physical pain. In terms of altering children's behavior in the short run, physical punishment is mostly effective. But questions remain about its long term effects, some of which we address in this memo.
Bibliography Citation
Reeves, Richard V. and Emily Cuddy. "Hitting Kids: American Parenting and Physical Punishment." Brookings Policy Memo Series #4, Center on Children and Families, Brookings Institution, November 2014.
17. Reeves, Richard V.
Howard, Kimberly
The Glass Floor: Education, Downward Mobility, and Opportunity Hoarding
Working Paper, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, November 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Employment, Youth; Family Income; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Social; Noncognitive Skills; Parental Influences; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Self-Esteem

From an intergenerational perspective, the U.S. income distribution is sticky at both ends. Affluence and poverty are both partially inherited. Policy and research has focused on upward mobility, especially from the bottom. But relative intergenerational upward mobility is only possible with equivalent rates of downward mobility, where much less attention has been directed. Those born into more affluent families may be protected from falling by a “glass floor,” even if they are only modestly skilled.
Bibliography Citation
Reeves, Richard V. and Kimberly Howard. "The Glass Floor: Education, Downward Mobility, and Opportunity Hoarding." Working Paper, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, November 2013.
18. Reeves, Richard V.
Howard, Kimberly
The Parenting Gap
Paper, Social Genome Project Series, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, September 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Achievement; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Well-Being; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Simulation; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Racial Differences

Our analysis employs the Social Genome Model (SGM) dataset, which is based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (CNLSY). The CNLSY contains data on all children born to the mothers of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) beginning in 1986. Our sample therefore consists of 5,783 children who were born in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Bibliography Citation
Reeves, Richard V. and Kimberly Howard. "The Parenting Gap." Paper, Social Genome Project Series, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, September 2013.
19. Reeves, Richard V.
Venator, Joanna
Saving Horatio Alger: The Data Behind the Words (and the Lego Bricks)
Social Mobility Memo, Brookings Institution, August 21, 2014.
Also: http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/social-mobility-memos/posts/2014/08/21-data-behind-saving-horatio-alger-reeves
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Social

In both the video and the essay, we've created a series of 'mobility matrices' showing how income status in one generation influences income status in the next. We used a dataset constructed from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' surveys, the 'National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979' (NLSY79) and the 'Children of the NLSY79' (C-NLSY). Mostly, we use the CNLSY, which provides rich data on children born mainly in the 1980s and 90s. But since they are not old enough for us to know their incomes at the age of 40, we impute adult values using the sample from the earlier generation, the NLSY79. (For more information on how we impute these values, see the Guide to the Brookings Social Genome Model by Scott Winship and Stephanie Owen.)
Bibliography Citation
Reeves, Richard V. and Joanna Venator. "Saving Horatio Alger: The Data Behind the Words (and the Lego Bricks)." Social Mobility Memo, Brookings Institution, August 21, 2014.
20. Reeves, Richard V.
Venator, Joanna
Howard, Kimberly
The Character Factor: Measures and Impact of Drive and Prudence
Report, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, October 22, 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age at Birth; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Motivation; Noncognitive Skills; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

There is growing interest among psychologists and economists in the importance of "non-cognitive" skills for doing well in life. In this paper we assess the quality of measures available in US survey data for two specific non-cognitive skills, drive and prudence, which we term "performance character strengths" -- non-cognitive skills that relate to outcomes important for economic mobility, such as educational attainment. We evaluate and rank the measures of drive and prudence found in these surveys, categorizing them as broad or narrow, and indirect or direct. Next, we use one of these measures (the BPI-hyperactivity scale in the NLSY) to look at socioeconomic gaps in performance character strengths, and the relative importance of performance character strengths for educational attainment. We find that family income and maternal education are positively associated with higher levels of performance character strengths, and that the influence of the measure on educational attainment is comparable to the influence of academic scores.
Bibliography Citation
Reeves, Richard V., Joanna Venator and Kimberly Howard. "The Character Factor: Measures and Impact of Drive and Prudence." Report, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, October 22, 2014.
21. Ross, Martha
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Murphy, Kelly
Bateman, Nicole
DeMand, Alex
Sacks, Vanessa Harbin
Pathways to High-Quality Jobs for Young Adults
Report: Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings and Child Trends, October 2018.
Also: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Brookings_Child-Trends_Pathways-for-High-Quality-Jobs-FINAL.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Benefits; Disadvantaged, Economically; Employment, Youth; Job Characteristics; Job Satisfaction; Socioeconomic Background; Wages

Using an advanced methodology and longitudinal data, this report examines two main questions: the quality of jobs (as measured by wages, benefits, hours, and job satisfaction) held by 29-year-olds who experienced disadvantage in adolescence; and the particular adolescent and young adulthood employment, education, and training experiences of people from disadvantaged backgrounds that are associated with higher-quality jobs at age 29.
Bibliography Citation
Ross, Martha, Kristin Anderson Moore, Kelly Murphy, Nicole Bateman, Alex DeMand and Vanessa Harbin Sacks. "Pathways to High-Quality Jobs for Young Adults." Report: Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings and Child Trends, October 2018.
22. Sawhill, Isabel V.
Winship, Scott
Grannis, Kerry Searle
Pathways to the Middle Class: Balancing Personal and Public Responsibilities
Report No. 47, Social Genome Project Series, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, September 2012.
Also: http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2012/09/20-pathways-middle-class-sawhill-winship
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Brookings Institution
Keyword(s): Achievement; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Well-Being; Economic Well-Being; Family Income; Gender Differences; Life Course; Mobility, Economic; Modeling, Simulation; School Entry/Readiness

Why do some children do so much better than others? And what will it take to create more opportunity? The remainder of this paper addresses these two questions.
Bibliography Citation
Sawhill, Isabel V., Scott Winship and Kerry Searle Grannis. "Pathways to the Middle Class: Balancing Personal and Public Responsibilities." Report No. 47, Social Genome Project Series, Center on Children and Families, The Brookings Institution, September 2012.