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Source: American Public Health Association
Resulting in 44 citations.
1. Agre, Lynn A.
Adolescent Depression and Substance Use: Does Co-morbidity Vary by Neighborhood?
Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association (APHA) 135th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 3-7, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Depression (see also CESD); Geocoded Data; Modeling, Multilevel; Neighborhood Effects; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The link between depression and substance use has been well substantiated in the mental health literature. But does this association differ by neighborhood? Indeed, communities are often established based on normative standards such as average income and educational attainment thresholds. Does a community, then, influence health status on an aggregate level and shape adolescent health decision making processes on the individual level? Using the National Longitudinal Survey on Youth 1998, 2000 and 2002 Young Adult Cohorts, multilevel modeling will investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and mental health and well-being by examining disparities among neighborhoods. This paper will address how neighborhood characteristics such as appraisal of neighborhood safety, educational attainment, income and psychosocial indexes vary within and between groups of adolescents. Applying hierarchical linear modeling, adolescent mental health measured by the short form of the CESD will elucidate distinctions in self-reported depression and illicit/licit substance use prevalence by locality. These ratings of depression in conjunction with measures of mastery, self-esteem and parent-child quality ratings as well as sociodemographic characteristics at the individual and regional levels will then be used to examine adolescent substance use within neighborhoods and between communities. Urban, suburban, and rural regions within the US will be compared based on mean income, highest grade completed and perceived neighborhood appeal as determined by adolescent survey participants. Implications for targeted interventions such as health education programs promoting adolescent prosocial behavior and encouraging community-wide involvement will be discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Adolescent Depression and Substance Use: Does Co-morbidity Vary by Neighborhood?" Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association (APHA) 135th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 3-7, 2007.
2. Agre, Lynn A.
Comorbidity of Maternal Disability and Depression: Effect on Children's Behavioral and Psychosocial Development
Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Disability; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Health; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: Examine the relationship between maternal self-reported depressive symptoms, physical disability and child health and well-being. Explore the impact of self-reported depressive symptoms on the home environment and the effect on children's development (as a proxy for health status).
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Comorbidity of Maternal Disability and Depression: Effect on Children's Behavioral and Psychosocial Development." Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1998.
3. Agre, Lynn A.
Cross-lagged Analysis of Adolescent Sensation Seeking and Health Risk Behaviors: Testing Reciprocal Causality and Causal Direction
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 137th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; CESD (Depression Scale); Neighborhood Effects; Risk-Taking; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using multiple waves from the 2000, 2002, and 2004 NLSY Young Adult cohorts (n=1700), this paper addresses how the causal inter-relationships of depression and risk proneness (sensation seeking) influence adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk taking. Structural equation modeling with cross-lagged data will test the reciprocal causality of risk proneness and depressive symptoms and their affect on health risk behaviors over time among adolescents ages 14 to 21. This phenomenological cycle will be evaluated by applying statistical weights for each of the respective years, prior to calculating the covariance matrix for path analyses performed in AMOS. In preliminary analyses, the direct and indirect influence of depression and risk proneness on adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk taking suggest a one-way direction of causation. This research builds on existing findings from cross-sectional data, extending the model from one point in time to determine how Time 1 risk proneness propensity influences Time 2 health risk behaviors which affect Time 3 outcomes, i.e. severity index of adolescent alcohol use in the past 30 days and sexual risk taking. Implications for community-level intervention programs are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Cross-lagged Analysis of Adolescent Sensation Seeking and Health Risk Behaviors: Testing Reciprocal Causality and Causal Direction." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 137th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2009.
4. Agre, Lynn A.
Health Status and Prenatal Care Use among Women on Welfare Enrolled in Medicaid vs. Private Insurance: Impact on Infant Birth Weight
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1999
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Educational Attainment; Insurance, Health; Marital Status; Medicaid/Medicare; Mothers, Education; Mothers, Health; Poverty; Pre-natal Care/Exposure

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As the Medicaid program has been broadened to encompass vulnerable populations, debate has surrounded whether Medicaid recipients specifically women and children are as healthy as the non-Medicaid insured population. This paper then will address the impact of Medicaid before the implementation of CHIP on maternal-child health status using micro-level national data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) Child Supplement.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Health Status and Prenatal Care Use among Women on Welfare Enrolled in Medicaid vs. Private Insurance: Impact on Infant Birth Weight." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1999.
5. Agre, Lynn A.
Mental Health Factors in Determining Adolescent Aggressive Behavior in the Neighborhood Setting
Presented: Boston, MA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 134th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 4-8, 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Household Composition; Household Income; Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Self-Esteem; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In addition to spatial analysis of disease clusters and the development of epidemiological catchment areas designed to target treatment and prevention, it is necessary to evaluate how individuals perceive the quality of their neighborhoods and the impact of their perception on their behavior in determining health and well-being. The context of environment quality may reflect how residents view their mental health and well-being in conjunction with other physical health behaviors such as substance use, and level of depressive symptoms. Indeed, residents' beliefs, attitudes and feelings about their community may influence their social conduct within that milieu. The teen years are critical in ascertaining how the role of the neighborhood contributes toward health and well-being outcomes in later-life. This study, then, examines how adolescents appraise their neighborhood and how the interplay of substance use, self-rated mastery, self-esteem and depressive symptoms promote aggressive behaviors. Using the 1998 NLSY Young Adult Survey, n = 400, average age 16.5 years, both bivariate and multivariate analyses reveal that among younger adolescent males with lower religiosity, regular alcohol use, and living in neighborhoods rated as lower quality, depressive symptoms are associated with fighting, including hitting and hurting self and others. However, strong parenting appears to offset the effect of lower neighborhood quality, depressive symptoms and alcohol use in promoting aggressive behavior. Moreover, higher maternal education moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms, increased substance use and aggressive behaviors such as fighting and hurting others, including self. Interventions need to address depression and its association with violent behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Mental Health Factors in Determining Adolescent Aggressive Behavior in the Neighborhood Setting." Presented: Boston, MA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 134th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 4-8, 2006.
6. Agre, Lynn A.
Multilevel Modeling Approach to Adolescent Risk Perception in the Neighborhood Setting
Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association (APHA) 135th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 3-7, 2007
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Modeling, Multilevel; Neighborhood Effects; Risk-Taking; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using multilevel modeling, this study will examine how risk propensity during earlier adolescent years can determine deleterious health behavior, including co-morbid substance use and risky sexual behavior in young adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey on Youth Young Adult waves of 1998, 2000 and 2002 will be analyzed to investigate between and within group variation by region of study subjects—an application of Hierarchical Linear Modeling. A single level model will first test the effects of personal characteristics on adolescents' risk perception, and second the adolescents' neighborhood scale ratings on risk perception, as outcomes using linear regression, run cross-sectionally for each year and then longitudinally. The model in the second step will evaluate the different effects of adolescent personal characteristics and adolescents' perception of their neighborhoods on (1) alcohol use, (2) drug use, (3) tobacco and (4) sexual behavior in four separate regressions, again both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The level 1 model will assess the association between personal and neighborhood characteristics. The level 2 model will evaluate how the adolescents' own risk perception varies within and among urban and rural areas according to neighborhood characteristics as appraised by adolescents themselves. This research addresses an understudied area in the literature as defined by Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of the interaction between environment—the neighborhood—and the individual—the adolescent. Mother's educational attainment—as a resource for information and appraisal about risks--will be introduced in this analysis as a social support proxy and buffer to offset the effects of neighborhood quality.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Multilevel Modeling Approach to Adolescent Risk Perception in the Neighborhood Setting." Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association (APHA) 135th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 3-7, 2007.
7. Agre, Lynn A.
Parent-Child Interaction, Family Composition and the Quality of the Home: Effect on Adolescent Depression
Presented: Boston, MA, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Household Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Parental versus child view of relations between parent and child differ widely. The levels of behavior, the dynamics of these behaviors and how these perceptions of behavior integrate the parent and child in the family unit, temper the functioning of the family as an econmic unit in society, in turn mediates the family's role in shaping child well-being. This paper will explore both the mother's and the adolescent's feelings about fluctuating social arenas, both outside and inside the parent-child sanctum, and how these dynamics affect child depression, from the maternal view as well as the child perception.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Parent-Child Interaction, Family Composition and the Quality of the Home: Effect on Adolescent Depression." Presented: Boston, MA, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 2000.
8. Agre, Lynn A.
Risk-taking and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: The Interplay Between Psychosocial Factors and Socio-environmental Influence
Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Meetings, November 6-10, 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; CESD (Depression Scale); Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Risk-Taking; Self-Perception; Sexual Behavior; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

With the rise in STD transmission rates and teen pregnancy, the propensity toward early initiation of sexual behavior coupled with alcohol and licit/illicit drug use has generated concern about the welfare of our youth and later-life outcomes associated with these social health problems. Previous research has demonstrated that sociodemographic characteristics including race, gender, income and low income neighborhoods predispose adolescents at an early age to initiate sexual behavior. However, these characteristics only explain a portion of the variance associated with these risk profiles. Based on the Bronfrenbrenner Ecological Framework and using the 1998 National Longitudinal on Youth Young Adult Survey, this study will examine psychosocial and environmental factors among youth ages 15 to 23 years at the individual and familial level that predispose teens to self-identify as high versus low risk. The independent variables of self-esteem, mastery, depressive symptoms, parental monitoring, parent-child quality, peer influence and neighborhood quality will be regressed on a self-rated risk index, as the dependent variable. The predictor scores from the first regression equation, i.e. self-rated risk adverse as opposed to risk prone, based on the psychosocial and environmental factors, will then be used in the second regression equation to determine who will be more likely to engage in sexual behavior in conjunction with alcohol and licit/illicit drugs. Subsequently, risk profiles will be developed that predict likelihood of combined sexual initiation and alcohol and drug use, using Kaplan-Meir Product Limit estimates as compared to other classification methods such as Logical Analysis of Data.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Risk-taking and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: The Interplay Between Psychosocial Factors and Socio-environmental Influence." Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Meetings, November 6-10, 2004.
9. Agre, Lynn A.
Role of Maternal Morbidity in Measuring Social Inequality Among Low Birth Weight Children
Presented: Atlanta, GA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 129th Annual Meeting and Exposition, October 21-25, 2001.
Also: http://apha.confex.com/apha/129am/techprogram/paper_30325.htm
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Health; Parent-Child Interaction; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Social Capital

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The goal of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health status on measuring social inequality among low birth weight, using the National Longitudinal Survey on Youth (NLSY) Mother-Child Supplement. Low birth weight has previously been treated as a biological phenomenon, attributed to medical etiological factors, such as incomplete gestational age (less than thirty-seven weeks) due to preterm membrane rupture, preterm labor in singleton births, small for gestational age in twin births and poor maternal prenatal health care inputs, including lack of or substandard prenatal care. The resulting low birth weight population has been assessed for behavioral and cognitive developmental delay. However, social-environmental characteristics included in these outcome studies have concentrated on sociodemographics such as income, maternal education, with some emphasis on social support and cohesive networks. The need to evaluate these developmental outcomes in the social-environmental milieu suggests more than simply the incorporation of wider measures of parent-child relationship quality, and surrounding community-level assets for example, but the call for interactions between maternal health behavior characteristics and social inequalities. This project will first explore the predictors that determine low birth weight. The concept of social capital as a measure of social inequality, captured on the community, family and individual levels, will then be applied to this study population for its moderating effect on child health outcomes followed from birth through age fourteen. Behavioral/mental health problems, cognitive health including performance tests, and physical health, represented as body mass index, will be examined in relation to social capital.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Role of Maternal Morbidity in Measuring Social Inequality Among Low Birth Weight Children." Presented: Atlanta, GA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 129th Annual Meeting and Exposition, October 21-25, 2001.
10. Agre, Lynn A.
The Role of Alcohol/Drug Use and Psychosocial Well-Being in Teenage Sexual Behavior: Findings from the 1994 NLSY
Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1998
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Behavior, Violent; CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Drug Use; Neighborhood Effects; Risk-Taking; Self-Esteem; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite accounts of reduced teenage pregnancy rates, the highest incidence of HIV and other STDs as reported by the CDC remains steadfast among teenagers and young adults. While youth may perceive themselves as invincible and impervious to the perils of health risk behavior, they remain vulnerable to social pressures. Encompassed within the social pressure purview are the interplay of alcohol/drug use, violence, vandalism, and self-esteem emerging as co-risk factors in the transmission of disease.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "The Role of Alcohol/Drug Use and Psychosocial Well-Being in Teenage Sexual Behavior: Findings from the 1994 NLSY." Presented: Washington, DC, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1998.
11. Agre, Lynn A.
Use of Weighted Path Analysis in Testing the Influence of Self-regulation, Risk Proneness, Peer Pressure, and Substance Use on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior
Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Gender Differences; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Risk-Taking; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Sexual Behavior; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Crocket, Rafaelli and Shen (2006) explored the relationship among self-regulation (behavioral problems) in early childhood, risk proneness (sensation seeking), peer pressure and substance use in early adolescence for their effect on sexual risk taking in later adolescence, using three waves of the National Longitudinal Survey on Youth-child data (1990, 1994 and 1998 respectively). Their structural equation model (SEM) revealed behavioral problems in early childhood predispose youth in mid-adolescence to perceive themselves as engaging in higher sensation seeking (assessed in 1994). This successive combination leads to alcohol use and sexual risk taking in mid-adolescence (outcomes in 1998). Though their research substantiated the relationship among these underlying mechanisms longitudinally, their computations conducted without application of sampling weights, did not yield significant pathways between self-regulation in mid-childhood and peer pressure in early adolescence. Further, differences between racial/ethnic groups were not detected. In order to control for oversampling of underrepresented minorities, their study is replicated in this paper by applying the transformed raw weights to the covariance matrix calculated in SPSS and analyzed in AMOS. The weighted path analysis (i.e. an algebraic formula employed in calculation of the covariance matrix to adjust for post-study design effect) findings demonstrate both ethnic and gender variation in the link among self-regulation, risk proneness and consequential sexual risk taking. Mathematical weighting technique thereby yields results supporting the need for targeted culturally sensitive mental health interventions, tailored to adolescents based on their race and gender.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. "Use of Weighted Path Analysis in Testing the Influence of Self-regulation, Risk Proneness, Peer Pressure, and Substance Use on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior." Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013.
12. Agre, Lynn A.
Peterson, N. Andrew
Risk Prone or Risk Adverse: Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Health Risk Behavior
Presented: San Diego, CA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 136th Annual Meeting and Exposition, October 25-28, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Neighborhood Effects; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Risk-Taking; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines how adolescent risk proneness (sensation seeking) in conjunction with psychosocial factors (mastery, self-esteem and depression) and environmental influences (parenting and neighborhood quality) predict likelihood to engage in deleterious health risk behaviors, i.e. alcohol, tobacco use and sexual activity. Using the NLSY 1998 young adult cohort (ages 14-21), scales based on Rosenberg self-esteem, Pearlin mastery and CES-D depression measures are formulated, together with neighborhood and parent-child relationship assessments, and Zuckerman risk propensity self-evaluation (all with Cronbach's alpha reliability =.7) to test the multivariate relationship on the outcome severity indexes of high tobacco and alcohol utilization, and sexual involvement. In preliminary models, discriminant and MANCOVA analyses (n=354) are applied to elucidate profiles of adolescents at higher and lower risk of early substance use and sexual behavior initiation. These statistical classification methods, then, reveal that younger white males with higher self-esteem, higher mastery, higher depressive symptoms, but poorer parenting and lower quality neighborhoods, have higher self-rated risk proneness scores, indicating they are more likely to engage in conduct detrimental to health (with significance less than .05). Similarly, younger black females with higher self-esteem, lower mastery, lower depression and poorer parenting and lower neighborhood quality also have greater propensity to appraise themselves as risk prone. Indeed, interaction between socio-emotional environment and sensation seeking during teen years can set the stage for later-life deleterious health outcomes. Thus, risky behavior patterns established in early adulthood have implications for a life course trajectory of co-morbid mental and physical conditions in middle and older adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. and N. Andrew Peterson. "Risk Prone or Risk Adverse: Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Health Risk Behavior." Presented: San Diego, CA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 136th Annual Meeting and Exposition, October 25-28, 2008.
13. Agre, Lynn A.
Peterson, N. Andrew
Brady, James
Mediational Effects of Sensation Seeking on Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors by Mother's Educational Attainment
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 137th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; CESD (Depression Scale); Family Structure; Health, Mental; Mothers, Education; Neighborhood Effects; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines if self-rated risk perception (risk proneness) mediates the effects of health behavior determinants, which include depression, parenting and neighborhood quality on health behaviors. While peer pressure could be a measure of influence, little research has explored the effect of parental education, especially maternal education as a protective factor/social support mechanism in predicting health behavior outcomes. This research utilizes a national representative sample, the NLSY 1998 Young Adult cohort, to demonstrate the mediational role of risk proneness – how environment influences cognition – in safeguarding against adolescent deleterious health choices. Self-rated risk proneness, in conjunction with the psychosocial and environmental factors, is evaluated in path analysis (n=1786) as a mediating step to engaging in alcohol and tobacco use and sexual behavior. Results reveal that depressive symptoms are an underlying factor in risk proneness (higher sensation seeking likelihood) among white adolescents whose mothers have lower educational attainment, particularly females engaging in concomitant alcohol use and sexual risk taking. However, depression has no association with risk proneness among African American adolescents whose mothers have higher educational attainment or lower educational attainment. Yet, path analysis does demonstrate, through temporal ordering, that risk proneness (sensation seeking) is a mediator in the sequence to alcohol use and sexual risk taking among white adolescents of mothers with both higher and lower educational attainment, and among African American adolescents of mothers with lower educational attainment. These group differences in mother's educational attainment contribute to the development of targeted community interventions among adolescents in varied neighborhood contexts.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A., N. Andrew Peterson and James Brady. "Mediational Effects of Sensation Seeking on Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors by Mother's Educational Attainment." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 137th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2009.
14. Agre, Lynn A.
Peterson, N. Andrew
Brady, James
Sensation Seeking Risk Profiles of Adolescent Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 137th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2009
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; CESD (Depression Scale); Family Structure; Health, Mental; Neighborhood Effects; Risk-Taking

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on the Bronfenbrenner Ecological framework and using the 1998 National Longitudinal on Youth Young Adult Survey, this study examines psychosocial and environmental factors among youth ages 14 to 21 years at the individual and familial level that predispose teens to self-identify as high versus low risk. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) is used to investigate the mean differences of low and high risk proneness scores among adolescents on multiple outcomes or dependent variables i.e. alcohol use and sexual activity based on the covariates of neighborhood quality, perceived closeness between parents and depressive illness symptoms. MANCOVA results(n=1379)show significant differences between those teens with high alcohol severity use in past 30 days versus sexual risk taking on all factors except for perceived parental closeness, gender and race. Discriminant analysis was also performed to determine risk group profiles. Findings reveal that those adolescents who perceive themselves as risk prone (high likelihood to engage in sensation) are younger, white males, who report worse perceived parental closeness (low agreement on rules), and rate their neighborhood quality as low. In contrast, those adolescents who view themselves as risk adverse (lower likelihood to engage in sensation seeking) are older African American females, with less depressive symptoms, higher perceived parental closeness, but lower quality neighborhoods. Assessment of risk profiles are discussed in the context of developing targeted interventions and evaluation effectiveness of such program strategies.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A., N. Andrew Peterson and James Brady. "Sensation Seeking Risk Profiles of Adolescent Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 137th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2009.
15. Agre, Lynn A.
Sambamoorthi, Usha
Effects of Social Environmental Factors on Health Risk Decision-Making Among Adolescents in the NLSY
Presented: Indianapolis, IN, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1997
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Fathers, Absence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sexual Activity; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: Examine the role of parenting, family interaction, peer relationships, youth self-reported sexual and substance use behavior, other social and economic stressors like poverty and quality of home environment in influencing adolescent health risk behavior. Investigate if peer-involvement experience encourages certain adolescent health-risk decisions; if parental interaction together with the home environment act as a mediator, offsetting outside influences.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A. and Usha Sambamoorthi. "Effects of Social Environmental Factors on Health Risk Decision-Making Among Adolescents in the NLSY." Presented: Indianapolis, IN, American Public Health Association Meeting, November 1997.
16. Agre, Lynn A.
Sambamoorthi, Usha
Crystal, Stephen
Child's Health Status and Home Environment: Evidence from the 1988 NLSY
Presented: New York, NY, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, November 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Children, Health Care; Children, Home Environment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Overview, Child Assessment Data; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Panel presentation. This study uses cross-sectional data from the 1988 wave of mothers (n=1,280) matched with their school-age children from 5 through 9 years (n=2,414). The mothers 21-29, and their children 0-18+, who have been interview every two years since 1986 through 1992 resulting in a total of 4 waves to date.
Bibliography Citation
Agre, Lynn A., Usha Sambamoorthi and Stephen Crystal. "Child's Health Status and Home Environment: Evidence from the 1988 NLSY." Presented: New York, NY, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, November 1996.
17. Champaloux, Steven William
Young, Deborah R.
Child and Adolescent Chronic Health Conditions and Educational Attainment
Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Childhood; Educational Attainment; Health, Chronic Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Introduction: Childhood chronic health conditions are increasing in the US. For a number of reasons, including school absences, possible cognitive delays and poor psychosocial adjustment, these affected youth are potentially at risk of poor educational attainment. This study examined the association between chronic health conditions during childhood/adolescence and educational attainment.

Methods: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Cohort 1997 was used for this analysis. Participants ranged in age from 12 - 16 years and were followed from 1997 through 2010. A chronic health condition was defined as parental (1997) or participant (2002) report of a chronic health condition. Educational attainment was defined as completion of high school or GED by age 21. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association between type of chronic health condition and educational attainment, adjusting for sociodemographic, academic, and psychosocial variables.

Results: Youth with a chronic health condition had higher odds of poor educational attainment compared to those without a chronic health condition, OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22 - 1.76). Youth with asthma, OR: 1.63 (95% CI: 1.31-2.02) and cancer/diabetes/epilepsy, OR: 1.96 (95% CI: 1.13 – 3.37) had higher odds of poor educational attainment. For those with cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy, lower cognitive score, more school absences, lower GPA, repeating a grade, and depressive symptoms significantly reduced this association. For those with asthma, depressive symptoms reduced the association.

Conclusions: Youth with chronic health conditions have lower educational attainment. The association is complex and may be mediated by a number of factors.

Bibliography Citation
Champaloux, Steven William and Deborah R. Young. "Child and Adolescent Chronic Health Conditions and Educational Attainment." Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013.
18. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Health History and Current Market Earnings: Further Evidence on the Economic Effects of Poor Health
Presented: Dallas, TX, Association for the Social Sciences in Health, American Public Health Association, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Empirical research by economists and sociologists on the interrelationship between health and socioeconomic status has frequently been limited by the absence of suitable longitudinal measures of the crucial variables. This paper draws on a unique data set, the NLS of Older Men and Mature Women, to construct longitudinal measures of health history and to analyze the relationship between these histories and measures of current economic status. The NLS has followed nationally representative samples of 5000 white and black men, then 45-59 years of age, and an equal number of white and black women, then 30-44 years old, since the mid-sixties. A variety of health measures as well as detailed economic data are available for various years over the period the panels have been followed. Responses to health-related questions over the decade 1966-1976 are used to profile the health histories of each panel member. The effects of these histories on such current labor market outcomes as wages and annual hours worked are then estimated using multivariate statistical techniques. The analysis shows that a history of health problems definitely creates a legacy of adverse economic consequences. It also shows that this legacy differs substantially among sex and race groups. Substantive and methodological implications of these findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Health History and Current Market Earnings: Further Evidence on the Economic Effects of Poor Health." Presented: Dallas, TX, Association for the Social Sciences in Health, American Public Health Association, 1983.
19. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Incidence and Chronicity of Functional Impairments in Older Men
Presented: Dallas, TX, 111th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, November 13-17, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mortality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study measures changes over a five year period in functional impairments in a representative sample of American men between 60-74 years of age and analyzes the impact of these changes on self- appraised health status, normal role function, mobility and self-sufficiency in personal care. The relationship between impairment status and survivorship is also investigated. The analysis shows that the functional capacity of older men is reduced as they age and that these diminutions increase the likelihood of reporting poor health, limitations in work activity, travel restrictions and assistance in activities of daily living. However, considerable evidence is also found that functional capacities are restored, with concomitant improvements in health and disability status. The chronicity or duration of functional impairments is called into question by this evidence. Finally, impairment status is found to be a strong predictor of mortality, suggesting that increasing life expectancy may substantially increase the number of disabled elderly needing medical and social service support.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Incidence and Chronicity of Functional Impairments in Older Men." Presented: Dallas, TX, 111th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, November 13-17, 1983.
20. Colen, Cynthia G.
Geronimus, Arline T.
Bound, John
James, Sherman A.
Facing the Realities of the American Dream: Upward Maternal Socioeconomic Mobility and Black-White Disparities in Infant Birthweight
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association 133rd Annual Meeting and Exposition, December 10-14, 2005.
Also: http://apha.confex.com/apha/133am/techprogram/paper_115060.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Black Studies; Census of Population; Childbearing; Children, Well-Being; Family Income; Income Level; Infants; Mobility, Economic; Mobility, Social; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Factors; Variables, Independent - Covariate; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the 1970 U.S. Census of Population and Housing to determine the extent to which upward maternal socioeconomic mobility reduces the probability of giving birth to a low birthweight (LBW) baby among Black and White women in the United States. Multivariate analyses are restricted to female respondents who were living in households at age 14 for which the income to needs ratio (INR) did not exceed 200% of the national poverty threshold. I estimate a series of logistic regression models to determine whether or not increases in family income during the year in which the respondent became pregnant are associated with the risk of low birthweight. Among White women who grew up in or near poverty, the probability of giving birth to a LBW baby decreases by 48% for every one unit increase in the natural logarithm of adult family income once the effects of all other covariates are taken into account. Among African American women who grew up in or near poverty, the relationship between adult family income and low birthweight is also negative; however, the coefficient on the independent variable of interest fails to reach statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Furthermore, maternal health behaviors, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, delayed prenatal care, and inadequate weight gain, appear to have a minimal impact on the association between upward socioeconomic mobility and the risk of low birthweight for both Blacks and Whites.
Bibliography Citation
Colen, Cynthia G., Arline T. Geronimus, John Bound and Sherman A. James. "Facing the Realities of the American Dream: Upward Maternal Socioeconomic Mobility and Black-White Disparities in Infant Birthweight." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association 133rd Annual Meeting and Exposition, December 10-14, 2005.
21. Dembe, Allard E.
Erickson, J. Bianca
Relationships Between Stressful Work Schedules and Occupational Injuries: New Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association. 130th Annual Meeting, November 2002.
Also: http://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_41298.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Disability; Injuries; Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Most outcome studies of occupational injuries and illnesses have tended to focus on direct economic costs and duration of work disability. Rarely have the broader social consequences of work-related disorders or their impacts on injured workers' families, coworkers, and community been investigated. This paper examines a wide range of social consequences including workers' psychological and behavioral responses, vocational function, and family and community relationships

Methods: Literature review and development of conceptual framework

Results: Complex and multifactorial relationships are described whereby occupational injuries and illnesses produce a variety of social consequences involving filing and administration of workers' compensation insurance claims, medical care experiences, domestic function and activities of daily living, psychological and behavioral responses, stress, vocational function, rehabilitation and return to work, and equity and social justice

Conclusion: A research agenda is proposed for guiding future investigations in this field.

Bibliography Citation
Dembe, Allard E. and J. Bianca Erickson. "Relationships Between Stressful Work Schedules and Occupational Injuries: New Findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association. 130th Annual Meeting, November 2002.
22. Dembe, Allard
Yao, Xiaoxi
Wickizer, Thomas
Shoben, Abigail
Dong, Xiuwen Sue
A Standardized Process for Using 0*NET to Estimate the Association between Work Exposures and Chronic Disease Occurrence
Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Health, Chronic Conditions; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Hazards; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background and Objectives: This study aims to develop a general process using data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to estimate the association between long-term occupational exposure and the risk of contracting chronic diseases later in life. To demonstrate the usefulness of this standardized process, we analyze the relationship between O*NET exposure ratings of physical work demands and the onset of arthritis over a 32-year period.

Methods: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79) provided information about the work histories of 7,565 individuals and their health conditions. Five O*NET job descriptors (e.g., “handing and moving objects” and “bending or twisting the body”) were used as surrogate measures of physical work demands. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to measure the association between those demands and arthritis occurrence.

Results: The risk of contracting arthritis was found to be significantly associated with handling and moving objects (OR: 1.45), kneeling, crouching, and crawling (OR: 1.36), bending and twisting (OR: 1.49) and performing general physical activities (OR 1.47). The relationship between exposure to working in a cramped or awkward posture and arthritis was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: This study developed and tested a general methodology for using O*NET job ratings to analyze the strength of association between occupational exposure and chronic disease. This method can be applied broadly to many job hazards and a variety of common chronic conditions. The study also showed that O*NET can successfully serve as a surrogate measure for occupational exposure when no actual exposure data is available.

Bibliography Citation
Dembe, Allard, Xiaoxi Yao, Thomas Wickizer, Abigail Shoben and Xiuwen Sue Dong. "A Standardized Process for Using 0*NET to Estimate the Association between Work Exposures and Chronic Disease Occurrence." Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013.
23. Dong, Xiuwen Sue
Wang, Xuanwen
Largay, Julie
Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes among Construction Workers in the United States, a Longitudinal Study
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Blue-Collar Jobs; Drug Use; Health, Chronic Conditions; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Industrial Classification; Physical Activity (see also Exercise); Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Methods: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (1979-2010), were used. Construction workers (n=1,409) were defined as those who were employed in construction for at least three years between 1979 and 2010. Health behaviors in the follow-up period were measured by a risky behavior index (RBI), including diet plans, physical exercise, and the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Health outcomes were measured by self-reported physical and mental health and doctor-diagnosed chronic conditions at the age of 40.

Results: Initial findings show that the construction cohort gained weight during the three decades of follow-up; the percentage of obese workers increased from 3.9% to 31.8%. Almost all workers in this cohort were involved in risky behaviors when they were teenagers. However, smoking tobacco and drinking heavily declined significantly in middle age. The RBI was strongly correlated with both physical and mental health. Among those with an RBI less than five, 82% reported their health was excellent or very good at age 40, compared to 56% for those with an RBI greater than 10. Similar patterns were found in mental health and chronic conditions.

Bibliography Citation
Dong, Xiuwen Sue, Xuanwen Wang and Julie Largay. "Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes among Construction Workers in the United States, a Longitudinal Study." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
24. Dong, Xiuwen Sue
Wang, Xuanwen
Largay, Julie
Work-Related Injuries and Workers Compensation among Construction Workers, a Longitudinal Study
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Industrial Classification; Injuries, Workplace; Labor Force Participation; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort were used. Construction workers (n=2,034) were defined as those who were employed in construction at least one wave between 1988 and 2000. Work-related injuries and workers compensation claims were self-reported. The consequences of work-related injuries, such as lost wages, working less than full-time, being laid-off or fired, and others were also considered.
Bibliography Citation
Dong, Xiuwen Sue, Xuanwen Wang and Julie Largay. "Work-Related Injuries and Workers Compensation among Construction Workers, a Longitudinal Study." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
25. Fernandez, Cristina
Christ, Sharon L.
LeBlanc, William G.
Arheart, Kristopher L.
Dietz, Noella A.
McCollister, Kathryn E.
Fleming, Lora E.
Muennig, Peter
Muntaner, Carles
Lee, David J.
Childhood Trauma and Its Influence on Occupational Prestige in Young Adulthood
Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Childhood; Occupational Prestige; Racial Differences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Trauma/Death in family

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Introduction: Childhood trauma is associated with numerous long-term mental health consequences. However, there is a lack of research examining its effect on future occupational prestige, the shared belief about the “worthiness” of a profession.

Methods: Data were analyzed from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a nationally representative prospective survey. Our sample is comprised of youth aged 12-16 at baseline in 1997 and interviewed annually through 2009 (ages 24-28; N=7,772). Cumulative self-reported childhood trauma was summed across five areas: 1) violent crime; 2) bullying; 3) gun violence; 4) perceived school safety; and 5) threatened violence. After each participant turned 18, his/her yearly 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly occupational prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey rankings. Covariate-adjusted marginal linear regression models were used to estimate the effects of trauma and covariates on prestige for different race/ethnicity (white, Black, Hispanic) and gender subgroups.

Results: Results indicated that white females (mean=1.17±standard error =0.19; p<0.00) and white males (mean=0.35±0.18; p=0.04) lost the most prestige points in future occupations for every childhood traumatic occurrence. More traumatic occurrences resulted in a slower growth in occupational prestige over time for white females, with each additional victimization occurrence associated with an annual loss in prestige of 0.29 points (p<0.05).

Discussion: Results indicate that white males and females were the most severely affected groups with respect to their future occupation. Psychological and other social interventions specifically designed to mitigate the consequences of childhood trauma may positively impact future socioeconomic status.

Bibliography Citation
Fernandez, Cristina, Sharon L. Christ, William G. LeBlanc, Kristopher L. Arheart, Noella A. Dietz, Kathryn E. McCollister, Lora E. Fleming, Peter Muennig, Carles Muntaner and David J. Lee. "Childhood Trauma and Its Influence on Occupational Prestige in Young Adulthood." Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013.
26. Furtado, Karishma
Growing Up Too Fast? The Longitudinal Association between Adultification and School Suspension
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Employment, In-School; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parenting Skills/Styles; Racial Differences; School Suspension/Expulsion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The disproportionate rate at which Black students are suspended relative to their White classmates damages their academic, professional, and health outlooks. Adultification, or the premature assumption of adult responsibilities, may be a source of toxic stress that places students at greater risk of suspension. We used mixed effects Poisson regression on a subsample (N=2000) of the NLSY97 followed across six waves (1997-2002) to estimate the longitudinal effect of adultification on days spent suspended. Adultification was operationalized through the interaction of two variables: job status and parents' parenting style. Students with both a job and uninvolved/permissive parents were considered adultified. Mixed effects Poisson regression suggested that, across time, adultified students are at significantly greater risk for suspension than non- or partially-adultified students (p<0.01). Among 13 year-olds, adultified students spent approximately 10 times as many days suspended as non-adultified students. Though a formal interaction by race was not tested, descriptive analysis using prediction plots stratified by race suggest that the effect of adultification on risk of suspension is considerably larger for Black students than White students. For all students, while the negative impact of adultification persisted across time, it was greatest at younger ages. These results contribute to a growing body of work suggesting that acting out in school may be a manifestation of profound stress elsewhere in students' lives and that removing students from the classroom does little to address the root cause of the problem. Findings add to the call for a more trauma-informed approach to school discipline.
Bibliography Citation
Furtado, Karishma. "Growing Up Too Fast? The Longitudinal Association between Adultification and School Suspension." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2017.
27. Jones, Marian Moser
Liu, Tao
Shenassa, Edmond D.
Differential Secular Trends in BMI in Relation to Region of Childhood Residence: A 25 Year Follow-up of a Nationally Representative Sample
Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood Residence; Modeling, Random Effects; Obesity; Regions; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although regional variations in prevalence of overweight and average BMI have been well documented, the relationship between childhood region of residence and BMI in adulthood remains poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate secular trends in BMI among US adults and to examine these trends in relation to region of residence in childhood and adulthood. Using 16 waves of nationally representative data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n=12,686), the study examined the change in individuals' BMI over 25 years using random effects models. We found an independent positive association between years of residence in the South during childhood and adolescence (age 14), and secular trends in overweight during adolescence and adulthood (ß = .08, p =.05). In line with previous studies, the average BMI among men overall increases by 0.07~0.34 kg/m2 and the odds of being overweight increases multiplicatively by 3~12% (obese: 4~10%) over each birth cohort year. Among women, the average BMI increases by 0.14~0.21 kg/m2 and the odds of being overweight increases by -2~8% (obese: -6~10%). These increasing trends are significant for both genders among whites and among all races combined. The secular trend in BMI for respondents who resided in the South during childhood is elevated in comparison to the trend for other respondents, suggesting an independent association between childhood region of residence and trends in BMI during adulthood. This is the most precise and detailed epidemiologic study to date to examine secular trends in BMI among US residents in relation to regional differences.
Bibliography Citation
Jones, Marian Moser, Tao Liu and Edmond D. Shenassa. "Differential Secular Trends in BMI in Relation to Region of Childhood Residence: A 25 Year Follow-up of a Nationally Representative Sample." Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013.
28. Khadem Sameni, Mona
The Relationship between Nonstandard Work Schedules and Substance Use: New Evidence From NLSY97
Presented: Chicago IL: American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, October-November 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Shift Workers; Substance Use; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

More than one-fifth of all employed Americans work in the evening, at night, or on a rotating shift. Such increasingly common employment that tends to interrupt daily routines could have important psychological and physiological impacts on the employees. Those health effects might ultimately influence productivity at work, healthcare costs, crime rates and the need for employee assistance programs. The recent reports on the increase in the positive drug use among the American workforce reflected in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2013 together with a September 2014 report by Quest Diagnostics raises suspicions over the association of working at nonstandard schedules and more substance use. Most of the previous studies, however, used non-representative cross sectional data that often suffer from different biases and are unable to track changes and developments in characteristics of the shift workers through time Using 15 consecutive rounds of an American longitudinal dataset for the first time and applying survival analysis in addition to standard panel data techniques to correct for some of the previous problems such as attenuation bias and 'healthy shift-worker survivor bias', it turns out in contrast with the past studies' findings, overall no evidence appear to exist on the relationship between being a shift worker and an increase in substance use and other than the case of cocaine use, almost all other coefficients appear to be negative. Nonetheless none of the correlations imply large effects in absolute terms.
Bibliography Citation
Khadem Sameni, Mona. "The Relationship between Nonstandard Work Schedules and Substance Use: New Evidence From NLSY97." Presented: Chicago IL: American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, October-November 2015.
29. Lee, Chung-Won
Toney, Michael B.
Berry, Eddy Helen
Non-clinical Risk Factors for Hysterectomy
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 130th Annual Meeting, November 2002.
Also: http://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_47155.htm
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Behavioral Differences; Educational Costs; Employment; Marital Status; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the United States, hysterectomy is one of the most commonly performed operations for women that is not related with pregnancy. However, not enough attention has been paid to how women's exposure to the surgery differs according to their social characteristics as well attitudinal/behavioral factors. Using cohort data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women, this study investigated two aspects: (1) the association between socioeconomic status and hysterectomy and (2) the impact of women's attitudinal/behavioral characteristics on hysterectomy. With Cox proportional hazards analyses, this study found that women's exposure to hysterectomy significantly differs according to their social and attitudinal standings. Social characteristics that were found to be statistically significant risk factors of hysterectomy include women's education, employment status, and marital status. Among attitudinal and behavioral factors, women's locus of control and number of children were identified as statistically significant risk factors. These findings may be used to enhance consumer awareness of hysterectomy and aid in policy reconstruction.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Chung-Won, Michael B. Toney and Eddy Helen Berry. "Non-clinical Risk Factors for Hysterectomy." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 130th Annual Meeting, November 2002.
30. Lin, Tin-Chi
Courtney, T.K.
Lombardi, David A.
Verma, S.K.
Examining Sedentary Work and Weight Gain Prospectively: Evidence from NLSY79
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Gender Differences; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

METHOD: We used BMI as our outcome. The primary explanatory variable was "time spent on sitting", extracted from O*NET (Occupational Information Network) and linked to the main NLSY79 data by occupation. Sitting time consists of five categories, ranging from never (1) to continuously or almost continuously (5). Workplace sitting time at six months prior to interview was used to predict the outcome in each wave. Age, education, weekly frequencies of leisure-time exercise were included as controls in our fixed-effects models.

RESULTS: The overall results suggested that workplace sitting time was significantly associated with higher BMI, however, the result differed substantially by gender. For men, long sitting time was significantly associated with higher BMI (p < 0.05). For women, the association was not significant.

Bibliography Citation
Lin, Tin-Chi, T.K. Courtney, David A. Lombardi and S.K. Verma. "Examining Sedentary Work and Weight Gain Prospectively: Evidence from NLSY79." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
31. Lo, Celia C.
Cheng, Tyrone C.
Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Multilevel; Racial Differences; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Methods: Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. We used specifically that data collected 1982-2010 (11 years), because it included heavy-drinking measures; our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. We let state unemployment rate, number of weeks unemployed, and number of weeks out of the labor force indicate time-varying employment disadvantages. Frequency of heavy drinking was measured as number of times in past month at least 6 drinks were consumed on a single occasion.

Results: Both of our hypotheses were supported by results of mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of the 3 employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. The results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages effect on drinking was stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites.

Bibliography Citation
Lo, Celia C. and Tyrone C. Cheng. "Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
32. LoParco, Cassidy
Leeman, Robert
Cheong, JeeWon
Kemble, Chloe
Jackson, Kristina M.
Part-Time Employment as Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use in a National Longitudinal Survey
Presented: Atlanta GA, American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Employment, In-School; Part-Time Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: While adolescent employment can be beneficial, positive effects have not been found consistently and associations with risky behavior such as alcohol use have been observed. However, most research concerning part-time employment is dated and cross-sectional. Limited findings suggest individual differences in the impact of part-time employment and there is a need to identify mechanisms underlying relationships between part-time employment and alcohol. We hypothesized part-time employment would predict alcohol consumption, due in part to association with deviant peers. We further hypothesized that relationships between part-time employment and alcohol would be stronger among those who perceived their parents as permissive. Methods: Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, part-time employment was tested as a predictor of any and heavy alcohol use cross-sectionally and 1-2 years later (N=5664, 51% male, mean age=15.2). We also tested demographic covariates, parental permissiveness as a moderator, and involvement with deviant peers as a mediator. Results: Part-time employment significantly predicted any and heavy alcohol use cross-sectionally. Associating with deviant peers was a significant predictor and partially mediated relationships between part-time employment and alcohol use. Perceived parental permissiveness was related to alcohol use cross-sectionally but not prospectively and did not moderate relationships between part-time employment and alcohol use. Adolescents with jobs at Year 1 and Year 2 and those who took jobs during Year 2 were more likely to engage in any and heavy drinking; whereas those who transitioned out of a job at Year 2 were no longer at significantly greater risk. Conclusions: Part-time employment was associated with elevated risk of drinking, in part due to associations with deviant peers. Perceived parental permissiveness was not related to alcohol use prospectively. Adolescents and parents should weigh benefits and risks of employment. Intervention with adolescent workers should focus on interaction with prosocial peers.
Bibliography Citation
LoParco, Cassidy, Robert Leeman, JeeWon Cheong, Chloe Kemble and Kristina M. Jackson. "Part-Time Employment as Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use in a National Longitudinal Survey." Presented: Atlanta GA, American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 2017.
33. Lynch, Jamie L.
Patel, Diane B.
Mott, Frank L.
Is Bad Parenting a Learned Behavior? Insights from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: Boston, MA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 134th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 4-8, 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Child Health; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Behavior; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To determine the inter-generational propensity of children of young mothers to repeat the pre- and post-natal behaviors of their mothers.

Background: Public health programs place an increasing emphasis on pre-natal care and early childhood parenting on outcomes for children. A question unaddressed is how much of an individual's current parenting behavior is influenced by the mothering received as a young child.

Design/Methods: The NLSY Young Adult Cohort is a representative sample of children born to women aged 14-22 in 1979. These women make up the NLSY79 Main Youth Cohort. The NLSY(YA) is uniquely suited to this analysis as it contains 1335 young adults who have already had at least one biological child. The data contains self-reported measures of pre-natal care (including, but limited to, doctor visits, substance use, and gestation detail) and post-natal attentiveness (such as well-care visits, breast feeding, and parental intellectual and socio-emotional connections with their children including items drawn from the HOME-SF scale) for both the Main Youth and Young Adult cohorts, allowing exploration of the impact of prior mother behaviors on a child's current parenting practices. The Data offers controls for confounding demographic and attitudinal measures for both young women and their Young Adults such as, but not limited to, age at first birth, family income, educational attainment, religious attachment, family and gender attitudes, and substance use across the life course.

Bibliography Citation
Lynch, Jamie L., Diane B. Patel and Frank L. Mott. "Is Bad Parenting a Learned Behavior? Insights from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: Boston, MA, American Public Health Association (APHA) 134th Annual Meeting and Exposition, November 4-8, 2006.
34. Mott, Frank L.
Early Fertility Behavior Among American Youth: Evidence from the 1982 NLS of Labor Force Behavior of Youth
Presented: Dallas, TX, American Public Health Association, November 13-17, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Behavior; Childbearing; Deviance; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Fertility; Sexual Activity; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article, using data from the fourth interview round (1982) of the NLSY, investigates the fertility and fertility related characteristics of the sample. First births, contraception use, desire to have children, sexual activity and abortion likelihood are all investigated, along with their relationship to age, color, educational aspirations, parents' education, religion, self esteem, drug use, socioeconomic status, and career orientations.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. "Early Fertility Behavior Among American Youth: Evidence from the 1982 NLS of Labor Force Behavior of Youth." Presented: Dallas, TX, American Public Health Association, November 13-17, 1983.
35. Nolan, Jennifer A.
Religion Factors Impact on Health Utilizing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79)
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting & Exposition, December 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Religious Influences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the relationships between religiosity factors and self-rated physical and mental health outcomes (SF-12) utilizing the NLSY79 (a national U.S. dataset that follows individuals (1979 to present) on life course changes (N= 12686)). For this study, the subcohort of aged forty and over (n=5588) will be analyzed. The hypothesized pathways of social support and lifestyle/behavior will be tested as possible mediating pathways to explain the relationship between religiosity and health. Religion may buffer the impact of stress on health by offering a social support network. Religious attitudes may affect health through encouraging healthy lifestyles or health related behavior for improved well being.

Preliminary results from multiple regression, reveal that increasing religious attendance ranging from several times a year to once a week is associated with better physical health than those that never attended (p<0.05). Educated males (p=0.002) with large family size (p=0.079) and higher net family income (p=0.010) were also more likely to have better physical health. (overall model significance F= 10.275, p<0.000). Frequency of religious attendance greater than once a week was not associated with better physical health (p=0.207). More religious variables such as affiliation, spouse attendance, frequency couples argue about religion and father-child religious participation will be included in subsequent models as well as testing religiosity's effect on mental health. Longitudinal analysis will be performed to analyze the change in health status over time from exposure to religiosity. The mediating and modifying effects of social support and lifestyle behavior will be analyzed.

Bibliography Citation
Nolan, Jennifer A. "Religion Factors Impact on Health Utilizing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79)." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting & Exposition, December 2005.
36. Ocasio, Manuel A.
Fleming, Lora E.
LeBlanc, William G.
Christ, Sharon L.
Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.
Arheart, Kristopher L.
Hollenbeck, Julie
Lee, David J.
Sestito, John
Young Worker Occupational Surveillance in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges
Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Industrial Classification; Injuries, Workplace; Modeling, Structural Equation; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Occupations

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Young workers (≤24 years) are a large relatively unstudied population in the US. Most research focuses primarily on acute injuries, with limited research suggesting that employment as a youth may yield other benefits and risks in the long-term. Utilizing existing nationally-representative data, we examined multiple aspects of young worker health and future impacts of youth employment.

Methods: Using data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we have used analytic approaches ranging from descriptive statistics to advanced modeling techniques, including Structural Equation Modeling (www.umiamiorg.com). Young workers were examined by age, occupational and industry sector groupings and a range of health and psychosocial outcomes.

Results: A series of manuscripts and a monograph on young workers have been produced based on these publicly-available data. We highlight relevant findings and the challenges of utilizing these data. Opportunities for linkages with the National Death Index and O*Net to create enriched datasets to look at mortality and occupational exposures are explored.

Conclusions: There are many available datasets that can be used to study young worker health. However, each source comes with important limitations. In particular, most data sources are based on general purpose surveys that lack detailed information on work environment and occupation-specific exposures. Possible designs for a targeted nationally-representative study of young workers are proposed.

Bibliography Citation
Ocasio, Manuel A., Lora E. Fleming, William G. LeBlanc, Sharon L. Christ, Alberto J. Caban-Martinez, Kristopher L. Arheart, Julie Hollenbeck, David J. Lee and John Sestito. "Young Worker Occupational Surveillance in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges." Presented: Boston MA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2013.
37. Resch, Stephen
Ward, Zachary J.
Long, Michael W.
Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.
Wang, Y. Claire
Gortmaker, Steven L.
Using Synthetic Growth Trajectories to Predict Childhood Obesity Trends at the Individual and Population Level
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Adolescent health; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Modeling, Trajectory analysis; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Within-person height and weight trajectory segments were pooled from National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Young Adults (NLSY) (1986-2010, n=9,402) and National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2009, n=4,972). Overlapping height and weight trajectories from early childhood and adolescence were jointly matched using Bayesian methods. A cohort of one million 5 year olds (5yo) was matched to anthropometric and sociodemographic measures from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2005-2010,n=565 5yo) and simulated through age 19 years. Projected mean BMI and obesity prevalence was validated against NHANES 2005-2010 data.
Bibliography Citation
Resch, Stephen, Zachary J. Ward, Michael W. Long, Jeremy D. Goldhaber-Fiebert, Y. Claire Wang and Steven L. Gortmaker. "Using Synthetic Growth Trajectories to Predict Childhood Obesity Trends at the Individual and Population Level." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
38. Sanders, Lee M.
Is there a Causal Relationship between Childhood Asthma and Childhood Depression?: A Retrospective Cohort Study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Presented: Boston, MA, 128th Annual Meeting of APHA, November 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Asthma; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Depression (see also CESD); Socioeconomic Factors; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To determine the strength of association between persistent asthma and development of depressive signs and symptoms during childhood.

Background: Several cross-sectional studies have proposed a significant association between asthma and depression during childhood. Most rely on parent report. None have examined a longitudinal national sample.

Design/Methods: The NLSY 1994 and 1996 surveyed a representative sample of children in the United States. Independent Variables: Asthma was defined by parent report of child diagnosis. Chronic illness was defined by parent report that the child had physical health limitations but no asthma. All other children were defined as "healthy." Outcome Variables: Depressive symptoms were defined by parent report (subscale of Behavior Problems Index >75%ile). Prevalence was defined by >75%ile in 1996. Incidence of depressive symptoms was defined by <75%ile in 1994 and >75%ile in 1996. Logistic regression analyses included 7 demographic and socioeconomic variables.

Results: 4798 subjects had complete information from the BPI in 1994 and 1996. Within that population, 91 cases of asthma and 39 cases of chronic illness were identified. The median age of children in the study was 11 years.

Conclusions: Children with persistent asthma have over 3.7 times the odds of children without chronic illness to develop new signs of depression over a 2-year period. Clinicians should anticipate the mental health needs of children with persistent asthma and other physical illness, and further research should investigate the biologic plausibility of interactions between asthma and affective illness.

Bibliography Citation
Sanders, Lee M. "Is there a Causal Relationship between Childhood Asthma and Childhood Depression?: A Retrospective Cohort Study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Presented: Boston, MA, 128th Annual Meeting of APHA, November 2000.
39. Segrist, Cheryl
Depression after Age 40: A SUDAAN Analysis from the NLSY79 40+ Health Module
Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting & Exposition, December 2005
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Segrist, Cheryl. "Depression after Age 40: A SUDAAN Analysis from the NLSY79 40+ Health Module." Presented: Philadelphia PA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting & Exposition, December 2005.
40. Segrist, Cheryl
For Example the CES-D: Using the National Longitudinal Surveys to Study Public Health
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Public Health Association Meetings (Statistics Division), November 1999
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Longitudinal Data Sets; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. The purpose of this study is to examine data from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, administered recently as part of the set of National Longitudinal Surveys sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, to showcase a public health component of the surveys.

Methods. The NLS of Mature Women (1989 and 1995), of Young Women (1993 and 1995), and Youth (NLSY, 1992 and 1994) provide data for all 20 items of the CESD in the earlier surveys and for 7 CESD items in the later surveys. Analyses of internal consistency (coefficient alpha) and of factor structure (principal components) are conducted separately for blacks and non-blacks using data from the earlier surveys. Items from the later surveys are correlated with items from the earlier surveys to examine the integrity of items over time.

Results. The CESD showed internal consistency ranging from .75 for non-blacks to .78 for blacks. The three factors that resulted are consistent with those that have been reported in the past, for both blacks and non-blacks, with the exception that no apparent distinction between the depressed affect and enervation factors emerged for either group. Females reported higher frequencies of depression than did males (youth cohort); blacks reported higher frequencies of depression than did non-blacks.

Conclusions. The NLS offers researchers an opportunity to study certain public health issues in this case the CESD, using large panels of Americans over time.

Bibliography Citation
Segrist, Cheryl. "For Example the CES-D: Using the National Longitudinal Surveys to Study Public Health." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Public Health Association Meetings (Statistics Division), November 1999.
41. Seymour, Jane
Shofer, Frances
Frasso, Rosemary
Bennett, Ian M.
Literacy and Fertility: Lifecourse Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Age at Birth; Age at First Birth; Fertility; Life Course; Literacy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cohort data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were assessed to understand the relationship between literacy and fertility. NLSY participants, US youth aged 14-22 in 1979, were surveyed annually through 1994 and biannually thereafter. Literacy was assessed in 1980 and converted to Department of Defense Reading Grade Level (RGL) for this study. In 2010, fertility outcomes were assessed, including total parity, grand multiparity, and age at first and last birth. Chi-square and multiple and logistic regression were used to understand these relationships.
Bibliography Citation
Seymour, Jane, Frances Shofer, Rosemary Frasso and Ian M. Bennett. "Literacy and Fertility: Lifecourse Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
42. Wilkinson, Larrell
Glover, Saundra
Probst, Janice C.
Cai, Bo
Wigfall, Lisa
A Population-based Analysis of the Association between Health Insurance Coverage and Psychological Health, and the Influence of Other Mediating Factors among Young Adults in the United States Who Have Been a Victim of a Violent Crime
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Crime; Depression (see also CESD); Health Factors; Health, Mental; Insurance, Health; Life Satisfaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Results underscore the importance of access to health insurance among young adults who have been a victim of a violent crime. Integration of mental health screening and the implementation of health care reform may help to improve public mental health outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Wilkinson, Larrell, Saundra Glover, Janice C. Probst, Bo Cai and Lisa Wigfall. "A Population-based Analysis of the Association between Health Insurance Coverage and Psychological Health, and the Influence of Other Mediating Factors among Young Adults in the United States Who Have Been a Victim of a Violent Crime." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
43. Yao, Xiaoxi
Dembe, Allard
Shoben, Abigail
Association between Long Work Hours and Chronic Disease Risks over a 32 Year Period
Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Health, Chronic Conditions; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Methods:The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 was used to create 32-year work histories (1978-2009) for 7,492 respondents. The average weekly work hours were calculated for each week in which the employee worked full time (i.e., at least 30 hours per week). Logistic regression analyses were performed to test the association between the average hours worked per week and the occurrence of each of the eight chronic diseases listed above, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, family income, number of years worked, smoking status, and occupation.

Results: Working long hours (e.g., 41-50, 51-60 and 60+ compared to 30-40 hours per week) was associated with a significantly elevated risk of chronic heart disease, non-skin cancer, arthritis, and diabetes. The observed effects were larger and more significant among women than among men.

Bibliography Citation
Yao, Xiaoxi, Allard Dembe and Abigail Shoben. "Association between Long Work Hours and Chronic Disease Risks over a 32 Year Period." Presented: New Orleans LA, American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo, November 2014.
44. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Probability of Children's Treatment for Depression, Conditional on Symptomology, as a Function of Socioeconomic Status
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association 130th Annual Meeting, November 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Children; Children, Mental Health; Depression (see also CESD); Health Care; Health, Mental; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Considerable evidence exists to suggest disparities in how individuals with similar symptoms of depression are treated. These disparities in treatment are correlated with the individual's socioeconomic status (SES), viz., income, access to care, education, and race/ethnicity. Such SES-related differences in treatment in treatment are particularly disturbing where they have been shown to exist for children, for whom the long-term effects of untreated depression on subsequent mental health and educational outcomes are especially damaging. However, more research is needed to determine the sources of such differences, which could include individual preferences or perceptions of stigma, individual income- or access-constraints or even disparate treatment by providers. This research uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's Children and Young Adult supplement to test competing hypotheses about the reasons for disparate treatment for depression in children. The longitudinal quality of the data will be exploited in a multivariate, fixed-effects analysis to develop causal insights into the relationships between SES and treatment for depression. Specifically, the analysis will test whether parental income, education and race/ethnicity are determinative of treatment for depression conditional on symptom level and access to care. This project is currently in the planning stage, and results will be available by November, 2002.
Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. "Probability of Children's Treatment for Depression, Conditional on Symptomology, as a Function of Socioeconomic Status." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association 130th Annual Meeting, November 2002.