Search Results

Source: Behavior Genetics Association
Resulting in 11 citations.
1. Bard, David E.
Modeling Age-of-Onset in Behavior Genetic Substance Use Research: It's About Time?
Presented: Storrs, CT, Behavior Genetics Association 2006 Annual Meeting, June 20-25, 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Event History; Genetics; Kinship; Modeling, Biometric; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A brief history of age-at-onset modeling in behavior genetics was presented followed by a new discrete-time survival method for estimating ACE variance components of genetically informative age-at-onset data. The new method was framed as an adaptation of the Goldstein, [Pan, Bynner (2004)] multilevel model for event histories. Extensions of the model for multivariate outcomes were also discussed. Using this new technique, univariate and multivariate behavior genetic models of alcohol and cigarette initiation were fit to responses from adolescents of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). This nationally representative sample produced results consistent with prior behavior genetic research on both substances [e.g., Madden et al (1999) Koopmans et al (1999) Stallings et al (1999)]. Initiation of either substance appeared to be predominantly influenced by the environmental sources of variation, with little to no support for additive genetic influences. Despite this similarity, results supported the investigation of both initiations separately, as substantial ACE unique effects were present in the MV model. Lastly, estimates of shared environmental effects from this study were consistently lower than those present in most previous investigations. This can likely be attributed both to the larger variety of genetic relatedness existing in this kinship, as opposed twin-only, sample, as well as the greater variability in age-at-onset measured initiation, as opposed to status indicators (e.g., used, never used). Pros and cons of this more detailed initiation phenotype were discussed in the context of past, present, and future substance use theory and research.
Bibliography Citation
Bard, David E. "Modeling Age-of-Onset in Behavior Genetic Substance Use Research: It's About Time?" Presented: Storrs, CT, Behavior Genetics Association 2006 Annual Meeting, June 20-25, 2006.
2. Bard, David E.
Hunter, Michael D.
Beasley, William H.
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Meredith, Kelly M.
Biometric Nonlinear Growth Curves for Cognitive Development among NLSY Children and Youth
Presented: Marseille, France, Behavior Genetics Association (BGA) Annual Meeting, June-July 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Digit Span (also see Memory for Digit Span - WISC); Kinship; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent advances in building and fitting growth curve and multi-level models that are biometrically informed (McArdle, 2006; McArdle & Plassman, 2009; McArdle & Prescott, 2005; McGue & Christensen, 2002; Reynolds, Finkel, Gatz, & Pedersen, 2002) were used to study cognitive development and decline (or slowed growth) in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth- Child/Young Adult (NLSYC/YA) dataset. Among the highest quality outcome data in the NLSY files are indicators of cognitive ability, collected longitudinally. These data includes PIAT-Math, PIAT-Reading Recognition and PIAT-Reading Comprehension scores in a complete longitudinal stream (up to attrition) from ages 5 to 14, as well as PPVT verbal abilities, Digit Span scores, and cognitive developmental milestone indicators during toddler and preschool years. Building off of longitudinal methodologies outside of behavior genetics (Grimm, Ram, & Hamagami, 2011; McArdle, Ferrer-Caja, Hamagami, & Woodcock, 2002; Pinheiro & Bates, 2000), this empirical application will also contribute to biometric analytic developments utilizing "fully" nonlinear (e.g., exponential; Davidian & Giltinan, 1995) growth models that better capture developmental and aging-related changes in cognition. Multivariate models were also examined to explore cognitive mediational hypotheses of whether early cognitive milestones could predict later developmental trajectories of PIAT, PPVT, and Digit Span growth. These models predicted both variation in level effects (early age ability level) and growth/decline effects over time (developmental changes in cognition). Motivation for these analyses closely coincide with the convergence of evidence surrounding critical periods of development between the ages of 0 and 5 (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). Again, interest will move beyond simple associations of early cognition and childhood cognitive development to questions of whether individual differences in genetic or environmental sources of variance best explain these associations via multivariate biometric mediation modeling.
Bibliography Citation
Bard, David E., Michael D. Hunter, William H. Beasley, Joseph Lee Rodgers and Kelly M. Meredith. "Biometric Nonlinear Growth Curves for Cognitive Development among NLSY Children and Youth." Presented: Marseille, France, Behavior Genetics Association (BGA) Annual Meeting, June-July 2013.
3. Bard, David E.
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Use of Discrete-time Survival Analysis for Modeling Multivariate ACE Models of Fertility Precursors from the Children of the NLSY
Presented: Storrs, CT, Behavior Genetics Association Annual Conference, 36th Annual, June 2006.
Also: http://www.bga.org//meetings/2006/Abstracts.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Age at Menarche; Fertility; Genetics; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Substantial evidence now exists that variables measuring or correlated with fertility outcomes have a heritable component. In this study, we define a series of age-sequenced fertility precursors and fit a multivariate ACE model to responses from the children (now adolescents and young adults) born to mothers of the original National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) cohort. Three age-related precursors were considered: age at 1st menstruation, 1st dating experience, and 1st sexual intercourse. Univariate and multivariate models were in general agreement indicating strong heritability for each precursor, little to no shared environmental influences, and small to moderate nonshared influences. Genetic components in the MV model accounted for 47%, 71%, and 54% of the precursor variations, respectively. Methodologically, this study also explored the use of MV random effect discrete-time survival analyses of the precursor data. These models also incorporated an additional precursor (age at 1st marriage) and a fertility outcome (age at 1st childbirth). Results from these 5-variable discrete-time survival models are compared to biased effects from models that excluded censored cases.
Bibliography Citation
Bard, David E. and Joseph Lee Rodgers. "Use of Discrete-time Survival Analysis for Modeling Multivariate ACE Models of Fertility Precursors from the Children of the NLSY." Presented: Storrs, CT, Behavior Genetics Association Annual Conference, 36th Annual, June 2006.
4. Beasley, William H.
Bard, David E.
Hunter, Michael D.
Meredith, Kelly M.
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
NLSY Kinship Links: Creating Biometrical Design Structures from Cross-Generational Data
Presented: Marseille, France, Behavior Genetics Association (BGA) Annual Meeting, June-July 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Digit Span (also see Memory for Digit Span - WISC); Genetics; Kinship; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we present innovative NLSY designs. We begin with a review of the Mother-Daughter-Aunt-Niece (MDAN) design (Rodgers et al. 2008) and expand this to include other relationships simultaneously, including the 5,000 NLSYC first cousins. Following we discuss the potential for limited three-generational designs using the available information about the parents of the original NLSY79 respondents. Finally, we discuss how incorporating a third dataset, (the NLSY97) provides a ‘"phantom mother’" design, developed by (age, SES, family, etc.) matching of the NLSYC to the NLSY97 respondents, and assigning NLSY79 mothers to NLSY97 respondents across these matches.
Bibliography Citation
Beasley, William H., David E. Bard, Michael D. Hunter, Kelly M. Meredith and Joseph Lee Rodgers. "NLSY Kinship Links: Creating Biometrical Design Structures from Cross-Generational Data." Presented: Marseille, France, Behavior Genetics Association (BGA) Annual Meeting, June-July 2013.
5. D'Onofrio, Brian M.
Donahue, Kelly L
Coyne, Claire A.
Van Hulle, Carol A.
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Waldman, Irwin D.
Lahey, Benjamin B.
Early Maternal Age at Childbearing and Offspring Functioning During Adolescence: A Sibling-Comparison Study of Sexual Behavior and Depression
Presented: Minneapolis MN, Behavior Genetics Association Annual Meeting, 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Age at First Intercourse; CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Sexual Activity; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Offspring born to younger mothers are at increased risk for problems during adolescence across a range of domains. Previous research suggests that the mechanisms responsible for the associations between offspring adjustment and early maternal age at childbearing (MAC) are dependent on the outcomes being explored. The current study used statistical covariates and the comparison of siblings differentially exposed to MAC to account for alternative explanations for the statistical relations with risky sexual behavior and depression during adolescence. The study included 6,056 offspring (ages 14–21) born to a nationally representative sample of women in the US from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and children of the NLSY studies. MAC in the sample ranged from 13- to 34-year-old (M = 23.2). Each increasing year of maternal childbearing was associated with a 14% reduction (OR = 0.86, p\0.001) in the risk of early sexual intercourse (before the age of 14). For instance, offspring born to teenage mothers were 2.46 times more likely to have sex before the age of 14 than offspring born to non-teenage mothers. The association between MAC and early sexual activity remained when controlling for maternal characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, adolescent delinquency, depression, and educational level, and when comparing differentially exposed siblings (OR = .93, p\0.05). Maternal teenage childbearing was also associated with offspring adolescent depression (from ages 14- to 17-year-old), as measured by the CESD (b = -0.04 SD/year at childbearing, p\0.001). The association remained when controlling for maternal covariates and when comparing siblings differentially exposed (b = -0.04 SD/year at childbearing, p\0.001). The results suggest that environmental factors specifically associated with early childbearing account for increased risk of early sexual activity and adolescent depression in offspring.
Bibliography Citation
D'Onofrio, Brian M., Kelly L Donahue, Claire A. Coyne, Carol A. Van Hulle, Joseph Lee Rodgers, Irwin D. Waldman and Benjamin B. Lahey. "Early Maternal Age at Childbearing and Offspring Functioning During Adolescence: A Sibling-Comparison Study of Sexual Behavior and Depression." Presented: Minneapolis MN, Behavior Genetics Association Annual Meeting, 2009.
6. Hart, Sara A.
Petrill, Stephen A.
Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Genetic Influences on Language, Reading, and Mathematic Skills in a National Sample: A Selected and Unselected Analysis in the NLSY
Presented: Louisville, KY, Annual Meeting of the Behavior Genetics Association, June 26-28, 2008.
Also: http://lshss.asha.org/cgi/reprint/41/1/118?ijkey=72bf52fdbfd68dd537ae3bf81e670a1445d9c1a8
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Genetics; Kinship; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Purpose: The present study is an examination of the genetic effects in both a selected and unselected sample across multiple domains of cognitive achievement. Furthermore, this study uses a largely representative population sample of children to determine if the conclusions from twin and adoption studies can be generalized.

Methods: A kinship algorithm which assigned degree of genetic relatedness to all available pairings (Rodgers et al. Intelligence 19:157–177, 1994) was applied to the 1994 wave of the National Survey of Youth Children's sample. Four cognitive achievement outcomes related to language, reading and mathematics were analyzed across the general sample, as well as for children selected below the lowest 20%tile.

Results: The tests of receptive vocabulary, decoding, reading comprehension and mathematics all suggested estimates of group heritability and full sample heritability of moderate effect sizes, and all estimates were significant. Furthermore, all estimates were within standard errors of previously reported estimates from twin and adoption studies. Conclusions The present study gives support for significant genetic effects across low and wide range of specific achievement. Moreover, this study supports that genetic influences on reading, language, and mathematics are generalizable beyond twin and adoption studies.

Bibliography Citation
Hart, Sara A., Stephen A. Petrill and Claire M. Kamp Dush. "Genetic Influences on Language, Reading, and Mathematic Skills in a National Sample: A Selected and Unselected Analysis in the NLSY." Presented: Louisville, KY, Annual Meeting of the Behavior Genetics Association, June 26-28, 2008.
7. Hunter, Michael D.
Bard, David E.
Beasley, William H.
Meredith, Kelly M.
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
A Dynamic Mixture Biometric Model of Cognitive Development in the NLSY Children
Presented: Charlottesville VA, Behavior Genetics Association Annual Meeting, June 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Digit Span (also see Memory for Digit Span - WISC); Genetics; Kinship; Modeling, Multilevel; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A novel method of combining within-person and between-person variability in a biometrically informed model was used to examine nonlinear cognitive development in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child/Young Adult (NLSYC/YA) dataset. Entirely within person biometric models (e.g. Molenaar 2010) can be fit, but generally assume that all persons are heterogeneous. By contrast, conventional between-person biometric models (e.g. Martin & Eaves 1977) make the opposite assumption: that the sample is uniformly homogeneous. State space mixture modeling (SSMMing) is a middle ground. SSMMs make a within-person longitudinal biometric model for each pair of genetically related participants to account for the idiographic nature of genetic and developmental variability (Nesselroade, Gerstorf, Hardy, and Ram 2007; Molenaar, Boomsma, and Dolan 1993). Simultaneously, SSMMs allow for a finite number of groups that are within-group homogeneous and between-group heterogeneous to allow for uniformity in development among some people. The longitudinal model in SSMMs has both autoregressive and linear slope components with individually estimated growth trajectories. Hence, nonlinear patterns of change are allowed in the context of linear modeling. Five longitudinally measured cognitive variables (PIAT Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, and Math; PPVT; and Digit Span) from the NLSYC are used both to illustrate SSMMs as a method and to provide insight into this important process. The finding that cognitive ability is highly heritable between individuals was replicated in cross-sectional subsets of the NLSYC. However, the within-person longitudinal model showed minimal contribution from additive genetic variance across the five cognitive variables. A SSMM with two groups found a small subgroup in which cognitive ability was heritable within persons, but for the majority of individuals studied the intraindividual variance was dominated by common and specific environmental factors. The structure of intraindividual heritability of cognitive ability thus appears quite different from that found in conventional between person biometric modeling.
Bibliography Citation
Hunter, Michael D., David E. Bard, William H. Beasley, Kelly M. Meredith and Joseph Lee Rodgers. "A Dynamic Mixture Biometric Model of Cognitive Development in the NLSY Children." Presented: Charlottesville VA, Behavior Genetics Association Annual Meeting, June 2014.
8. Mendle, Jane
Harden, K. Paige
Van Hulle, Carol A.
D'Onofrio, Brian M.
Lahey, Benjamin B.
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Emery, Robert E.
Turkheimer, Eric
Father Absence and Early Sexual Activity: Revisiting Evolutionary Theories
Presented: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Behavior Genetics Association 37th Annual Meeting, June 5, 2007.
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Intercourse; Fathers, Absence; Genetics; Kinship; Modeling, Multilevel; Sexual Activity; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children raised without a biological father present in the household are more likely to exhibit precocious and risky sexual behavior during adolescence. Most explanations for this association invoke an evolutionary mechanism: individuals have evolved such that early childhood environment influences the particular reproductive strategies manifest later in life. The developmental pathways presaging adult reproductive behavior are especially sensitive to the father's family role and the quality of paternal care is believed to affect sexual development independent of other stressors in the family system. Although these theories conceptualize early sexual activity as a consequence of familial stress, a genetic predisposition for risky sexual behavior may manifest in father absence in parents and in precocious sexual maturation in children. One means of clarifying the role of father absence in timing of first intercourse is through studying offspring of twins and/or sisters. If the association between timing of intercourse and paternal absence is an artifact of familial risk, the age of first intercourse in children of discordant sibling dyads will be comparable -- despite the differing environmental circumstances in which these cousins were raised. This alternative hypothesis was tested in a sample of adolescent children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), using multilevel survival models adapted from the more common children of-twins (CoT) design. Results were not consistent with a causal role of father absence on offspring sexuality; children who experienced father absence did not differ in age of first intercourse from either siblings or cousins raised with present fathers. But, these children did differ from those who had no father absence in either their nuclear or extended family. This suggests that it is not father absence, per se, but rather some familial factor correlated with father absence that produces this association.
Bibliography Citation
Mendle, Jane, K. Paige Harden, Carol A. Van Hulle, Brian M. D'Onofrio, Benjamin B. Lahey, Joseph Lee Rodgers, Robert E. Emery and Eric Turkheimer. "Father Absence and Early Sexual Activity: Revisiting Evolutionary Theories." Presented: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Behavior Genetics Association 37th Annual Meeting, June 5, 2007.
9. Murray, Charles A.
Implications of the Secular Rise in IQ for Convergence of Black and White IQ Scores (Also titled: The Secular Increase in IQ and Longitudinal Changes in the Magnitude of the Black-White Difference: Evidence from the NLSY)
Presented: Vancouver, BC, Behavior Genetics Association 29th Annual Meeting, July 4, 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Genetics; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The secular and international rise in IQ has been widely interpreted as evidence that black and white IQ scores may be expected to converge over time. The present study first examines the logic behind this position, then explores the consistency of that logic with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY), a large national sample that has been followed since 1979. Elaborating Jensen's procedure (A.R. Jensen, 1973, Educability and Group Differences, Methuen), the analyses focus on sibling pairs and mother-offspring pairs within the NLSY. For the sibling analysis, a sample of blacks and whites are matched on IQ and on parental education, occupation, and income. For the mother-offspring analysis, a sample of black and white mothers are matched on IQ and their own education and family income. Parallel analyses of the IQs of the comparison siblings and of the offspring are conducted. Despite equivalent means and variance on IQ and the socioeconomic variables in the black and white reference samples, the IQs of the comparison siblings and of the offspring regressed to means with a black/white difference of 16.9 IQ points (sibling sample) and 21.6 IQ points (mother-offspring sample). Alternative possibilities for reconciling these findings with the secular rise in IQ are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Murray, Charles A. "Implications of the Secular Rise in IQ for Convergence of Black and White IQ Scores (Also titled: The Secular Increase in IQ and Longitudinal Changes in the Magnitude of the Black-White Difference: Evidence from the NLSY)." Presented: Vancouver, BC, Behavior Genetics Association 29th Annual Meeting, July 4, 1999.
10. Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Bard, David E.
Miller, Warren B.
Mother-Daughter-Aunt-Niece (MDAN) Design, Applied to Cross-Generational NLSY
Presented: Storrs, CT, Behavior Genetics Association, 36th Annual Annual Conference, June 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Intercourse; Age at Menarche; Genetics; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers and Daughters; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A new biometrical design – called the MDAN design – emerges from the complex longitudinal survey design of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data. Using the crossgenerational structure available in the NLSY, we link mothers to daughters and aunts to nieces, creating an MDAN (mother-daughter-aunt-niece) design. The cross-generational data include NLSY-females who are only mothers, those who are only aunts, and those who are both mothers and aunts. Further, there is within-generational biometrical information linking NLSY-Youth females to one another as cousins, half-siblings, full-siblings, and twins; and linking NLSYChildren females to one another as cousins, half siblings, full siblings, and twins. We create linking files identifying the various within- and between-generational links, and fit preliminary biometrical models using those links. Phenotypes are fertility variables, typically measured across the two generations at approximately the same age and using identical measurement instruments. Specific measures on which we focus include self-reported age at menarche and self-reported age at first intercourse. Previous research using biometrical models have studied these phenotypes within each generation; the current research substantially extends both the empirical results and the methodological innovation by taking advantage of the ability to fit three different types of genetically- and environmentally-informed structure simultaneously.
Bibliography Citation
Rodgers, Joseph Lee, David E. Bard and Warren B. Miller. "Mother-Daughter-Aunt-Niece (MDAN) Design, Applied to Cross-Generational NLSY." Presented: Storrs, CT, Behavior Genetics Association, 36th Annual Annual Conference, June 2006.
11. Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Garrison, Sarah Mason
Hadd, Alexandria
Intelligence and Fertility in the NLSY79 Respondents: Children of Siblings and Biometrical Models
Presented: Charlottesville VA, Behavior Genetics Association (BGA) Annual Meeting, June 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Behavior Genetics Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Intercourse; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Genetics; I.Q.; Intelligence; Kinship; Modeling, Multilevel; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current study uses the family structure of the original National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) dataset to evaluate several questions related to fertility outcomes. Recent work using both the NLSY79 and the NLSY-Children data has taken advantage of the kinship links in these surveys to control for family history—both genetic and environmental—using a Children of Siblings (COS) design. The NLSY79 females have recently completed childbearing, and the males have virtually completed childbearing (respondents were age 47–55 in the most recently released 2012 survey). We use a COS design in which we separate NLSY79 respondents into two categories; the first group consists of the higher-IQ sibling (as measured using the Armed Forces Qualifying Test), the second consists of the lower-IQ sibling. We separate these analyses into father-father, mother-mother, and cross-gender categories. We run the following analyses. First, we compare the two groups on several fertility variables, including age at first intercourse, age at first birth, and completed fertility. This analysis assesses the size and direction of fitness status of IQ in this dataset. Second, we estimate several biometrical models that assess the biometrical status of the fertility outcomes in relation to maternal intelligence. We compare unconditional biometrical parameters to those conditioned on intelligence differences between the NLSY79 siblings. If the h2, c2, and e2 values are similar, then intelligence does not condition the biometrical structure of fertility outcomes. If they are statistically different, then intelligence is implicated as moderating the biometrical structure of fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Rodgers, Joseph Lee, Sarah Mason Garrison and Alexandria Hadd. "Intelligence and Fertility in the NLSY79 Respondents: Children of Siblings and Biometrical Models." Presented: Charlottesville VA, Behavior Genetics Association (BGA) Annual Meeting, June 2014.