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Author: Waldron, Ingrid
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Herold, Joan
Waldron, Ingrid
Part-time Employment and Women's Health
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 27,6 (June 1985): 405-412.
Also: http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/1985/06000/Part_Time_Employment_and_Women_s_Health.10.aspx
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Occupational Medical Assciation, 1968-
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Part-Time Work; Racial Differences; Self-Reporting; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The relationships between part-time employment and self-reported health are analyzed for a national probability sample of middle-aged women. Overall, there was a tendency for full-time workers to have the best health, part- time workers to have intermediate health, and women who were not in the labor force to have the poorest health. However, the pattern varied by race and marital status. For married black women, part-time workers reported poorer health than full-time workers. This appeared to be due in part to the lower socioeconomic status between part-time and full-time workers. Additional hypotheses and relevant evidence are presented in the paper.
Bibliography Citation
Herold, Joan and Ingrid Waldron. "Part-time Employment and Women's Health." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 27,6 (June 1985): 405-412.
2. Waldron, Ingrid
Herold, Joan
Employment, Attitudes Toward Employment, and Women's Health
Women and Health 11,1 (Summer 1986): 79-86.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J013v11n01_05
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Self-Reporting; Women

The relationships between self-reported general health, employment, and attitudes toward the employment of married women have been analyzed for a representative sample of married, middle-aged women in the United States. The cross-sectional data indicate that women who were in the labor force had better health than women who were out of the labor force. In addition, women whose labor force status was compatible with their attitudes toward employment tended to have better health than women for whom there was a discrepancy between labor force status and attitudes. Analyses of the longitudinal data indicate that several causal mechanisms contributed to the relationships observed in the cross-sectional data. For the women with favorable attitudes toward employment, it appears that being a housewife had more detrimental effects on health than being employed. In contrast, for the women with unfavorable or neutral attitudes toward employment, it appears that employment status did not affect health. Being employed may have contributed to more favorable attitudes toward employment for healthy women, who were more likely than unhealthy women to stay in the labor force. Thus, it appears that there are multiple causal relationships linking employment status, attitudes toward employment and women's health.
Bibliography Citation
Waldron, Ingrid and Joan Herold. "Employment, Attitudes Toward Employment, and Women's Health." Women and Health 11,1 (Summer 1986): 79-86.
3. Waldron, Ingrid
Herold, Joan
Dunn, Dennis
How Valid are Self-Report Measures for Evaluating Relationships Between Women's Health and Labor Force Participation?
Women and Health 7,2 (Summer 1982): 53-66.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J013v07n02_06
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Mortality; Self-Reporting; Unemployment; Work History

For a sample of white women aged 45-64, women who were out of the labor force had poorer self-reported health and higher mortality than women who were in the labor force. It has been hypothesized that women who are out of the labor force may tend to exaggerate their poor health in self-report data. However, no evidence of bias of this type was found in an analysis of the relationships between self-reported health and subsequent mortality. The validity of self-reports of illness as a reason for not seeking work has been assessed using data for a sample of 30-44 year old women who were out of the labor force. Over 90% of the women who gave illness or disability as their main reason for not seeking work had previous or contemporaneous independent, self-report evidence of poor health. The findings of this study and previous evidence indicate that poor health reduces the likelihood that a woman will join the labor force, and this is a major reason why women who are not in the labor force have poorer health than those who are in the labor force.
Bibliography Citation
Waldron, Ingrid, Joan Herold and Dennis Dunn. "How Valid are Self-Report Measures for Evaluating Relationships Between Women's Health and Labor Force Participation?" Women and Health 7,2 (Summer 1982): 53-66.
4. Waldron, Ingrid
Herold, Joan
Dunn, Dennis
Staum, Roger
Reciprocal Effects of Health and Labor Force Participation Among Women: Evidence from Two Longitudinal Studies
Journal of Occupational Medicine 24,2 (February 1982): 126-132.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7057280
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Occupational Medical Assciation, 1968-
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Retirement; Self-Reporting; Wives; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examines the effects of health on labor force participation and the effects of labor force participation on women's health. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between self- reported health and subsequent changes in labor force participation; however, no significant relationships were observed between labor force participation and subsequent self-reported change in health. The evidence shows that health affects women's labor force participation; however, no evidence was found that, on the average, labor force participation has harmful or beneficial effects on the general health of middle-aged married women.
Bibliography Citation
Waldron, Ingrid, Joan Herold, Dennis Dunn and Roger Staum. "Reciprocal Effects of Health and Labor Force Participation Among Women: Evidence from Two Longitudinal Studies." Journal of Occupational Medicine 24,2 (February 1982): 126-132.
5. Waldron, Ingrid
Hughes, Mary Elizabeth
Brooks, Tracy L.
Marriage Protection and Marriage Selection--Prospective Evidence for Reciprocal Effects of Marital Status and Health
Social Science and Medicine 43,1 (July 1996): 113-123.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0277953695003479
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Employment; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Dissolution; Marital Status; Wives, Work

Married adults are generally healthier than unmarried adults. It has been hypothesized that marriage is associated with good health because marriage has beneficial effects on health (marriage protection effects) and/or because healthier individuals are more likely to marry and to stay married (marriage selection effects). To investigate these hypotheses, this study analyzes prospective panel data for a large national sample of women in the U.S. (the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women). The women were aged 24-34 yr at the beginning of two successive five-year follow-up intervals. Analyses of the prospective data indicate that there were significant marriage protection effects. but only among women who were not employed. Specifically. for women who were not employed. married women had better health trends than unmarried women in each follow-up interval. It appears that marriage had beneficial effects on health for women who did not have a job which could provide an alternative source of financial resources and social support. In addition, analyses of the prospective data provide limited evidence for marriage selection effects. Specifically, women who had better health initially were more likely to marry and less likely to experience marital dissolution. but only for women who were not employed full-time and only during the first follow-up interval. Thus the prospective evidence suggests that, for women who were not employed, both marriage protection and marriage selection effects contributed to the marital status differential in health observed in cross-sectional data. In contrast, neither marriage protection nor marriage selection effects were observed for women who were employed full-time. As would be expected, the cross-sectional data show that marital status differentials in health were large and highly significant for women who were not employed, whereas marital status differentials in health were much smaller and often not significant for employed women. Women who were neither married nor employed had particularly poor health. Additional evidence indicates that the women who were neither married nor employed suffered from multiple interacting disadvantages, including poor health, low incomes, and sociodemographic characteristics which contributed to difficulty in obtaining employment. Copyright @ 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Waldron, Ingrid, Mary Elizabeth Hughes and Tracy L. Brooks. "Marriage Protection and Marriage Selection--Prospective Evidence for Reciprocal Effects of Marital Status and Health." Social Science and Medicine 43,1 (July 1996): 113-123.
6. Waldron, Ingrid
Jacobs, Jerry A.
Effects of Labor Force Participation on Women's Health - New Evidence from a Longitudinal Study
Journal of Occupational Medicine 30,12 (December 1988): 977-983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Occupational Medical Assciation, 1968-
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Occupational Status; Part-Time Work; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The effects of labor force participation on women's health are evaluated in analyses of data from the NLS of Mature Women. The results indicate that labor force participation had beneficial effects on health for unmarried women and for married black women with blue collar usual occupations. In contrast, labor force participation appears to have had harmful effects on health for married women with white collar usual occupations. Our findings, taken together with previous evidence, suggest that employment contributes to increased social support and consequently employment has beneficial effects on health for unmarried women and for married women whose husbands are not emotionally supportive confidants. Additional results from this study showed no significant difference in the health effects of part-time and full-time employment.
Bibliography Citation
Waldron, Ingrid and Jerry A. Jacobs. "Effects of Labor Force Participation on Women's Health - New Evidence from a Longitudinal Study." Journal of Occupational Medicine 30,12 (December 1988): 977-983.
7. Waldron, Ingrid
Jacobs, Jerry A.
Effects of Multiple Roles on Women's Health- Evidence from a National Longitudinal Study
Women and Health 15,1 (1989): 3-19.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J013v15n01_02
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Children; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Women's Roles

This study analyzes data from the NLS of Mature Women in order to assess the health effects of three roles -- labor force participant, spouse, and parent. Women who held more roles had better health trends. The effect of each specific role varied, depending on race and the other roles a woman held. For example, it appears that labor force participation had beneficial effects on health for white women who were not married and for black women with children at home, but not for other women. The findings do not support the hypothesis that involvement in multiple roles contributes to role strain and consequent harmful effects on women's health. Rather, it appears that involvement in multiple roles generally contributed to better health, due to the beneficial effects of labor force participation and marriage for some women.
Bibliography Citation
Waldron, Ingrid and Jerry A. Jacobs. "Effects of Multiple Roles on Women's Health- Evidence from a National Longitudinal Study." Women and Health 15,1 (1989): 3-19.
8. Waldron, Ingrid
Weiss, Christopher C.
Hughes, Mary Elizabeth
Interacting Effects of Multiple Roles on Women's Health
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Employment; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Marriage; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Women's Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study evaluates the effects of employment, marriage, and motherhood on women's general physical health. We analyze prospective panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women. The women were aged 24-34 at the beginning of two successive five-year follow-up intervals. Our findings indicate that employment had beneficial effects on health primarily for women who were not married, and marriage had beneficial effects on health-primarily for women who were not employed. It appears that being employed and/or married has beneficial health effects because either role can increase income and social support and reduce psychological distress. The health effects of being a mother appeared to vary, depending on the ages of the children and several characteristics of the mothers. Our findings provide almost no support for the Role Strain Hypothesis and only limited support for the Role Accumulaffon Hypothesis Instead, it appears that multiple roles have vari able effe cts on women's health, depending on the specific role combinations, role characteristics, and the women's characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Waldron, Ingrid, Christopher C. Weiss and Mary Elizabeth Hughes. "Interacting Effects of Multiple Roles on Women's Health." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
9. Waldron, Ingrid
Weiss, Christopher C.
Hughes, Mary Elizabeth
Interacting Effects of Multiple Roles on Women's Health
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 39,3 (September 1998): 216-236.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2676314
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Marriage; Motherhood; Women's Roles; Women's Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our study tests several hypotheses concerning the effects of employment, marriage, and motherhood on women 's general physical health. These hypotheses predict how the health effect of each role varies, depending on specific role characteristics and the other roles a woman holds. Our analyses utilize longitudinal panel data for 3,331 women from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women follow-up intervals: 1978-83 and 1983-88. The Role Substitution Hypothesis proposes that employment and marriage provide similar resources (e.g., income and social support), and, consequently, employment and marriage can substitute for each other in their beneficial effects on health. As predicted, we found that employment had beneficial effects on health for unmarried women, but little or no effect for married women. Similarly, marriage had beneficial effects on health only for women who were not employed. The Role Combination Strain Hypothesis proposes that employed mothers experience role strai n, resulting in harmful effects on health. However, we found very little evidence that the combination of employment and motherhood resulted in harmful health effects. Contrary to the predictions of the Quantitative Demands Role Strain Hypothesis, it appears that neither longer hours of employment nor having more children resulted in harmful effects on health. As predicted by the Age Related Parental Role Strain Hypothesis, younger age at first birth, particularly a teenage birth, appeared to result in more harmful health effects.
Bibliography Citation
Waldron, Ingrid, Christopher C. Weiss and Mary Elizabeth Hughes. "Interacting Effects of Multiple Roles on Women's Health." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 39,3 (September 1998): 216-236.
10. Waldron, Ingrid
Weiss, Christopher C.
Hughes, Mary Elizabeth
Marital Status Effects on Health - Are There Differences Between Never Married Women and Divorced and Separated Women?
Social Science and Medicine 45,9 (November 1997): 1387-1397.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953697000658
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Divorce; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Stability; Marital Status

To test whether the effects of marital status on health differ between never married women and divorced and separated women, this study utilizes prospective panel data for a large national sample of non-institutionalized young women in the U. S. (the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women). The women were aged 24-34 at the beginning of two successive five-year follow-up intervals (1978-1983 and 1983-1988). The health effects of marital status were evaluated in regressions which assessed the relationships between initial marital status and subsequent health trends in each follow-up interval. In the first follow-up interval, never married women tended to have worse health trends than divorced and separated women for physical impairments and for overall health problems. However, there were no differences between never married women and divorced and separated women in health trends for psychosomatic symptoms in either follow-up interval or for any health measure in the sec ond follow-up interval. Our analyses of cross-sectional data showed few significant differences in health between never married women and divorced and separated women. Taken together, the evidence from our study and previous studies suggests that differences between never married women and divorced and separated women may vary by age and/or cohort. Evidence for the 1970s and 1980s suggests that, among older women, divorced and separated women may have experienced more harmful health effects than never married women; however, among younger women, this difference may have been absent or possibly reversed.
Bibliography Citation
Waldron, Ingrid, Christopher C. Weiss and Mary Elizabeth Hughes. "Marital Status Effects on Health - Are There Differences Between Never Married Women and Divorced and Separated Women?" Social Science and Medicine 45,9 (November 1997): 1387-1397.