Search Results

Source: American Sociological Review
Resulting in 65 citations.
1. Anderson, Douglas K.
Adolescent Mothers Drop Out
American Sociological Review 58,5 (October 1993): 735-738.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096284
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Data Quality/Consistency; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Comment on Upchurch and McCarthy, ASR, April 1990. To address the relationships between adolescent childbearing and completion of high school, Upchurch and McCarthy (1990, henceforward UM) examined the frequency and timing of three critical events in the lives of young women: the birth of a first child, dropping out of high school, and high school graduation. Socioeconomic factors were used as controls. Unfortunately, UM misinterpret their results at several key points.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Douglas K. "Adolescent Mothers Drop Out." American Sociological Review 58,5 (October 1993): 735-738.
2. Bloome, Deirdre
Dyer, Shauna
Zhou, Xiang
Educational Inequality, Educational Expansion, and Intergenerational Income Persistence in the United States
American Sociological Review 83,6 (December 2018): 1215-1253.
Also: ttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0003122418809374
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Income; Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility, Economic

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The children of high-income parents often become high-income adults, while their low-income peers often become low-income adults. Education plays a central role in this intergenerational income persistence. Because education-based inequalities grew in recent decades, many scholars predicted that intergenerational income persistence would increase. However, previous research suggests that it remained stable across recent cohorts. We address this puzzle. Analyzing National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth data, we find that growing educational inequality by parental income, along with rising economic returns to education, increased intergenerational persistence, as scholars expected. However, two countervailing trends offset this increase. The expansion of higher education reduced persistence, because completing college helps low-income children become high-income adults. Yet, this reduction in persistence was far from enough to offset the increase in persistence associated with growing educational inequality and rising educational returns. Intergenerational persistence would have increased if not for another change: within educational groups, parental income became less predictive of adult income. New methodological tools underlie these findings, tools that quantify, for the first time, education's full force in intergenerational income persistence. These findings suggest that to reduce intergenerational persistence, educational policies should focus less on how many people complete college and more on who completes college.
Bibliography Citation
Bloome, Deirdre, Shauna Dyer and Xiang Zhou. "Educational Inequality, Educational Expansion, and Intergenerational Income Persistence in the United States." American Sociological Review 83,6 (December 2018): 1215-1253.
3. Brand, Jennie E.
Xie, Yu
Who Benefits Most from College? Evidence for Negative Selection in Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Higher Education
American Sociological Review 75,2 (April 2010): 273-302.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/75/2/273.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Earnings; Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Life Course; Propensity Scores; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study/H.S. Panel Study (WLS)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this article, we consider how the economic return to a college education varies across members of the U.S. population. Based on principles of comparative advantage, scholars commonly presume that positive selection is at work, that is, individuals who are most likely to select into college also benefit most from college. Net of observed economic and noneconomic factors influencing college attendance, we conjecture that individuals who are least likely to obtain a college education benefit the most from college. We call this theory the negative selection hypothesis. To adjudicate between the two hypotheses, we study the effects of completing college on earnings by propensity score strata using an innovative hierarchical linear model with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. For both cohorts, for both men and women, and for every observed stage of the life course, we find evidence suggesting negative selection. Results from auxiliary analyses lend further support to the negative selection hypothesis.
Bibliography Citation
Brand, Jennie E. and Yu Xie. "Who Benefits Most from College? Evidence for Negative Selection in Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Higher Education." American Sociological Review 75,2 (April 2010): 273-302.
4. Brayne, Sarah
Surveillance and System Avoidance: Criminal Justice Contact and Institutional Attachment
American Sociological Review 79,3 (June 2014): 367-391.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/79/3/367
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Crime; Criminal Justice System; Incarceration/Jail; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The degree and scope of criminal justice surveillance increased dramatically in the United States over the past four decades. Recent qualitative research suggests the rise in surveillance may be met with a concomitant increase in efforts to evade it. To date, however, there has been no quantitative empirical test of this theory. In this article, I introduce the concept of “system avoidance,” whereby individuals who have had contact with the criminal justice system avoid surveilling institutions that keep formal records. Using data from Add Health (n = 15,170) and the NLSY97 (n = 8,894), I find that individuals who have been stopped by police, arrested, convicted, or incarcerated are less likely to interact with surveilling institutions, including medical, financial, labor market, and educational institutions, than their counterparts who have not had criminal justice contact. By contrast, individuals with criminal justice contact are no less likely to participate in civic or religious institutions. Because criminal justice contact is disproportionately distributed, this study suggests system avoidance is a potential mechanism through which the criminal justice system contributes to social stratification: it severs an already marginalized subpopulation from institutions that are pivotal to desistance from crime and their own integration into broader society.
Bibliography Citation
Brayne, Sarah. "Surveillance and System Avoidance: Criminal Justice Contact and Institutional Attachment." American Sociological Review 79,3 (June 2014): 367-391.
5. Budig, Michelle Jean
England, Paula A.
The Wage Penalty for Motherhood
American Sociological Review 66,2 (April 2001): 204-225.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657415
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Fertility; Income; Income Level; Job Knowledge; Job Promotion; Mobility, Job; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Mothers; Mothers, Income; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Motherhood is associated with lower hourly pay, but the causes of this are not well understood. Mothers may earn less than other women because having children causes them to (1) lose job experience, (2) be less productive at work, (3) trade off higher wages for mother-friendly jobs, or (4) be discriminated against by employers. Or the relationship may be spurious rather than causal--women with lower earning potential may have children at relatively higher rates. The authors use data from the 1982-1993 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with fixed-effects models to examine the wage penalty for motherhood. Results show a wage penalty of 7 percent per child. Penalties are larger for married women than for unmarried women. Women with (more) children have fewer years of job experience, and after controlling for experience a penalty of 5 percent per child remains. "Mother-friendly" characteristics of the jobs held by mothers explain little of the penalty beyond the tendency of more mothers than non-mothers to work part-time. The portion of the motherhood penalty unexplained probably results from the effect of motherhood on productivity and/or from discrimination by employers against mothers. While the benefits of mothering diffuse widely--to the employers, neighbors, friends, spouses, and children of the adults who received the mothering--the costs of child rearing are borne disproportionately by mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean and Paula A. England. "The Wage Penalty for Motherhood." American Sociological Review 66,2 (April 2001): 204-225.
6. Budig, Michelle Jean
Hodges, Melissa J.
Differences in Disadvantage: Variation in the Motherhood Penalty across White Women’s Earnings Distribution
American Sociological Review 75,5 (October 2010): 705-728.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/75/5/705.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Wage Differentials; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Earnings inequality has grown in recent decades in the United States, yet research investigating the motherhood wage penalty has not fully considered how the penalty itself, and the mechanisms producing it, may vary among low-wage, middle-wage, and high-wage workers. Pooling data from the 1979 to 2004 waves of the NLSY and using simultaneous quantile regression methods with fixed effects, we test whether the size of the motherhood penalty differs across the distribution of white women’s earnings, and whether the mechanisms explaining this penalty vary by earnings level. Results show that having children inflicts the largest penalty on low-wage women, proportionately, although a significant motherhood penalty persists at all earnings levels. We also find that the mechanisms creating the motherhood penalty vary by earnings level. Family resources, work effort, and compensating differentials account for a greater portion of the penalty among low earners. Among highly paid women, by contrast, the motherhood penalty is significantly smaller and largely explained by lost human capital due to childbearing. Our findings show that estimates of average motherhood penalties obscure the compounded disadvantage mothers face at the bottom of the earnings distribution, as well as differences in the type and strength of mechanisms that produce the penalty.
Bibliography Citation
Budig, Michelle Jean and Melissa J. Hodges. "Differences in Disadvantage: Variation in the Motherhood Penalty across White Women’s Earnings Distribution." American Sociological Review 75,5 (October 2010): 705-728.
7. Cheng, Siwei
The Accumulation of (Dis)advantage: The Intersection of Gender and Race in the Long-Term Wage Effect of Marriage
American Sociological Review 81,1 (February 2016): 29-56.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/81/1/29
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Life Course; Marriage; Racial Differences; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A sizable literature examines whether and why marriage affects men's and women's wages. This study advances current research in two ways. First, whereas most prior studies treat the effect of marriage as time-invariant, I examine how the wage effect of marriage unfolds over the life course. Second, whereas prior work often focuses on the population-average effect of marriage or is limited to some particular gender or racial group, I examine the intersection of gender and race in the effect of marriage. Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I find that the marriage wage premium grows steadily and at a similar pace among white and black men. The marriage wage premium declines toward negative among white women, yet it grows steadily among black women. Furthermore, measured work experience explains a substantial amount of the wage premium among black men, yet it has little explanatory power among white men, pointing to the importance of unobserved factors in white men’s marriage premium. Changes in work experience negatively affect married white women's wages, yet they positively affect married black women's wages, pointing to the important differences between black and white families.
Bibliography Citation
Cheng, Siwei. "The Accumulation of (Dis)advantage: The Intersection of Gender and Race in the Long-Term Wage Effect of Marriage." American Sociological Review 81,1 (February 2016): 29-56.
8. Cherlin, Andrew J.
Ribar, David C.
Yasutake, Suzumi
Nonmarital First Births, Marriage, and Income Inequality
American Sociological Review 81,4 (August 2016): 749-770.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/81/4/749
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; First Birth; Income; Marriage; Parents, Single; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Many aggregate-level studies suggest a relationship between economic inequality and sociodemographic outcomes such as family formation, health, and mortality; individual-level evidence, however, is lacking. Nor is there satisfactory evidence on the mechanisms by which inequality may have an effect. We study the determinants of transitions to a nonmarital first birth as a single parent or as a cohabiting parent compared to transitions to marriage prior to a first birth among unmarried, childless young adults in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort, from 1997 to 2011. We include measures of county-group-level household income inequality and the availability of jobs typically held by high school graduates that pay above-poverty wages (i.e., middle-skilled jobs). We find that greater income inequality is associated with a reduced likelihood of transitioning to marriage prior to a first birth for both women and men. The association between levels of inequality and transitions to marriage can be partially accounted for by the availability of middle-skilled jobs. Some models also suggest that greater income inequality is associated with a reduced likelihood of transitioning to a first birth while cohabiting.
Bibliography Citation
Cherlin, Andrew J., David C. Ribar and Suzumi Yasutake. "Nonmarital First Births, Marriage, and Income Inequality." American Sociological Review 81,4 (August 2016): 749-770.
9. Desai, Sonalde
Waite, Linda J.
Women's Employment During Pregnancy and After the First Birth: Occupational Characteristics and Work Commitment
American Sociological Review 56,4 (August 1991): 551-556.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096274
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Constraints; First Birth; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Occupational Segregation; Occupations; Occupations, Female; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Women; Work Attitudes; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An investigation of the hypothesis that women choose primarily female occupations because such jobs make it relatively easy & cost-free to withdraw from the labor force during the 2 years immediately following the first pregnancy, the time of greatest psychological & physical strains on working women. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on a sample of 1,055 US women interviewed in 1979 & 1985 who had a first birth during that time period, & were employed at least 20 hours/week during & following pregnancy. Event-history analyses reveal no effect of occupational sex composition on the likelihood that recent mothers are employed. Occupational characteristics that raise labor force withdrawal costs (eg, high education, wages, job-specific training) & nonmonetary occupational characteristics decrease the probability of women's withdrawal from work. While all women are found to respond to withdrawal costs, women with low work commitment also respond to financial pressure & convenience of the work setting. 4 Tables, 2 Figures, 39 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1991, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Desai, Sonalde and Linda J. Waite. "Women's Employment During Pregnancy and After the First Birth: Occupational Characteristics and Work Commitment." American Sociological Review 56,4 (August 1991): 551-556.
10. Downey, Douglas B.
Powell, Brian
Steelman, Lala Carr
Pribesh, Shana
Much Ado About Siblings: Change Models, Sibship Size, and Intellectual Development: Comment on Guo and VanWey
American Sociological Review 64,2 (April 1999): 193-198.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657526
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Change Scores; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

No abstract available.
Bibliography Citation
Downey, Douglas B., Brian Powell, Lala Carr Steelman and Shana Pribesh. "Much Ado About Siblings: Change Models, Sibship Size, and Intellectual Development: Comment on Guo and VanWey." American Sociological Review 64,2 (April 1999): 193-198.
11. England, Paula A.
Bearak, Jonathan M.
Budig, Michelle Jean
Hodges, Melissa J.
Do Highly Paid, Highly Skilled Women Experience the Largest Motherhood Penalty?
American Sociological Review 81,6 (December 2016): 1161-1189.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/81/6/1161.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Motherhood; Wage Levels; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Motherhood reduces women's wages. But does the size of this penalty differ between more and less advantaged women? To answer this, we use unconditional quantile regression models with person-fixed effects, and panel data from the 1979 to 2010 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). We find that among white women, the most privileged--women with high skills and high wages--experience the highest total penalties, estimated to include effects mediated through lost experience. Although highly skilled, highly paid women have fairly continuous experience, their high returns to experience make even the small amounts of time some of them take out of employment for childrearing costly. By contrast, penalties net of experience, which may represent employer discrimination or effects of motherhood on job performance, are not distinctive for highly skilled women with high wages.
Bibliography Citation
England, Paula A., Jonathan M. Bearak, Michelle Jean Budig and Melissa J. Hodges. "Do Highly Paid, Highly Skilled Women Experience the Largest Motherhood Penalty?" American Sociological Review 81,6 (December 2016): 1161-1189.
12. England, Paula A.
Farkas, George
Kilbourne, Barbara Stanek
Dou, Thomas
Explaining Occupational Sex Segregation and Wages: Findings from a Model with Fixed Effects
American Sociological Review 53,4 (August 1988): 544-558.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095848
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Comparable Worth; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Gender Differences; Human Capital Theory; Labor Market Demographics; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Occupational Segregation; Occupations, Female; Racial Differences; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Wage Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does segregation arise because "female" occupations have financial advantages for women planning some years as homeworkers, as human capital theorists claim? Or, do female occupations have low wages that are depressed by the sort of discrimination at issue in "Comparable Worth"? To answer these questions, the authors use a model with fixed effects to predict the earnings of young men and women from a pooled cross-section time-series. A fixed-effects model is ideal for answering these questions because it corrects for the selection bias that results from the tendency of persons who differ on characteristics that are unmeasured but affect earnings to select themselves into different occupations. The data are from the NLS Young Men and Young Women cohorts. Independent variables include years of employment experience, education, marital status, hours worked per week, the sex composition of one's occupation, and measures of occupational skill demands and working conditions taken from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Separate analyses are performed for white females, black females, white males, and black males. It was found that female occupations do not have the advantages presumed by neoclassical writers. Rather, there is evidence of pay discrimination against men or women in predominantly female occupations. Findings are interpreted using economic and sociological theories of labor markets.
Bibliography Citation
England, Paula A., George Farkas, Barbara Stanek Kilbourne and Thomas Dou. "Explaining Occupational Sex Segregation and Wages: Findings from a Model with Fixed Effects." American Sociological Review 53,4 (August 1988): 544-558.
13. Farkas, George
Vicknair, Keven
Appropriate Tests of Racial Wage Discrimination Require Controls for Cognitive Skill: Comment on Cancio, Evans, and Maume
American Sociological Review 61,4 (August 1996): 557-560.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096392
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Modeling; Racial Differences; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In "Reconsidering the Declining Significance of Race: Racial Differences in Early Career Wages" (see abstract), A. Silvia Cancio, T. David Evans, & David J. Maume, Jr., claim that racial wage discrimination increased after 1976. Here, it is argued that Cancio, Evans, & Maume omitted a key control variable - cognitive skill - from the regression performed. Analysis is based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on male workers ages 26-33 who held full-time jobs in 1991 (N not specified). A regression model that controls for cognitive skill, measured by tests conducted in 1980 when Ss were ages 15-22, is found to explain 109% of the wage gap, thus eliminating the finding of race discrimination against black men. 1 Table. B. Jones (Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Farkas, George and Keven Vicknair. "Appropriate Tests of Racial Wage Discrimination Require Controls for Cognitive Skill: Comment on Cancio, Evans, and Maume." American Sociological Review 61,4 (August 1996): 557-560.
14. Felmlee, Diane Helen
Women's Job Mobility Processes Within and Between Employers
American Sociological Review 47,1 (February 1982): 142-151.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095048
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Family Influences; I.Q.; Job Rewards; Job Tenure; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Transition, Job to Job; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines the role of the firm in women's job mobility using a dynamic approach. Rates of women's job to job transitions are analyzed with a multivariate, stochastic model. The data are employment histories derived from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (1968-1973). The results demonstrate the significance and the advantages of firm-internal labor markets in women's employment. First, the process of job mobility differs greatly within and between employers. Voluntary job changes made between employers rely on observable job rewards and general individual resources. Shifts within a firm depend largely on a woman's age and job duration, signifying the importance of seniority and job-specific resources in determining promotions. Second, jobs in firm-internal labor markets offer higher wages and socioeconomic status to women than other jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Felmlee, Diane Helen. "Women's Job Mobility Processes Within and Between Employers." American Sociological Review 47,1 (February 1982): 142-151.
15. Fomby, Paula
Cherlin, Andrew J.
Family Instability and Child Well-Being
American Sociological Review 72,2 (April 2007):181-204.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25472457
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Age at First Intercourse; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Cognitive Development; Divorce; Family History; Family Structure; Household Composition; Household Structure; Marital Instability; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children who experience multiple transitions in family structure may face worse developmental outcomes than children raised in stable, two-parent families, and perhaps even worse than children raised in stable, single-parent families­ a point denoted in much prior research. Multiple transitions and negative child outcomes, however, may be associated through common causal factors such as parents' antecedent behaviors and attributes. Using a nationally-representative, two-generation longitudinal survey that includes detailed information on children's behavioral and cognitive development, family history, and mothers' attributes prior to children's births, we examine these alternative hypotheses. Our results suggest that, for white children, the association between the number of family structure transitions and cognitive outcomes is largely explained by mothers' prior characteristics but that the association between the number of transitions and behavioral outcomes may be causal in part. We find no robust effects for number of transitions for black children.
Bibliography Citation
Fomby, Paula and Andrew J. Cherlin. "Family Instability and Child Well-Being." American Sociological Review 72,2 (April 2007):181-204.
16. Fuller, Sylvia
Job Mobility and Wage Trajectories for Men and Women in the United States
American Sociological Review 73,1 (February 2008): 158-183.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25472518
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Labor Supply; Mobility, Occupational; Modeling; Wage Equations; Wage Rates; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Young American workers typically change employers many times in the course of establishing their careers. This article examines the consequences of this mobility for wage inequalities between and among men and women. Using multilevel modeling and data from the 1979 to 2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), I disentangle the various ways in which mobility shapes the trajectories of wage growth. Findings caution against accepting the adequacy of prevalent economic models of mobility--models that tend to isolate individual workers' moves from broader patterns of work history and that treat mobility as a decontextualized individual choice. Although workers who frequently switch employers generally end up earning less than their more-stable counterparts, the type, timing, and relative level of changes strongly affect the ultimate wage differential. Differences in the degree of men's and women's labor-force attachment and family circumstances are also influential. Workers who are less attached to the labor force benefit less from changing employers, and women who are married or have children also tend to experience less-favorable mobility-wage outcomes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of American Sociological Review is the property of American Sociological Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright
Bibliography Citation
Fuller, Sylvia. "Job Mobility and Wage Trajectories for Men and Women in the United States." American Sociological Review 73,1 (February 2008): 158-183.
17. Guo, Guang
Vanwey, Leah K.
Sibship Size and Intellectual Development: Is the Relationship Causal?
American Sociological Review 64,2 (April 1999): 169-187.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657524
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Family Characteristics; Family Environment; Family Size; Genetics; Intelligence; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Originally Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 2-4, 1998

Previous research has consistently found a negative statistical relationship between sibship size and children's intellectual development. Two explanations have been offered for this finding. The prevailing explanation is that the relationship is causal, suggesting that limiting family size would lead to more intelligent children. A second explanation maintains that the relationship is spurious--that one or more undetermined factors correlated with family size are causally related to intellectual development. Using data on children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we reexamine the issue using change models. These change models allow us to control for such unmeasured effects as family intellectual climate, family value system, and family genetic heritage. We begin by replicating in these data the negative statistical relationship between three cognitive measures and sibship size. We then apply the change models to siblings measured at two points in time and to repeated measures of the same individuals. By considering sibship size as an individual trait that changes over time, we control for effects that are shared across siblings and over time. When these shared effects are controlled, the negative relationship between sibship size and intellectual development disappears, casting doubt on the causal interpretation of the negative relationship conventionally found.

Bibliography Citation
Guo, Guang and Leah K. Vanwey. "Sibship Size and Intellectual Development: Is the Relationship Causal?" American Sociological Review 64,2 (April 1999): 169-187.
18. Guo, Guang
Vanwey, Leah K.
The Effects of Closely Spaced and Widely Spaced Sibship Size on Intellectual Development: Reply to Phillips and Downey et al.
American Sociological Review 64,2 (April 1999): 199-206.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657527
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A response to Meredith Phillips's & Douglas B. Downey et al's (both 1999) analyses of the authors' contention that sibship size has little influence on children's intellectual development. Whereas Phillips' commentary is welcomed, it is asserted that Downey et al have failed to invalidate the authors' contention. Contrary to the latter's assertion, it is suggested that cross-sectional model analyses of both closely & widely spaced sibship size are potentially misleading. It is contended that the change model effectively controlled "unobserved permanent family characteristics." Downey et al's assertion that change & cross-sectional models are comparable is rejected because both models analyze different measures of sibship size & children's intellectual growth. Moreover, their contention that the authors presented a static representation of the family is repudiated.
Bibliography Citation
Guo, Guang and Leah K. Vanwey. "The Effects of Closely Spaced and Widely Spaced Sibship Size on Intellectual Development: Reply to Phillips and Downey et al." American Sociological Review 64,2 (April 1999): 199-206.
19. Hargrove, Taylor
One Trend Fits All?: Combining Multiple-Hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Perspectives to Understand BMI Trajectories
Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Life Course; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior research on health disparities has typically employed unidimensional or additive approaches to understanding the social stratification of health. These approaches assume that social statuses are autonomous structures of inequality that have independent effects on life chances. This assumption, however, overlooks the unique and simultaneous positions of power and disadvantage within which individuals are situated, and potentially leads to inaccurate conclusions regarding the nature of health inequality. This study combines multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to evaluate how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES intersect to shape BMI trajectories between adolescence and young adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1997 cohort and growth curve models, this paper examines the extent to which racial/ethnic inequalities in BMI are gendered and/or classed, and whether the intersectional effects of race/ethnicity, gender, and SES result in widening, narrowing, or persistent gaps across age among whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Results suggest that racial/ethnic inequality in BMI is greatest among women, with black women experiencing the highest BMI, and greatest increases in BMI with age. Additionally, findings indicate that socioeconomic resources are less protective for blacks and Hispanics compared to their white counterparts. Overall, these results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and cumulative disadvantage hypotheses. Examining trends in BMI during key stages of the life course (e.g. adolescence, the transition to adulthood, early adulthood) sheds light on the particular life stages during which inequalities in BMI emerge, peak, and possibly begin to wane, thereby helping to identity relevant points of intervention.
Bibliography Citation
Hargrove, Taylor. "One Trend Fits All?: Combining Multiple-Hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Perspectives to Understand BMI Trajectories." Presented: Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.
20. Hofferth, Sandra L.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Early Childbearing and Later Economic Well-Being
American Sociological Review 44,5 (October 1979): 784-815.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2094528
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; Children; Educational Attainment; Family Size; First Birth; Husbands, Influence; Schooling; Simultaneity; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLS of Young Women on a subsample of those women who have borne a child by age 27, we find strong direct effects within a path analytic framework, such that later childbearers complete more education, have smaller families, and work fewer hours at age 27. The relationship with education is recursive among women having a first child by age l8, but simultaneous among later childbearers. Effects of age at first birth on economic well-being at 27 are indirect. Lower education is related to reduced earnings among women and among other household members (usually the husband). Since resources must be divided among more family members, the incidence of poverty is greater. For women who are at least l9 when they have their first birth, the timing of that birth is important to later well-being primarily because of the smaller families and increased work experience to those who postpone their first birth into the twenties. Having an early first birth was found to be less detrimental to the later economic well-being of black women than white women.
Bibliography Citation
Hofferth, Sandra L. and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Early Childbearing and Later Economic Well-Being." American Sociological Review 44,5 (October 1979): 784-815.
21. Jacobs, Jerry A.
Industrial Sector and Career Mobility Reconsidered
American Sociological Review 48,3 (June 1983): 415-421.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095233
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Dual Economic Theory; Industrial Sector; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Mobility, Labor Market; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationship between industrial sector and career mobility is reexamined. It is argued that one must separate stayers and movers when studying career mobility. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Older Men and from the March 1981 Current Population Survey are employed. Two industrial sector models are tested, and are compared with a blue-collar vs. white-collar dichotomy. Industrial sector is shown to have only a modest impact on career mobility and is no more important for blacks and women than for white men. For all groups, collar color inhibits career mobility significantly more than does industrial sector.
Bibliography Citation
Jacobs, Jerry A. "Industrial Sector and Career Mobility Reconsidered." American Sociological Review 48,3 (June 1983): 415-421.
22. Killewald, Alexandra
A Reconsideration of the Fatherhood Premium: Marriage, Coresidence, Biology, and Fathers’ Wages
American Sociological Review 78,1 (February 2013): 96-116.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/78/1/96.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Fatherhood; Fathers, Biological; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Differentials; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research that asserts a fatherhood wage premium often ignores the heterogeneity of fathering contexts. I expect fatherhood to produce wage gains for men if it prompts them to alter their behavior in ways that increase labor-market productivity. Identity theory predicts a larger productivity-based fatherhood premium when ties of biology, coresidence with the child, and marriage to the child’s mother reinforce one another, making fatherhood, and the role of financial provider in particular, salient, high in commitment, and clear. Employer discrimination against fathers in less normative family structures may also contribute to variation in the fatherhood premium. Using fixed-effects models and data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I find that married, residential, biological fatherhood is associated with wage gains of about 4 percent, but unmarried residential fathers, nonresidential fathers, and stepfathers do not receive a fatherhood premium. Married residential fathers also receive no statistically significant wage premium when their wives work full-time. About 15 percent of the wage premium for married residential fathers can be explained by changes in human capital and job traits.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra. "A Reconsideration of the Fatherhood Premium: Marriage, Coresidence, Biology, and Fathers’ Wages." American Sociological Review 78,1 (February 2013): 96-116.
23. Killewald, Alexandra
Gough, Margaret
Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?
American Sociological Review 78,3 (June 2013): 477-502.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/78/3/477.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Housework/Housewives; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Motherhood; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages, Men; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Married men’s wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents. Using fixed-effects models and data from the NLSY79, we estimate within-gender differences in wages according to marital status and between-gender differences in the associations between marital status and wages. We then test whether specialization on time use, job traits, and tenure accounts for the observed associations. Results for women do not support the specialization hypothesis. Childless men and women both receive a marriage premium. Marriage augments the fatherhood premium but not the motherhood penalty. Changes in own and spousal employment hours, job traits, and tenure appear to benefit both married men and women, although men benefit more. Marriage changes men’s labor market behavior in ways that augment wages, but these changes do not appear to occur at the expense of women’s wages.
Bibliography Citation
Killewald, Alexandra and Margaret Gough. "Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?" American Sociological Review 78,3 (June 2013): 477-502.
24. Lichter, Daniel T.
Kephart, George
McLaughlin, Diane K.
Landry, David J.
Race and the Retreat from Marriage: A Shortage of Marriageable Men?
American Sociological Review 57,6 (December 1992): 781-799.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096123
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Marriage; Racial Differences; Sex Ratios

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We evaluate a marital search model that links the quantity and quality of available men to first marriage transitions among black women and white women in the United States. Our analysis provides a more complex assessment of the hypothesis that racial differences in transitions to first marriage reflect shortages of marriageable men in local marriage markets. We attach several indicators of local marriage market conditions (primarily sex ratios from the 1980 Census) to women's marital histories available in the 1979 through 1986 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our discrete-time logit models support the following conclusions: (I) A shortage in the quantity and quality of available males in local areas depresses women's transitions to first marriage; (2) economic independence among women (as measured by employment and earnings) is positively associated with entry into marriage; (3) racial differences in mate availability account for a relatively small share of existing racial differences in marriage; (4) indicators of local mate availability nevertheless account for a larger proportion of, observed racial differences in transitions to first marriage than factors such as family background, welfare status and living arrangements (e.g., multigenerational family); (5) the effects of marriage market characteristics are contingent on whether women are "searching" in the marriage market; and (6) the effect of a shortage of "economically attractive" men is not simply an artifact of local demographic deficits of men to marry.
Bibliography Citation
Lichter, Daniel T., George Kephart, Diane K. McLaughlin and David J. Landry. "Race and the Retreat from Marriage: A Shortage of Marriageable Men?" American Sociological Review 57,6 (December 1992): 781-799.
25. Ludwig, Volker
Bruderl, Josef
Is There a Male Marital Wage Premium? New Evidence from the United States
American Sociological Review 83,4 (August 2018): 744-770.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0003122418784909
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Growth; Wage Levels; Wages, Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study reconsiders the phenomenon that married men earn more money than unmarried men, a key result of the research on marriage benefits. Many earlier studies have found such a "male marital wage premium." Recent studies using panel data for the United States conclude that part of this premium is due to selection of high earners into marriage. Nevertheless, a substantial effect of marriage seems to remain. The current study investigates whether the remaining premium is really a causal effect. Using conventional fixed-effects models, previous studies statistically controlled for selection based on wage levels only. We suggest a more general fixed-effects model that allows for higher wage growth of to-be-married men. The empirical test draws on panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979 to 2012). We replicate the main finding of the literature: a wage premium remains after controlling for selection on individual wage levels. However, the remaining effect is not causal. The results show that married men earn more because selection into marriage operates not only on wage levels but also on wage growth. Hence, men on a steep career track are especially likely to marry. We conclude that arguments postulating a wage premium for married men should be discarded.
Bibliography Citation
Ludwig, Volker and Josef Bruderl. "Is There a Male Marital Wage Premium? New Evidence from the United States." American Sociological Review 83,4 (August 2018): 744-770.
26. Marini, Margaret Mooney
Fan, Pi-Ling
The Gender Gap in Earnings at Career Entry
American Sociological Review 62,4 (August 1997): 588-604.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657428
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We propose a new approach to analyzing gender differences in wages. This approach identifies several alternative explanatory mechanisms to account for the sorting of women and men into different types of jobs that offer different levels of reward. Because labor market rewards derive from labor market positions, we study matching processes operating at the micro level that sort workers into existing slots in a given macro-level structure of jobs and associated wages. We focus on the explanation of gender differences in wages at career entry. Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth collected between 1979 and 1991, we fend that at career entry women earn 84 cents for every dollar men earn. Gender differences in worker characteristics account for only about 30 percent of this wage gap: Gender differences in occupational aspirations have the most important effect, accounting for 16 percent of the wage gap, and gender differences in job-related skills and cred entials account for about 14 percent of the wage gap. Gender differences in adult family roles have little direct effect. Our analysis further suggests that the external influences of employing organizations and network processes on gender differences in occupational and industrial placement at career entry account for another 42 percent of the wage gap.
Bibliography Citation
Marini, Margaret Mooney and Pi-Ling Fan. "The Gender Gap in Earnings at Career Entry." American Sociological Review 62,4 (August 1997): 588-604.
27. Maume, David J. Jr.
Cancio, A. Silvia
Evans, T. David
Cognitive Skills and Racial Wage Inequality: Reply To Farkas And Vicknair
American Sociological Review 61,4 (August 1996): 561-564.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096393
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Cognitive Ability; Family Background; Racial Differences; School Quality; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Farkas and Vicknair (1996) create a composite measure of cognitive skills that is the average standardized score on tests of word knowledge, paragraph comprehension, arithmetic reasoning, and mathematical knowledge. These four tests are known as the "Armed Forces Qualifications Test" (AFQT), the scores the military uses to select recruits and for job assignments. Farkas and Vicknair claim to explain away the discrimination component of the racial gap in wages by controlling for cognitive skills. Yet they ignore the possibility that the AFQT, like many standardized tests, is class-biased. If these tests (especially those stressing a knowledge of vocabulary) also test for exposure to the values and experiences of the White middle class (Schiff and Lewontin 1986:33), then Blacks' scores on these tests will be systematically lower than scores for Whites. Indeed, Wigdor and Green (1991:179) reviewed studies of the AFQT and found larger Black/White differences on the AFQT than were found using direct measures of job performance. Thus, AFQT test scores exaggerate racial differences in skills and may in part be a proxy for race. If Blacks have lower scores on the AFQT and receive lower earnings because of employer discrimination, then inclusion of the AFQT score in a wage attainment model will weaken the impact of race on earnings. The AFQT score should be purged of its correlation with race so that the impact of cognitive skills, apart from race, can be examined. When the Department of Labor considered using military intelligence tests in the U.S. Employment Service, it commissioned a study that found "scientific grounds for the adjustment of minority scores so that able minority workers have the same chance of referral as able majority workers" (Hartigan and Wigdor 1989:7). To adjust AFQT scores received by minorities, Rodgers and Spriggs (1995:22) suggest regressing the scores on family background and school quality characteristics by race. The s lopes for Whites are then applied to values of the predictors for Blacks to generate a predicted AFQT score for Blacks. This method corrects for the devaluation of Blacks' scores by allowing the family background and school quality inputs to be evaluated in a "nondiscriminatory" manner. This method produces an instrumental variable that more closely approximates the job-relevant skills of African Americans. We replicated part of the Rodgers and Spriggs (1995) analysis using Farkas and present the results of regressing the AFQT composite score on family background and school quality variables. The data are for young males in the 1980 NLSY. Significant racial differences suggest that the AFQT test measures the abilities of Blacks and Whites differently.
Bibliography Citation
Maume, David J. Jr., A. Silvia Cancio and T. David Evans. "Cognitive Skills and Racial Wage Inequality: Reply To Farkas And Vicknair." American Sociological Review 61,4 (August 1996): 561-564.
28. McLeod, Jane D.
Kaiser, Karen
Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Educational Attainment
American Sociological Review 69,5 (October 2004): 636-658.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3593032
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; College Enrollment; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Education; Educational Attainment; Health, Mental; High School Diploma; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; School Progress; Schooling; Self-Esteem; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Do childhood emotional and behavioral problems diminish the probability of graduating from high school and attending college? If so, are their effects primarily attributable to the persistence of those problems over time, to continuities in social environments, or to the cumulative effects of early academic failures? We provide answers to these questions using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth data set (1986-2000). Internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 6-8 significantly and strongly diminish the probability of receiving a high school degree. Among youth who receive a high school degree, externalizing problems also diminish the probability of subsequent college enrollment. In the case of high school degree receipt, the educational disadvantages associated with child emotional and behavioral problems result from the association of those problems with academic failures in middle and high school. In contrast, the association of childhood behavior problems with college enrollment appears to reflect the persisting effects of early behavioral and academic predispositions. Our results add to a growing body of research that demonstrates that social selection processes contribute to socioeconomic disparities. They also suggest new directions for research concerned with socially-structured, transactional, person-environment interactions.
Bibliography Citation
McLeod, Jane D. and Karen Kaiser. "Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Educational Attainment." American Sociological Review 69,5 (October 2004): 636-658.
29. McLeod, Jane D.
Shanahan, Michael J.
Poverty, Parenting, and Children's Mental Health
American Sociological Review 58,3 (June 1993): 351-366.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095905
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Temperament; Health Factors; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parenthood; Poverty; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1986 Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set, explores the relationships among current poverty, length of time in poverty, maternal parenting behavior, and children's mental health for 1,733 children of 1,344 mothers. Studies of children's poverty need to focus on family processes. (SLD)
Bibliography Citation
McLeod, Jane D. and Michael J. Shanahan. "Poverty, Parenting, and Children's Mental Health." American Sociological Review 58,3 (June 1993): 351-366.
30. Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A.
The Occupational Achievements of Community and Four-Year College Entrants
American Sociological Review 55,5 (October 1990): 719-725.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095867
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Colleges; Duncan Index; Educational Returns; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Status; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines occupational effects of community college attendance for a cross-section of young men from the Young Men's cohort of the NLS. Data show that type of first college entered shapes adult occupational status even when controlling for years of education acquired, IQ, whether or not the B.A. degree was achieved, and other relevant background variables. Community college students are generally perceived as less motivated, talented, educable, and from a poorer socioeconomic class background than four-year college entrants. Utilizing a simple human capital model, the author analyzes how the return to each additional year of school and completion of the B.A. degree differ between community and four-year college entrants. Compared to four-year college entrance, community college entrance depreciates the value of a year of education and inflates the importance of obtaining the B.A. degree. Community college entrance entails more of an occupational penalty for blacks than for whites. The occupational status of black four-year college entrants' jobs is 18 points higher on the Duncan scale than black community college entrants.
Bibliography Citation
Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A. "The Occupational Achievements of Community and Four-Year College Entrants." American Sociological Review 55,5 (October 1990): 719-725.
31. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Snyder, Nancy O.
Cognitive Attainment Among Firstborn Children of Adolescent Mothers
American Sociological Review 56,5 (October 1991): 612-624.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096083
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Birthweight; Child Development; Childbearing; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Home Environment; General Assessment; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Adolescent; Racial Differences; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The consequences of early childbearing for the intellectual achievement of young children are examined. Earlier studies have suggested that mothers who were early childbearers and those who are high school dropouts have children who fare worse than the children of older mothers and those who were progressing normally in school. Data on the children born to women in the NLSY, together with week-by-week school enrollment data for each mother, allowed the examination of this hypothesis. Separate analysis of black, Hispanic, and non-minority children were made. Children's cognitive abilities were most strongly predicted by the mother's cognitive test score. Mother's age at first birth and school enrollment status at conception proved to be less important predictors of the child's cognitive score compared to the powerful prediction made by her Armed Forces Qualifying Test score. While environmental factors were relatively weak predictors, measures of the stimulating nature of the child's home increased the predictive power in regression sets. It must be concluded that there is strong selectivity into school failure and teenage parenthood and that the low parental ability as measured here is clearly evident in the next generation.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Nancy O. Snyder. "Cognitive Attainment Among Firstborn Children of Adolescent Mothers." American Sociological Review 56,5 (October 1991): 612-624.
32. Morrison, Donna Ruane
Ritualo, Amy R.
Routes to Children's Economic Recovery after Divorce: Are Cohabitation and Remarriage Equivalent?
American Sociological Review 65,4 (August 2000): 560-580.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657383
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Children, Poverty; Cohabitation; Disability; Divorce; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Economic Changes/Recession; Family Income; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Remarriage; Stepfamilies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Are maternal cohabitation and remarriage equivalent routes to the economic recovery of children and their mothers following parental divorce and separation? Unlike previous studies that have been primarily cross-sectional in design, this study uses panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement to make both absolute and relative comparisons of potential economic returns. Also investigated is how income from spouses and partners is combined with income from other sources to support children, and the extent to which economic hardship over time relates to mothers' union experiences. Findings show that while in absolute terms, remarriage is economically more advantageous than cohabitation, cohabitation and remarriage are equivalent in their ability to restore family income to prior levels. Cohabiting mothers start off in a weaker economic position prior to divorce, however, and continue to rely on income from employment and AFDC to a greater extent than do remarried mothers. Over time, cohabitation, even when it results in a stable union, is a comparatively poor mechanism for maintaining economic recovery for the children of divorce. The extent of economic difficulties experienced by children whose mothers "unstably" remarry is also demonstrated.
Bibliography Citation
Morrison, Donna Ruane and Amy R. Ritualo. "Routes to Children's Economic Recovery after Divorce: Are Cohabitation and Remarriage Equivalent?" American Sociological Review 65,4 (August 2000): 560-580.
33. Mouw, Ted
Social Capital and Finding a Job: Do Contacts Matter?
American Sociological Review 68,6 (December 2003): 868-898.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1519749
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Human Capital; Job Search; Labor Market Outcomes; Occupational Attainment; Social Capital; Social Contacts/Social Network

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does social capital affect labor market outcomes? The prevalent use of job contacts to find work suggests that "who you know" is an important means of getting a good job. Network theories of social capital argue that well-connected workers benefit because of the job information and influence they receive through their social ties. Although a number of studies have found a positive relationship between measures of social capital and wages and/or occupational prestige, little is known about the causal effect of social networks on labor market outcomes. Four data sets are used to reassess findings on the role of social capital in the labor market. A test of causality is proposed based on the argument that if social capital variables do have a causal effect on job outcomes, then workers with high levels of social capital should be more likely to use contacts to find work, all else being equal. Results suggest that much of the effect of social capital in the existing literature reflects the tendency for similar people to become friends rather than a causal effect of friends' characteristics on labor market outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Mouw, Ted. "Social Capital and Finding a Job: Do Contacts Matter?" American Sociological Review 68,6 (December 2003): 868-898.
34. Munsch, Christin L.
Her Support, His Support: Money, Masculinity, and Marital Infidelity
American Sociological Review 80,3 (June 2015): 469-495.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/80/3/469.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Economic Independence; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Marital Conflict; Marital Stability; Sexual Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent years have seen great interest in the relationship between relative earnings and marital outcomes. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I examine the effect of relative earnings on infidelity, a marital outcome that has received little attention. Theories of social exchange predict that the greater one's relative income, the more likely one will be to engage in infidelity. Yet, emerging literature raises questions about the utility of gender-neutral exchange approaches, particularly when men are economically dependent and women are breadwinners. I find that, for men, breadwinning increases infidelity. For women, breadwinning decreases infidelity. I argue that by remaining faithful, breadwinning women neutralize their gender deviance and keep potentially strained relationships intact. I also find that, for both men and women, economic dependency is associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in infidelity; but, the influence of dependency on men's infidelity is greater than the influence of dependency on women's infidelity. For economically dependent persons, infidelity may be an attempt to restore relationship equity; however, for men, dependence may be particularly threatening. Infidelity may allow economically dependent men to engage in compensatory behavior while simultaneously distancing themselves from breadwinning spouses.
Bibliography Citation
Munsch, Christin L. "Her Support, His Support: Money, Masculinity, and Marital Infidelity." American Sociological Review 80,3 (June 2015): 469-495.
35. Nock, Steven L.
The Consequences of Premarital Fatherhood
American Sociological Review 63,2 (April 1998): 250-263.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657326
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Cohabitation; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Fatherhood; Fertility; Marital Status; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Parents, Single; School Completion; Siblings; Socioeconomic Factors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Little is known about the consequences of premarital fatherhood. Few never married fathers live with their children. Nevertheless there are good reasons to expect that these men's lives are influenced by their paternity For example, men who experience premarital births are less likely to marry and more likely to cohabit, both of which are associated with lower levels of socioeconomic attainment. I use the first 15 years of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the socioeconomic consequences of premarital fatherhood. Results based on hazards models and fixed-effects analyses suggest that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier, have lower earnings, work fewer weeks per year. and are more likely to live in poverty than comparable men who did not father children before marriage. These consequences of premarital fatherhood are partially the result of self selection effects, although many such effects appear to be caused by delayed marriages and/or higher rates of cohabitation.
Bibliography Citation
Nock, Steven L. "The Consequences of Premarital Fatherhood." American Sociological Review 63,2 (April 1998): 250-263.
36. Oates, Gary L.
Self-Esteem Enhancement Through Fertility? Socioeconomic Prospects, Gender, and Mutual Influence
American Sociological Review 62,6 (December 1997): 965-973.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657350
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fertility; Gender Differences; LISREL; Self-Esteem; Sex Roles; Siblings; Social Emotional Development; Social Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I analyze data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), using a LISREL model to examine whether having children influences one's self-esteem, whether the effect of children on self-esteem is stronger among the less socioeconomically privileged and among women, and whether there is evidence of mutual influence in the relationship between having children and self-esteem. I find that the number of children does not affect self-esteem; this holds true for both women and men, and for different socioeconomic groups. There is no evidence of nonlinearity in the relationship between number of children and self-esteem. Further, self-esteem does not affect whether men or women have children.
Bibliography Citation
Oates, Gary L. "Self-Esteem Enhancement Through Fertility? Socioeconomic Prospects, Gender, and Mutual Influence." American Sociological Review 62,6 (December 1997): 965-973.
37. Ojeda, Christopher
Hatemi, Peter K.
Accounting for the Child in the Transmission of Party Identification
American Sociological Review 80,6 (December 2015): 1150-1174.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/10/09/0003122415606101.full#sec-4
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): American National Election Studies (ANES); Attitudes; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences; Political Attitudes/Behaviors/Efficacy; Voting Behavior

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The transmission of party identification from parent to child is one of the most important components of political socialization in the United States. Research shows that children learn their party identification from their parents, and parents drive the learning process. The vast majority of studies thus treats children as passive recipients of information and assumes that parent-child concordance equals transmission. Rather than relying on a single pathway by which parents teach children, we propose an alternative view by focusing on children as active agents in their socialization. In so doing, we introduce a two-step model of transmission: perception then adoption. Utilizing two unique family-based studies that contain self-reported measures of party identification for both parents and children, children's perceptions of their parents' party affiliations, and measures of the parent-child relationship, we find children differentially learn and then choose to affiliate, or not, with their parents. These findings challenge several core assumptions upon which the extant literature is built, namely that the majority of children both know and adopt their parents' party identification. We conclude that there is much to be learned by focusing on children as active agents in their political socialization.
Bibliography Citation
Ojeda, Christopher and Peter K. Hatemi. "Accounting for the Child in the Transmission of Party Identification." American Sociological Review 80,6 (December 2015): 1150-1174.
38. Petterson, Stephen Mark
Are Young Black Men Really Less Willing to Work?
American Sociological Review 62,4 (August 1997): 605-613.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657429
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Unemployment; Wages, Reservation; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I argue against the popular view that young Black men experience more joblessness than their White counterparts because they have priced themselves out of the labor market. The seemingly excessive reservation wages of jobless young Black men, what they report as the lowest acceptable wage offer, are best understood as measures of self-worth, not of willingness (or lack of willingness) to work. Using self-reported reservation wages available in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I find no race difference in the wages sought by young jobless men. Moreover, these statements of reservation wages are not binding: Job-seekers of either race who report higher reservation wages are no more likely to experience long spells of joblessness than are job-seekers who report lower reservation wages.
Bibliography Citation
Petterson, Stephen Mark. "Are Young Black Men Really Less Willing to Work?" American Sociological Review 62,4 (August 1997): 605-613.
39. Pettit, Becky
Western, Bruce
Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration
American Sociological Review 69 (2004):151-69.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3593082
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Earnings; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Incarceration/Jail; Life Course; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although growth in the U.S. prison population over the past twenty-five years has been widely discussed, few studies examine changes in inequality in imprisonment. We study penal inequality by estimating lifetime risks of imprisonment for black and white men at different levels of education. Combining administrative, survey, and census data, we estimate that among men born between 1965 and 1969, 3 percent of whites and 20 percent of blacks had served time in prison by their early thirties. The risks of incarceration are highly stratified by education. Among black men born during this period, 30 percent of those without college education and nearly 60 percent of high school dropouts went to prison by 1999. The novel pervasiveness of imprisonment indicates the emergence of incarceration as a new stage in the life course of young low-skill black men.

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) was used to estimate the proportion of inmates who go on [to] graduate from high school or attend college in each subsequent age interval.

Bibliography Citation
Pettit, Becky and Bruce Western. "Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration." American Sociological Review 69 (2004):151-69.
40. Petts, Richard James
Family and Religious Characteristics' Influence on Delinquency Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood
American Sociological Review 74,3 (June 2009): 465-483.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/74/3/465.short
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; CESD (Depression Scale); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Influences; Family Structure; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Interaction; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Religious Influences; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study takes a life-course approach to examine whether family and religious characteristics influence individual-level delinquency trajectories from early adolescence through young adulthood. Based on data from the NLSY79, results suggest that residing with two parents deters youths from becoming delinquent and that supportive parenting practices reduce their likelihood of becoming involved in delinquent behavior early in adolescence. There is also evidence that family and religion interact to predict delinquency trajectories. Religion enhances the effect of parental affection in deterring delinquent behavior and mitigates the increased risk of high levels of delinquent behavior among youths in single-parent families. Moreover, the findings indicate that delinquency trajectories are not immutable; family transitions are associated with increases in delinquency, but religious participation throughout adolescence and marriage are associated with declines in delinquent behavior. Overall, results suggest that family and religious characteristics continually influence the extent to which youths commit delinquent acts.
Bibliography Citation
Petts, Richard James. "Family and Religious Characteristics' Influence on Delinquency Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood." American Sociological Review 74,3 (June 2009): 465-483.
41. Plotnick, Robert D.
The Effects of Attitudes on Teenage Pregnancy and its Resolution
American Sociological Review 57,6 (December 1992): 800-811.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096124
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Behavioral Problems; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Family Background; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Internal-External Attitude; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Self-Esteem; Teenagers; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drawing on problem behavior theory and complementary models of behavior, I examine the influence of attitudes and related personality variables on the probability of teenage premarital pregnancy and, when a pregnancy occurs, whether it is resolved by abortion, having an out-of-wedlock birth, or marrying before the birth. A sample of non-Hispanic white adolescents is drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and analyzed using the nested logit method. The estimates show that self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes toward women's family roles, attitudes toward school, educational aspirations, and religiosity are associated with premarital pregnancy and its resolution in directions predicted by theory. The effects of self-esteem, attitudes toward school, attitudes toward women's family roles, and educational expectations are substantively important. Attitudes and related personality variables are important paths through which family background characteristics influence adolescent sexual and marriage behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Plotnick, Robert D. "The Effects of Attitudes on Teenage Pregnancy and its Resolution ." American Sociological Review 57,6 (December 1992): 800-811.
42. Rexroat, Cynthia
Shehan, Constance
Expected Versus Actual Work Roles of Women
American Sociological Review 49,3 (June 1984): 349-358.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095279
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings, Wives; Marital Status; Occupational Aspirations; Sex Roles; Women; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The impact of women's long-range work plans for midlife on work behavior at that age was examined for a cohort of 533 women aged 35 in 1980, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Labor Market Experiences of Young Women (first interviewed in 1968). It was hypothesized that work plans would significantly affect actual behavior at midlife &, moreover, would modify the effects of many variables typically associated with women's employment. The findings indicate that plans did influence subsequent behavior, largely reflecting the realization of plans for those who expected to be employed. Further, marital & fertility status considerably influenced the LF behavior only of those who expected to be at home, while employment history affected employment only for those expecting to be employed. These results suggest: (1) demographic & economic change over the 1970s differentially affected this cohort's ability to actualize plans for midlife; & (2) the employment behavior of those who planned to be full-time housewives may be a transitory response to changes in their domestic roles.
Bibliography Citation
Rexroat, Cynthia and Constance Shehan. "Expected Versus Actual Work Roles of Women." American Sociological Review 49,3 (June 1984): 349-358.
43. Reynolds, John R.
Baird, Chardie L.
Is There a Downside to Shooting for the Stars? Unrealized Educational Expectations and Symptoms of Depression
American Sociological Review 75,1 (February 2010): 151–172.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/75/1/151.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Health, Mental; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite decades of research on the benefits of educational expectations, researchers have failed to show that unrealized plans are consequential for mental health, as self-discrepancy and other social psychological theories would predict. This article uses two national longitudinal studies of youth to test whether unrealized educational expectations are associated with depression in adulthood. Negative binomial regression analyses show that unmet expectations are associated with a greater risk of depression among young adults who share similar educational expectations. The apparent consequences of aiming high and falling short result, however, from lower attainment, not the gap between plans and attainment. Results indicate almost no long-term emotional costs of “shooting for the stars” rather than planning for the probable, once educational attainment is taken into account. This lack of association also holds after accounting for early mental health, the magnitude of the shortfall, the stability of expectations, and college-related resources, and it is robust across two distinct cohorts of high school students. We develop a theory of “adaptive resilience” to account for these findings and, because aiming high and failing are not consequential for mental health, conclude that society should not dissuade unpromising students from dreams of college.
Bibliography Citation
Reynolds, John R. and Chardie L. Baird. "Is There a Downside to Shooting for the Stars? Unrealized Educational Expectations and Symptoms of Depression." American Sociological Review 75,1 (February 2010): 151–172. A.
44. Rippeyoung, Phyllis L. F.
Noonan, Mary Christine
Is Breastfeeding Truly Cost Free? Income Consequences of Breastfeeding for Women
American Sociological Review 77,2 (April 2012): 244-267.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/77/2/244
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Earnings; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Random Effects; Mothers, Income; Wage Determination; Wage Effects; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on studies showing health advantages for breastfeeding mothers and their infants, pediatricians and other breastfeeding advocates encourage new mothers to breastfeed their babies for at least the first six months of their infants’ lives, arguing that breast milk is best for infants, families, and society, and it is cost free. Few empirical studies, however, document how the decision to breastfeed instead of formula-feed is associated with women’s post-birth earnings. This is an important omission, given that the majority of women today work for pay, and many work in job environments incompatible with breastfeeding. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, our results show that mothers who breastfeed for six months or longer suffer more severe and more prolonged earnings losses than do mothers who breastfeed for shorter durations or not at all. The larger post-birth drop in earnings for long-duration breastfeeders is due to a larger reduction in labor supply. We discuss the implications of these findings for gender equality at home and at work.
Bibliography Citation
Rippeyoung, Phyllis L. F. and Mary Christine Noonan. "Is Breastfeeding Truly Cost Free? Income Consequences of Breastfeeding for Women." American Sociological Review 77,2 (April 2012): 244-267.
45. Rosenfeld, Rachel A.
Race and Sex Differences in Career Dynamics
American Sociological Review 45,4 (August 1980): 583-609.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095010
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Job Training; Marital Status; Racial Differences; Sex Roles; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wage Levels; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, career differences by race and sex are analyzed. Careers are defined as trajectories of socioeconomic status and wages and are described by a linear differential equation model. It is assumed that the different groups defined by race and sex tend to be in different labor markets and economic sectors and to face different opportunity structures even within labor market divisions. This assumption guides predictions for and interpretation of results with respect to various aspects of career inequality: initial status and wage level; potential status and wage levels; effects of human capital, family background, and family of procreation variables on initial and potential wage and status levels; and speed of advancement. Pooling of cross-sections and time- series techniques are used to estimate the model, with data from the NLS of Young Men and Women.
Bibliography Citation
Rosenfeld, Rachel A. "Race and Sex Differences in Career Dynamics." American Sociological Review 45,4 (August 1980): 583-609.
46. Rosenfeld, Rachel A.
Women's Intergenerational Occupational Mobility
American Sociological Review 43,1 (February 1978): 36-46.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2094760
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fathers, Influence; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Attainment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines an intergenerational mobility matrix of father's occupation by mother's occupation by daughter's occupation by race by age. The findings indicate that both mother's occupation and father's occupation are significant dimensions of women's intergenerational occupational mobility. In cases in which the mother had been employed when the daughter was 15 years of age, the mother's occupation had a more significant effect on the daughter's occupational destination than the father's. The mother's occupation was determined to be a true effect of occupational level rather than an effect primarily of maternal employment outside the home at any occupation.
Bibliography Citation
Rosenfeld, Rachel A. "Women's Intergenerational Occupational Mobility." American Sociological Review 43,1 (February 1978): 36-46.
47. South, Scott J.
Lloyd, Kim Marie
Spousal Alternatives and Marital Dissolution
American Sociological Review 60,1 (February 1995): 21-35.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096343
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Divorce; Family Structure; Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation; Labor Force Participation; Marital Disruption; Marital Dissolution; Mobility; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH); Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Survey of Families and Households demonstrate that a substantial percentage of recently divorced men and women had been romantically involved with someone other than their spouse before divorce. Merging microlevel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with aggregated Public Use Microdata from the 1980 US Census, the authors examine the impact of marriage market characteristics and other variables on the non-Hispanic Whites, the risk is highest where there is an abundance of spousal alternatives, increased labor force participation among unmarried women, and high geographic mobility rates in the local area. Results suggest that many persons remain open to alternative relationships even while married. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Association, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
South, Scott J. and Kim Marie Lloyd. "Spousal Alternatives and Marital Dissolution." American Sociological Review 60,1 (February 1995): 21-35.
48. South, Scott J.
Spitze, Glenna D.
Determinants of Divorce over the Marital Life Course
American Sociological Review 51,4 (August 1986): 583-590.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095590
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Divorce; Educational Attainment; Life Course; Marital Stability; Racial Differences; Urbanization/Urban Living; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the Young and Mature Women samples of the NLS (number of cases = 8,158) are used to examine how the determinants of divorce (and separation) vary by the duration of marriage. In general, little evidence is found that the strength of previously identified predictors of divorce varies by marital duration. Variables such as race, wife's labor force participation, husband's employment, and urban residence seem to influence the probability of divorce, irrespective of the stage in the marital life course. The principal exception to this finding is the effect of wife's education, which appears to decrease the probability of divorce at early marital durations but to increase it at later durations. There is also suggestive evidence that the effects of home ownership and age at marriage may vary by marital duration. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
South, Scott J. and Glenna D. Spitze. "Determinants of Divorce over the Marital Life Course." American Sociological Review 51,4 (August 1986): 583-590.
49. Stolzenberg, Ross M.
Waite, Linda J.
Age, Fertility Expectations and Plans for Employment
American Sociological Review 42,5 (October 1977): 769-783.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2094865
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children; Control; Employment; Fertility; Labor Force Participation; Learning Hypothesis; Life Cycle Research; Marital Status; Work Knowledge

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fertility, female labor force participation, and the relationship between them are key subjects in a number of theoretical and applied areas of sociology. Because sex role norms and the widespread use of birth control devices have given American women much control over their fertility and substantial choice in their labor force activity (or inactivity), understanding the development and interrelationship of labor force participation plans and fertility expectations assumes great importance in understanding actual labor force participation and actual fertility. As a step toward understanding this development, the authors describe and attempt to explain the effect of women's age on the relationship between their labor force participation plans and their fertility expectations. Using data from a national sample of young women aged l9 to 29 in l973 (N=3,589), a strong, linear relationship (r=-.96) was found between women's age and the effect of their plans for labor force participation on the number of children that they expect to bear in their lifetime. An explanation of this finding (called the Learning Hypothesis) is advanced which survives tests against several plausible alternative hypotheses. Policy implications and productive paths for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Stolzenberg, Ross M. and Linda J. Waite. "Age, Fertility Expectations and Plans for Employment." American Sociological Review 42,5 (October 1977): 769-783.
50. Sugie, Naomi
Turney, Kristin
Beyond Incarceration: Criminal Justice Contact and Mental Health
American Sociological Review 82,4 (August 2017): 719-743.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0003122417713188
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Disadvantaged, Economically; Geocoded Data; Health, Mental; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Racial Equality/Inequality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing literature documents deleterious consequences of incarceration for mental health. Although salient, incarceration is only one form of criminal justice contact and, accordingly, focusing on incarceration may mask the extent to which the criminal justice system influences mental health. Using insights from the stress process paradigm, along with nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine criminal justice contact--defined as arrest, conviction, and incarceration--and mental health. First, fixed-effects models, which adjust for stable unobserved and time-varying observed characteristics, show that arrest is deleteriously associated with mental health, and arrest accounts for nearly half of the association between incarceration and poor mental health, although certain types of incarceration appear more consequential than others. Second, the associations are similar across race and ethnicity; this, combined with racial/ethnic disparities in contact, indicates that criminal justice interactions exacerbate minority health inequalities. Third, the associations between criminal justice contact, especially arrest and incarceration, and mental health are particularly large among respondents residing in contextually disadvantaged areas during adolescence. Taken together, the results suggest that the consequences of criminal justice contact for mental health have a far greater reach than previously considered.
Bibliography Citation
Sugie, Naomi and Kristin Turney. "Beyond Incarceration: Criminal Justice Contact and Mental Health." American Sociological Review 82,4 (August 2017): 719-743.
51. Sweeney, Megan Mcdonnell
Two Decades of Family Change: The Shifting Economic Foundations of Marriage
American Sociological Review 67,1 (February 2002): 132-147.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088937
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Economic Changes/Recession; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Marriage; Oppenheimer's Model; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Has the relationship between economic prospects and marriage formation in the United States changed in recent decades? To answer this question, a discrete-time event-history analysis was conducted using data from multiple cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience. Among women, results indicate growth in the importance of earnings for marriage formation between the early baby-boom cohort (born between 1950 and 1954) and late baby-boom cohort (born between 1961 and 1965). Evidence of cohort change in the relationship between men's economic prospects and marriage, however, is limited. Despite important racial differences in the economic and attitudinal context of marriage, key results are generally similar for whites and for African Americans. Taken together, these findings imply that men and women are growing to resemble one another with respect to the relationship between economic prospects and marriage, although this convergence is driven primarily by changing patterns of marriage among women. These results are largely supportive of Oppenheimer's career-entry theory of marriage and suggest that Becker's specialization and trading model of marriage may be outdated.
Bibliography Citation
Sweeney, Megan Mcdonnell. "Two Decades of Family Change: The Shifting Economic Foundations of Marriage." American Sociological Review 67,1 (February 2002): 132-147.
52. Tienda, Marta
Alon, Sigal
Diversity, Opportunity and Shifting Meritocracy in Higher Education
American Sociological Review 72,4 (August 2007): 487-511.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/72/4/487.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Affirmative Action; College Enrollment; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Article and on-line Supplement to the article reveal the results of the study by Sigal Alon of Tel Aviv University and Marta Tienda of Princeton University on SAT. The researchers say that eliminating the weight of college entrance exams and using a full-file review to select students using measures of merit will improve campus diversity. According to Alon, the tension between test scores and diversity motivated them to show how affirmative action was required because the weight placed on test scores in admission decisions, especially at selective institutions, rose over time. The writers found that colleges have increasingly based admissions on test scores, creating the need for affirmative action for minorities who tend not to do as well on those tests. Alon and Tienda analyzed data from two national surveys, "High School and Beyond" and "The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth," to track students in their college admissions process and examine the likelihood of their admission using both standardized tests and class rank.

They also looked at data from Texas Higher Education Opportunity Projects and used the University of Texas at Austin to examine the impact on minorities' admissions. "If we want to reach a state where we don't need affirmative action, we need to confront and understand the mechanism restricting minorities the opportunity, and the SAT is one of them," says Alon. If universities implement the suggested policy, he says, they will still enroll a diverse student population without compromising academic quality.

Bibliography Citation
Tienda, Marta and Sigal Alon. "Diversity, Opportunity and Shifting Meritocracy in Higher Education." American Sociological Review 72,4 (August 2007): 487-511.
53. Tolbert, Charles M., II
Industrial Segmentation and Men's Career Mobility
American Sociological Review 47,4 (August 1982): 457-477.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095192
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Dual Economic Theory; Industrial Sector; Mobility; Mobility, Job

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the increasing acknowledgement of the new structuralism in social stratification research, important issues and assumptions remain to be examined. The present research employs the industrial segmentation version of the new structuralism to evaluate the neglected hypothesis that industrial sectors constrain career mobility. A conventional mobility analysis is employed to study men's occupational mobility within and between oligopolistic and competitive industrial sectors. Results of the analysis suggest that the influence of industrial sectors is most apparent in late career mobility patterns where sectors appear to be relatively impermeable barriers to mobility. The effect of industrial sectors on earlier intragenerational mobility is also evident in the analysis. During the early career, certain origins appear to facilitate intersectoral mobility while others clearly constrain such mobility. The results suggest that the augmentation of analyses with information on industrial segmentation aids in interpreting observed mobility patterns. Moreover, the findings indicate that there is some substance to the immobility theme implicit in the new structuralist literature.
Bibliography Citation
Tolbert, Charles M., II. "Industrial Segmentation and Men's Career Mobility." American Sociological Review 47,4 (August 1982): 457-477.
54. Treiman, Donald J.
Terrell, Kermit
Sex and the Process of Status Attainment: A Comparison of Working Women and Men
American Sociological Review 40,2 (April 1975): 174-200.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2094344
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Marital Status; Occupational Attainment; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wives; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The process of educational, occupational and income attainment of working women and men is compared, utilizing data from representative national samples of women age 30-44, their husbands and men of corresponding age. Comparisons are made separately for whites and nonwhites. The process and level of educational and occupational attainment is shown to be virtually identical for women and men, but women earn far less than men even when work experience and hours of work are taken into account. Married women are shown to earn less than single women, and the sources of this difference are analyzed.
Bibliography Citation
Treiman, Donald J. and Kermit Terrell. "Sex and the Process of Status Attainment: A Comparison of Working Women and Men." American Sociological Review 40,2 (April 1975): 174-200.
55. Tyree, Andrea
Treas, Judith A.
The Occupational and Marital Mobility of Women
American Sociological Review 39,3 (June 1974): 293-302.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2094290
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Fathers, Influence; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The NORC data on occupational mobility of women presented by DeJong, et al. (December 1971) are reanalyzed in order to compare male and female patterns of occupational mobility in the U. S. Both male and female occupational mobility patterns are then compared to patterns of marital mobility (from father's occupation to husband's) of wives not in the civilian labor force. For the comparisons, all three matrices are adjusted to identical marginal distributions to eliminate the extent to which size of occupational categories of either origin or destination differ. The occupational mobility of women is found to be less similar to mobility patterns of men than is women's marital mobility. Thus, similar patterns govern movement of both men and women from their origins to the status of male head of their families. The occupational mobility of the women themselves, however, does not follow the pattern of men so closely as DeJong, et al. concluded in their original article.
Bibliography Citation
Tyree, Andrea and Judith A. Treas. "The Occupational and Marital Mobility of Women." American Sociological Review 39,3 (June 1974): 293-302.
56. Upchurch, Dawn M.
McCarthy, James
The Timing of a First Birth and High School Completion
American Sociological Review 55,2 (April 1990): 224-234.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095628
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Fertility; First Birth; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper re-examined the relationship between childbearing and schooling for a recent cohort of women. Utilizing data from the NLSY, it was found that while a birth is not predictive of dropping out of school, a birth does hinder eventual graduation among high school dropouts. Additionally, a women who becomes a mother at any time after dropping out of school is less likely to graduate; the effect of a birth depends very little on when it occurred after a women dropped out.
Bibliography Citation
Upchurch, Dawn M. and James McCarthy. "The Timing of a First Birth and High School Completion." American Sociological Review 55,2 (April 1990): 224-234.
57. Upchurch, Dawn M.
McCarthy, James
Ferguson, Linda R.
Childbearing and Schooling: Disentangling Temporal and Causal Mechanisms
American Sociological Review 58,5 (October 1993): 738-740.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096285
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Data Quality/Consistency; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Reply to Anderson. The debate over the exact nature of the relationship between adolescent childbearing and educational attainment has continued for more than 20 years. The enduring interest in this relationship can be attributed to its important policy implications and the inherent complexity of the social phenomena. Researchers have approached the association between early childbearing and educational attainment from diverse theoretical perspectives and have tested hypotheses on diverse data sets, employing a host of analytical methods. One particularly revealing exchange demonstrated that different theoretical and methodological approaches can, even using the same data, produce quite different conclusions (Hofferth 1984; Rindfuss, St. John, and Bumpass 1984). These issues lie at the heart of most of Anderson's comments. In reviewing our paper, Anderson comes to conclusions that differ somewhat from ours. In this response we put our paper, and Anderson's comments, in the co ntext of the specific research questions posed in our paper. The results we presented in our ASR paper (Upchurch and McCarthy 1990) should be viewed in the context of the large body of research on the topic.
Bibliography Citation
Upchurch, Dawn M., James McCarthy and Linda R. Ferguson. "Childbearing and Schooling: Disentangling Temporal and Causal Mechanisms." American Sociological Review 58,5 (October 1993): 738-740.
58. Waite, Linda J.
Goldscheider, Frances Kobrin
Witsberger, Christina
Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults
American Sociological Review 51,4 (August 1986): 541-554.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095586
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Family Structure; Gender Differences; Sex Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Young adults in recent cohorts have been leaving the parental home earlier and marrying later now than they did several decades ago, resulting in an increased period of independent living. This paper explores the consequences of time spent in non-family living, using data from the NLS of Young Men and Young Women. The authors expected that experience in living away from home prior to marriage will cause young adults to change their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, and move them away from a traditional family orientation. They found strong support for this hypothesis for young women; those who lived independently became more likely to plan for employment, lowered their expected family size, became more accepting of employment of mothers, and more non- traditional on sex roles in the family than those who lived with their parents. Non-family living had much weaker effects on young men in the few tests that were performed for them. The paper also addresses the conditions under which living away increases individualism, and discusses the implications of these findings.
Bibliography Citation
Waite, Linda J., Frances Kobrin Goldscheider and Christina Witsberger. "Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review 51,4 (August 1986): 541-554.
59. Waite, Linda J.
Stolzenberg, Ross M.
Intended Childbearing and Labor Force Participation of Young Women: Insights from Nonrecursive Models
American Sociological Review 41,2 (April 1976): 235-252.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2094471
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Family Resources; Fertility; Husbands, Influence; Marital Status; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we investigate young women's fertility expectations and plans for future labor force participation (i.e., plans for labor force participation when they are 35 years old). Our analyses are based on a large national sample of women in their mid twenties (n=3589 after deletion of cases with missing data). The authors found that the number of children a woman plans to bear has only a small effect on the probability that she plans to participate in the labor force when she is 35 years old. However, it was found that a woman's plans to participate in the labor force when she is 35 have a substantial effect on the total number of children she plans to bear in her lifetime. This relationship was found for presently married and for never-married women. That same relationship was found for married women when their husbands' income and their husbands' attitudes toward their labor force participation are included in the model. Methodological implications of these findings for other studies of women's fertility and labor force activity are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Waite, Linda J. and Ross M. Stolzenberg. "Intended Childbearing and Labor Force Participation of Young Women: Insights from Nonrecursive Models." American Sociological Review 41,2 (April 1976): 235-252.
60. Waldfogel, Jane
The Effect Of Children On Women's Wages
American Sociological Review 62,2 (April 1997): 209-217.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657300
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Children; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Income; Part-Time Work; Wage Effects; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I use data from the 1968-1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women to investigate the lower wages of mothers. In pooled cross-sectional models, difference models, and fixed-effects models, the negative effect of children on women's wages is not entirely explained by differences in labor market experience. I consider two alternative explanations for the residual penalties associated with having children: unobserved pay-relevant differences between mothers and non-mothers, which fixed-effects models show do not account for the child penalty; and part-time employment, which does account for some of the child penalty. However, even after controlling for part-time employment, a negative effect of children on women's pay remains.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane. "The Effect Of Children On Women's Wages." American Sociological Review 62,2 (April 1997): 209-217.
61. Western, Bruce
The Impact of Incarceration on Wage Mobility and Inequality
American Sociological Review 67,4 (August 2002): 526-546.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088944
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Black Youth; Crime; Earnings; Ethnic Differences; Incarceration/Jail; Job Tenure; Life Course; Racial Differences; Wage Growth; Wages; Wages, Young Men

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A life course perspective on crime indicates that incarceration can disrupt key life transitions. Life course analysis of occupations finds that earnings mobility depends on stable employment in career jobs. These two lines of research thus suggest that incarceration reduces ex-inmates' access to the steady jobs that usually produce earnings growth among young men. Consistent with this argument, evidence for slow wage growth among ex-inmates is provided by analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Because incarceration is so prevalent, one-quarter of black non-college males in the survey were interviewed between 1979 and 1998 while in prison or jail, the effect of imprisonment on individual wages also increases aggregate race and ethnic wage inequality.
Bibliography Citation
Western, Bruce. "The Impact of Incarceration on Wage Mobility and Inequality." American Sociological Review 67,4 (August 2002): 526-546.
62. Williams, Kristi
Sassler, Sharon
Frech, Adrianne
Addo, Fenaba
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women’s Health at Midlife
American Sociological Review 76,3 (June 2011): 465-486.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/76/3/465.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Cohabitation; Fertility; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Mothers, Health; Parents, Single; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite high rates of nonmarital childbearing in the United States, little is known about the health of women who have nonmarital births. We use data from the NLSY79 to examine differences in age 40 self-assessed health between women who had a premarital birth and those whose first birth occurred within marriage. We then differentiate women with a premarital first birth according to their subsequent union histories and estimate the effect of marrying or cohabiting versus remaining never-married on midlife self-assessed health. We pay particular attention to the paternity status of a mother’s partner and the stability of marital unions. To partially address selection bias, we employ multivariate propensity score techniques. Results suggest that premarital childbearing is negatively associated with midlife health for white and black women, but not for Hispanic women. We find no evidence that the negative health consequences of nonmarital childbearing are mitigated by either marriage or cohabitation for black women. For other women, only enduring marriage to the child’s biological father is associated with better health than remaining unpartnered. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]
Bibliography Citation
Williams, Kristi, Sharon Sassler, Adrianne Frech, Fenaba Addo and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Nonmarital Childbearing, Union History, and Women’s Health at Midlife." American Sociological Review 76,3 (June 2011): 465-486.
63. Wu, Lawrence L.
Effects of Family Instability, Income, and Income Instability on the Risk of a Premarital Birth
American Sociological Review 61,3 (June 1996): 386-406.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096355
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Divorce; Family Income; Family Structure; First Birth; Household Composition; Income; Marriage; Parental Influences; Social Environment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous work by Lawrence L. Wu & Brian C. Martinson (see SA 41:4/9304117) reported (1) a strong & statistically significant association between frequent changes in the numbers & types of parental figures a young woman has lived with & her risk of bearing her first child out of wedlock, & (2) weak & statistically nonsignificant associations between measures of a young woman's exposure to a mother-only family during childhood & adolescence & this risk. A serious limitation of these findings is the absence of controls for income. Here, prospective income histories & retrospective parental histories from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1,471 white & 766 black women ages 14-29 in 1979) were examined to determine if the effect of family instability on premarital births is an artifact of low, unstable, or declining family income. While low income is found to be associated with significantly increased premarital birth risks, the effects of income & change in family structure are largely independent. 5 Tables, 1 Figure, 1 Appendix, 41 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1996, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Wu, Lawrence L. "Effects of Family Instability, Income, and Income Instability on the Risk of a Premarital Birth." American Sociological Review 61,3 (June 1996): 386-406.
64. Yu, Wei-hsin
Kuo, Janet Chen-Lan
The Motherhood Wage Penalty by Work Conditions: How Do Occupational Characteristics Hinder or Empower Mothers?
American Sociological Review 82,4 (August 2017): 744-769.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0003122417712729
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Job Hazards; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Occupations; Wage Gap; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Mothers are shown to receive lower wages than childless women across industrial countries. Although research on mothers' wage disadvantage has noted that the extent of this disadvantage is not universal among mothers, it has paid relatively little attention to how the structural characteristics of jobs moderate the price women pay for motherhood. Using data from 16 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth that began in 1997, we examine how the pay gap between mothers and non-mothers varies by occupational characteristics. Deriving hypotheses from three prominent explanations for the motherhood wage penalty--stressing work-family conflict and job performance, compensating differentials, and employer discrimination, respectively--we test whether this penalty changes with an occupation's exposure to hazardous conditions, schedule regularity, required on-the-job training, competitiveness, level of autonomy, and emphasis on teamwork. Results from fixed-effects models show that the wage reduction for each child is less in occupations with greater autonomy and lower teamwork requirements. Moreover, mothers encounter a smaller penalty when their occupations impose less competitive pressure. On the whole, these findings are consistent with the model focusing on job strain and work-family conflict, adding evidence to the importance of improving job conditions to alleviate work-family conflict.
Bibliography Citation
Yu, Wei-hsin and Janet Chen-Lan Kuo. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty by Work Conditions: How Do Occupational Characteristics Hinder or Empower Mothers?" American Sociological Review 82,4 (August 2017): 744-769.
65. Zhou, Xiang
Equalization or Selection? Reassessing the "Meritocratic Power" of a College Degree in Intergenerational Income Mobility
American Sociological Review published online (30 April 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0003122419844992.
Also: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0003122419844992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Income; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility; Mobility, Economic

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Intergenerational mobility is higher among college graduates than among people with lower levels of education. In light of this finding, researchers have characterized a college degree as a great equalizer leveling the playing field, and proposed that expanding higher education would promote mobility. This line of reasoning rests on the implicit assumption that the relatively high mobility observed among college graduates reflects a causal effect of college completion on intergenerational mobility, an assumption that has rarely been rigorously evaluated. This article bridges this gap. Using a novel reweighting technique, I estimate the degree of intergenerational income mobility among college graduates purged of selection processes that may drive up observed mobility in this subpopulation. Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I find that once selection processes are adjusted for, intergenerational income mobility among college graduates is very close to that among non-graduates. This finding suggests that expanding the pool of college graduates per se is unlikely to boost intergenerational income mobility in the United States. To promote mobility, public investments in higher education (e.g., federal and state student aid programs) should be targeted at low-income youth.
Bibliography Citation
Zhou, Xiang. "Equalization or Selection? Reassessing the "Meritocratic Power" of a College Degree in Intergenerational Income Mobility." American Sociological Review published online (30 April 2019): DOI: 10.1177/0003122419844992.