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Source: American Society of Health Economics (ASHE)
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Appleby, Ashley
Apel, Robert
School Engagement, Attachment, and Performance: The Impact of Early Justice System Involvement
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Society of Criminology
Keyword(s): Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; School Performance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Juvenile justice contact can have a sizable impact on education, for example, diminished educational attainment. However, much less is known about the short-term effects of early involvement in the justice system on education, short of stopout and dropout. As youth spend a substantial amount of time in school, it is crucial to consider how these contacts can influence their engagement, attachment, and performance in that domain. The current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to explore these questions.
Bibliography Citation
Appleby, Ashley and Robert Apel. "School Engagement, Attachment, and Performance: The Impact of Early Justice System Involvement." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, November 2018.
2. Fertig, Angela R.
Watson, Tara Elizabeth
State Liquor Policies, Maternal Substance Use, and Child Outcomes
Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), Inaugural Conference,"Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
Also: http://healtheconomics.us/conference/2006/abstracts/06/06/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Health Economists (ASHE)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Fertility; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Record Linkage (also see Data Linkage); Sexual Behavior; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

State regulations on the consumption of alcohol by minors are widely credited with reducing teen drinking and alcohol-related traffic fatalities. Less often emphasized is the potential effect of these laws on pregnancy and drinking while pregnant, and subsequent outcomes for infants. Surprisingly little is known about whether, by reducing drinking by young women, these regulations also improve birth and infant outcomes. We focus on the changes in minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws that occurred in many states in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The principal objective of the study is to evaluate the consequences of drinking laws and maternal substance use on birth and infant outcomes. There are two channels by which substance use among teenagers affects the health of the next generation. First, by increasing risky sexual behavior, youth alcohol consumption could change the composition of births towards younger mothers and unintended pregnancies. Second, dependent of the compositional effect, drinking alcohol during pregnancy may directly cause poor health outcomes. Because alcohol and tobacco are often used jointly, minimum drinking age laws may affect maternal smoking as well. The specific aims of our project are: 1. To estimate the effects of MLDA laws and enforcement on substance use, with a particular emphasis on alcohol and tobacco use by young women and pregnant women. 2. To estimate the effects of MLDA laws and enforcement on sexual behavior, pregnancies, and births to young women. 3. To evaluate the impact of maternal alcohol and tobacco consumption on birth and early childhood outcomes, using changes in MLDA laws as a source of exogenous variation in alcohol and tobacco use. We use both the restricted version of the NLSY 79 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) and Vital Statistics microdata to address these questions. Preliminary results are as follows: 1. MLDA laws reduce alcohol and tobacco use for affected cohorts, and reduce drinking among pregnant young women (see Table 1). 2. The effect of MLDA laws on sexual activity and births is small, but may be larger for some sub-groups. 3. MLDA laws are associated with reduced incidence of low birthweight among infants born to affected cohorts (see Table 2).
Bibliography Citation
Fertig, Angela R. and Tara Elizabeth Watson. "State Liquor Policies, Maternal Substance Use, and Child Outcomes." Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), Inaugural Conference,"Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
3. Gibson, Diane M.
The Neighborhood Food Environment and Adult Weight Status: Estimates Using Longitudinal Data
Presented: Ithaca, NY, American Society of Health Economists, 3rd Biennial Conference, June 20-23, 2010.
Also: http://ashecon2010.abstractbook.org/presentations/893/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Health Economists (ASHE)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Geocoded Data; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Neighborhood Effects; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Individual-level data on adults from the 1998 through 2004 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 were combined with ZIP Code-level data on the neighborhood food environment. Ordinary Least Squares models of obesity and Body Mass Index were estimated that included detailed measures of the neighborhood food environment as well as individual, family and other neighborhood characteristics and individual fixed effects.

For residents of urban areas, the neighborhood density per square mile of small grocery stores was positively and significantly related to obesity and BMI, but the neighborhood densities of other types of food retail and food service establishments were not significantly related to weight status. For residents of rural areas there were no significant relationships between neighborhood establishment densities and weight status. The results of the empirical analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that an increase in the neighborhood density of small grocery stores in urban leads to increased calorie consumption for neighborhood residents.

Bibliography Citation
Gibson, Diane M. "The Neighborhood Food Environment and Adult Weight Status: Estimates Using Longitudinal Data." Presented: Ithaca, NY, American Society of Health Economists, 3rd Biennial Conference, June 20-23, 2010.
4. Han, Euna
The Effect of Obesity on Labor Market Outcomes
Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), First Annual Conference, "Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
Also: http://healtheconomics.us/conference/2006/abstracts/06/06/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Health Economists (ASHE)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Discrimination; Endogeneity; Health Care; Hispanics; Insurance, Health; Labor Market Outcomes; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Wage Rates

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Rationale: Previous research suggests that obesity has potentially important effects on labor market outcomes. Obese people may be discriminated against by consumers or employers due to their distaste for obese people. Employers also may not want to hire obese people due to higher expected healthcare costs if the employers provide health insurance to their employees. These may result in lower wages, low likelihood of being employed and the sorting of obese people into jobs where slimness is not rewarded.

Objective: The objective of this study is to understand the effect of obesity on wages. Although other studies have linked obesity to wages, the validity of their estimation results remains questionable due to potential weaknesses in the strategies employed to control for the endogeneity of obesity. I identified the effect of obesity on wages with exogenous state-level variation in multiple variables. The over-identification of obesity with exogenous instruments will provide valid parameter estimates if the identification is supported.

Methodology: This study employed an amplified dataset based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). NLSY79 provides ongoing panel information with a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women who were 14 to 22 years old when first surveyed in 1979. I have augmented the publicly available data by obtaining confidential geographic information for individuals.

Body-mass index (BMI) was used to measure the extent of obesity. Wages were assessed separately by gender as a function of BMI splines and interactions of BMI splines with two race dummies (non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic).

This study used two-stage estimation techniques to identify the effect of obesity on wages in conjunction with individual fixed effects model. I specified an overidentified first-stage equation using exogenous state-level variation to instrument individual obesity. Instruments for obesity included the following state-level variables: cigarette prices, per capita number of restaurants, per capita number of food stores, fast-food price, cost of alcoholic drinks (inclusive of beer, wine, liquor), and cost of food.

A Heckman selection model was used to control for the selection into the labor force with the following state-level identifying instruments: unemployment rate, number of business establishments, and number of Social Security Program beneficiaries.

Results: Specification tests support the exclusion of the instruments from the main equation and the strength of the instruments in the first-stage equation. Preliminary study results indicate that an increase in BMI after being overweight has a negative effect on wage earnings for both males and females, even after adjusting for selection into the labor force.

Conclusion: The results will support the understanding of the economic cost of obesity to an individual that arise from sources other than adverse health effects. This spillover effect will increase the total cost of obesity to both individuals and society as a whole. The negative effect of obesity on labor market outcomes could raise further attention to the epidemic of obesity.

Bibliography Citation
Han, Euna. "The Effect of Obesity on Labor Market Outcomes." Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), First Annual Conference, "Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
5. Kirk, Adele Marie
The Relationship Between Education and Health Behaviors: Is it Causal?
Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), Inaugural Conference, "Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
Also: http://healtheconomics.us/conference/2006/abstracts/06/06/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Health Economists (ASHE)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior; Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Family Background; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Modeling, Logit; Modeling, Probit; Unemployment; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An extensive body of literature documents a relationship between formal education and health that is strong, broad, and persistent. When presented with such a robust association, it is natural to make the leap, implicitly if not explicitly, to a presumption of causality. However, some have questioned the causal link on both conceptual and empirical grounds, arguing that the apparent relationship between education and health might in fact be due in some part to third factors, such as time preferences or self-efficacy, common to both educational attainment and health, but generally omitted from empirical models. The omitted-variables problem is exacerbated by the nature of most health-specific surveys. Such surveys, while rich in health data, generally provide sparse socioeconomic information about respondents, and in particular, do not provide much, if any, information about the respondent's family background and socioeconomic circumstances in youth, when educational intentions and possible determinants of adult health behaviors, such as time preferences, are formed. This paper uses a relatively data-rich longitudinal dataset (NLSY79) and instrumental variables methods to investigate the nature of the observed relationship between educational attainment and health behaviors in midlife (ages 35-40), including smoking, heavy drinking, exercise, recent check-up, and weight control. I first estimate a series of models and compare the estimated effects of education on behaviors when other key variables, such as family background measures, a measure of ability (AFQT), and a measure of locus of control, are omitted and then included. I then estimate instrumental variables (IV) models for each dependent variable, using college proximity, area unemployment rates at the time of schooling, and availability of household reading materials in youth as instruments for educational attainment. Preliminary analyses indicate modest but persistently significant effects for education that are generally robust to the inclusion of covariates in OLS and logit/probit models. IV models of drinking and BMI yield estimates that are comparable in magnitude to OLS/probit models but with considerably larger standard errors. But for models of exercise frequency, recent checkup, and smoking, the IV estimates are larger in magnitude than the naïve estimates, and remain significant. Tests of exogeneity indicate that education is exogenous in models of drinking, BMI, and smoking, but endogenous in models of exercise and recent checkup. Overidentification tests indicate that all instruments are excludable except for unemployment in the case of drinking and household reading materials in the case of smoking. Because theory would suggest that naïve estimates are biased upwards, further analyses will explore why some IV estimates are larger in magnitude, not smaller as expected.
Bibliography Citation
Kirk, Adele Marie. "The Relationship Between Education and Health Behaviors: Is it Causal?" Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), Inaugural Conference, "Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
6. Liu, Haiyong
Participation in Food Assistance, Maternal Employment, and Child Obesity
Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), Inaugural Conference, "Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
Also: http://healtheconomics.us/conference/2006/abstracts/06/06/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Health Economists (ASHE)
Keyword(s): Child Health; Endogeneity; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Maternal Employment; Obesity; Parents, Single; Poverty; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Rationale: The effect of Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation on mitigating food insecurity and childhood obesity is likely to be confounded with maternal employment decisions. For instance, supplemental food subsidies may free up mothers' time spent in home production, namely food preparation, and enable them to work away from home. It is important to account for the potential income effect and substitution effect when assessing the effects of the FSP on weight health outcomes because both income and maternal time are crucial inputs for child health.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of poverty, FSP, and maternal employment on the risk of obesity in early childhood.

Methodology: This study investigates the interactions between poverty, FSP participation, and maternal employment, as well as their impacts on the risk of obesity among children who are raised in single mother families. The main data source in this study is from the matched mother/child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). Utilizing the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method, the empirical model estimates the joint decisions of FSP enrollment and maternal employment along with child health (weight) production function simultaneously to account for the potential endogeneity of these health inputs. The identification strategy used in this paper exploits the time series interactions of all current and lagged exogenous variables and a set of instruments that capture the variations of welfare regulations across states and over time.

Results: The results suggest that FSP participation mitigates the risk of childhood obesity among the poor while maternal employment is positively linked to incidents of obesity over the whole socio-economic spectrum. Both findings are statistically significant. In addition, the racial gap of the weight health problem is widening over years, even after accounting for family income and maternal employment. Finally, estimation methods without adequate control for endogeneity of FSP participation and maternal employment are likely to yield biased results.

Conclusions: The childhood health disparities among different socio-economic stratums are widening, especially for racial minorities. The food assistance programs modestly mitigate the risk of obesity among impoverished children while the risk could be aggravated because of mother's excessive time spent in the labor market. These findings imply that when single mothers transitioning from welfare to the labor market, policy considerations should be given to their family, especially on relaxed eligibility rules for food assistance.

Bibliography Citation
Liu, Haiyong. "Participation in Food Assistance, Maternal Employment, and Child Obesity." Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economics (ASHE), Inaugural Conference, "Economics of Population Health", June 2006.
7. Stehr, Mark
The Effect of Education and Parental Education on Obesity
Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economists (ASHE) Inaugural Conference, "Economics of Population Research", June 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Society of Health Economists (ASHE)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); College Education; Educational Returns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Higher Education; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Education; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Economists have expended a great deal of effort to determine the effect of education on wages and productivity. Recent research has broadened the scope of this investigation to include the non-pecuniary benefits that education may provide such as improvements in health. Lleras Muney (2002) finds that high school education decreases mortality, but is silent on the exact mechanisms through which education operates. DeWalque (2003) shows that college education has a causal role in lowering smoking rates, but more research is needed to understand the other channels through which education exerts its positive influence on health. At the same time, economists are actively investigating the relationship between markers of socioeconomic status, such as income and education, and child health (see Currie and Stabile, 2003).

This paper tests the hypothesis that more schooling at the college level leads to (a) lower levels of obesity and (b) lower levels of obesity among one's children. Obesity is a particularly important health outcome because it is rapidly approaching smoking as a cause of premature morbidity and mortality. This hypothesis cannot be tested by examining a simple association between education and body mass index (BMI) because both of these outcomes may be influenced by unobservable characteristics of the individual. For example, the relative value individuals place on current and future consumption may vary. Those who place a high value on future consumption may make large investments in education and health while they are young that involve sacrifices in the form of foregone wages and leisure time. Those who place a high value on current consumption may not be willing to make these sacrifices when they are young, and as a consequence may enjoy lower earnings and health when they are older. Thus, to infer from the simple association between education and BMI that education reduces obesity risk is invalid.

Ideally, to isolate the effect of education on obesity, one would randomly assign individuals to different education levels and then follow the evolution of their BMI over time. Because this is clearly infeasible, I instead use a quasi-experimental design that attempts to mimic this random assignment. Use of this quasi-experiment requires that the experiment predict education, but have no direct effect on BMI. My quasi-experiment is the number of colleges and universities in an individual's county of residence at age 17. Previous researchers have relied on this quasi-experiment to study the effect of education on wages (Card, 1995) and civic participation (Dee, 2004). To acquire data on schools, I use the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), which provides data on the number of 2-year and 4-year colleges in each county in the United States. Then, I match this measure of college availability by county with respondents from the NLSY79 and their children from the NLSY79 Child/Young Adult Survey. Preliminary OLS results indicate a strong negative association between education and obesity, but it is too early to report results from the quasi-experimental research design outlined above.

Bibliography Citation
Stehr, Mark. "The Effect of Education and Parental Education on Obesity." Presented: Madison, WI, American Society of Health Economists (ASHE) Inaugural Conference, "Economics of Population Research", June 2006.