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Author: Han, JooHee
Resulting in 4 citations.
1. Han, JooHee
Employment Trajectory Patterns of Ex-Inmates: A Holistic Approach to Heterogeneous Labor Market Trajectories
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Employment, Intermittent; Incarceration/Jail; Labor Force Participation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A negative spiral of joblessness and crime/incarceration suggests that employment states between pre- and post-incarceration mutually constitute one unit of trajectory, including incarceration periods in between the two phases. Previous research is often divided into two separate phases of the life course, either the pre-incarceration or the post-incarceration phase, with little attention to how the two phases are related each other. Furthermore, previous research focusing on the negative spiral between unsuccessful employment states and incarceration hides potential heterogeneity of labor market trajectories of the ever-incarcerated population. Using the holistic approach of Sequence Analysis, I explore the employment trajectories of the ever-incarcerated population from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort sample. I find that there is significant heterogeneity resulting in five distinct trajectory patterns: unstable employment, early exit from the survey, prisoner career, withdrawn from the labor force, and stable employment, and that the patterns are stratified by race.
Bibliography Citation
Han, JooHee. "Employment Trajectory Patterns of Ex-Inmates: A Holistic Approach to Heterogeneous Labor Market Trajectories." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
2. Han, JooHee
Where Do Prisoners Come From?: Simultaneous Shift of Military Downsizing and Mass Incarceration and Its Consequence
Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Labor Market Demographics; Military Enlistment; Military Service; Racial Equality/Inequality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I seek to understand how prison and the military, two crucial but often-neglected labor market institutions, have jointly reinforced racial inequality in the labor market over time. The simultaneous increase in mass incarceration and decrease in the military since 1980 has resulted in a crossover of the two populations of affiliated black men in the early 1990s. Comparing the NLSY 79 and 97 cohorts, I find that blacks are channeled from military service to incarceration with blacks increasingly get incarcerated while decreasingly enlisting in the military now than before, net of individual characteristics and family resources. Considering that the military provides African American young men disproportionately with secured employment, income, opportunities for higher education and job training while the effect of incarceration is detrimental, I argue that higher incarceration and less joining the military for blacks now than before have reinforced the racial inequality.

Also presented at Seattle WA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2016.

Bibliography Citation
Han, JooHee. "Where Do Prisoners Come From?: Simultaneous Shift of Military Downsizing and Mass Incarceration and Its Consequence." Presented: Washington DC, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, March-April 2016.
3. Han, JooHee
Who Goes to College, Army, Jail, or Nowhere? Selection to Racialized Competing Labor Market Institutions
Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Incarceration/Jail; Military Service; Racial Differences; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I analyze racial differences in the risk of the four major competing life events after high school: college enrollment, military service, long-term unemployment, and incarceration compared to employment in the labor market. They are racialized competing labor market institutions in that sizable populations experience them, which also yield different subsequent labor market conditions, and the selection processes into each institution are racialized, and they compete to absorb the labor forces in the labor market, but previous research focuses on only one or two of those events at a time rather than analyzing them altogether as competing events. I analyze individual level panel data (NSLY97) and examine the detail processes which lead to all four major events.

In terms of selection processes, the results show that the main reason why blacks are selected into undesirable institutions is due to their relative low school achievement. When controlling for school achievement, blacks are selected into the desirable institutions, college and the military, and the remaining blacks are selected into undesirable institutions, long-term unemployment and incarceration relative to employment. The selection processes are different across races as well. The positive selection to the military associated with school achievement is stronger for blacks than whites. In addition, better family resources help whites avoid the risk of undesirable events but they do not help for blacks. The results also show that the undesirable events experienced during high school continue to influence subsequent life events but the effects are different for blacks and whites.

Bibliography Citation
Han, JooHee. "Who Goes to College, Army, Jail, or Nowhere? Selection to Racialized Competing Labor Market Institutions." Presented: San Francisco CA, American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, August 2014.
4. Han, JooHee
Who Goes to College, Military, Prison, or Long-Term Unemployment? Racialized School-to-Labor Market Transitions Among American Men
Population Research and Policy Review 37,4 (August 2018): 615-640.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-018-9480-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Incarceration/Jail; Military Service; Racial Differences; Transition, Adulthood; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzes the selection processes behind post-schooling transitions into college enrollment, military service, long-term unemployment, and incarceration relative to civilian employment, examining to what extent these processes are racialized. Rather than analyzing a complete set of alternatives, previous research typically focuses on a limited set of these alternatives at a time, and rarely accounts for incarceration or long-term unemployment. Using individual-level panel data on the first post-high school transition from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort, results show that white men experience positive transitions (college enrollment and military service) at higher rates and for longer periods than black men, who experience negative transitions (long-term unemployment and incarceration) at higher rates for longer periods than whites. Competing risk Cox regression analyses reveal that blacks' transitions are polarized, showing that blacks in the upper distributions of standardized test scores and socioeconomic status are more likely to pursue a college education relative to their white counterparts, whereas blacks in the bottom of the standardized test score and socioeconomic status distribution are more likely to experience negative transitions than whites. Unlike prior research finding that military service provided "bridging careers" for racial minorities, black men are no longer more likely to join the military than whites. Instead, blacks now face a much higher risk of incarceration. Implications for intra-generational mobility and changing opportunity structures for racial minorities are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Han, JooHee. "Who Goes to College, Military, Prison, or Long-Term Unemployment? Racialized School-to-Labor Market Transitions Among American Men." Population Research and Policy Review 37,4 (August 2018): 615-640.