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Author: Glied, Sherry A.
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Glied, Sherry A.
Is Smoking Delayed Smoking Averted?
American Journal of Public Health 93,3 (March 2003): 412-416.
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/93/3/412
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health Factors; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Antismoking efforts often target teenagers in the hope of producing a new generation of never smokers. Teenagers are more responsive to tobacco taxes than are adults. The author summarizes recent evidence suggesting that delaying smoking initiation among teenagers through higher taxes does not generate proportionate reductions in prevalence rates through adulthood. In consequence, the impact of taxes on smoking among youths overstates the potential long-term public health effects of this tobacco control strategy.
Bibliography Citation
Glied, Sherry A. "Is Smoking Delayed Smoking Averted?" American Journal of Public Health 93,3 (March 2003): 412-416.
2. Glied, Sherry A.
Youth Tobacco Control: Reconciling Theory and Empirical Evidence
Journal of Health Economics 21,1 (January 2002): 117-135.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629601001187
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Health Factors; Taxes; Teenagers; Youth Problems

Youth smoking is an important target for public policy. The implicit assumption behind targeting youth is that policies that reduce youth smoking initiation will reduce lifetime smoking propensities. This assumption has never been tested empirically. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to follow the smoking pattern of one cohort of teenagers. I examine how smoking rates in youth and young adulthood are affected by the taxes individuals faced at age 14. In panel data analysis, I find that the effects of taxes at age 14 are considerably attenuated by adulthood. I find some evidence suggesting that this result is a consequence of delayed smoking initiation that is correlated with taxes. These results suggest that reducing smoking among teens through tax policy may not be sufficient to substantially reduce smoking in adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Glied, Sherry A. "Youth Tobacco Control: Reconciling Theory and Empirical Evidence." Journal of Health Economics 21,1 (January 2002): 117-135.
3. Glied, Sherry A.
Neidell, Matthew J.
The Economic Value of Teeth
NBER Working Paper No. 13879, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2008.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w13879
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Employer; Earnings, Husbands; Economic Well-Being; Gender Differences; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Well-Being

Healthy teeth are a vital and visible component of general well-being, but there is little systematic evidence to demonstrate their economic value. In this paper, we examine one element of that value, the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes, by exploiting variation in access to fluoridated water during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local water districts suggests exposure to fluoride during childhood is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. We find that women who resided in communities with fluoridated water during childhood earn approximately 4% more than women who did not, but we find no effect of fluoridation for men. Furthermore, the effect is almost exclusively concentrated amongst women from families of low socioeconomic status. We find little evidence to support occupational sorting, statistical discrimination, and productivity as potential channels of these effects, suggesting consumer and employer discrimination are the likely driving factors whereby oral health affects earnings
Bibliography Citation
Glied, Sherry A. and Matthew J. Neidell. "The Economic Value of Teeth." NBER Working Paper No. 13879, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2008.
4. Glied, Sherry A.
Neidell, Matthew J.
The Economic Value of Teeth
Journal of Human Resources 45,2 (March 2010): 468-496.
Also: http://jhr.uwpress.org/content/45/2/468.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Employer; Earnings; Economic Well-Being; Gender Differences; Health Reform; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Well-Being

This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases women's earnings by approximately 4 percent, but has no detectable effect for men. Furthermore, the effect is largely concentrated amongst women from families of low socioeconomic status. We find little evidence to support occupational sorting, statistical discrimination, and productivity as potential channels, with some evidence supporting consumer and possibly employer discrimination. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Glied, Sherry A. and Matthew J. Neidell. "The Economic Value of Teeth." Journal of Human Resources 45,2 (March 2010): 468-496.
5. Glied, Sherry A.
Prabhu, Ashwin
Edelman, Norman H.
The Cost of Primary Care Doctors
NBER Working Paper 14568, National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2008.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w14568.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); College Graduates; High School Transcripts; Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; Labor Force Participation; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Training, Occupational

This study uses a human capital model to estimate the societal cost of producing a physician service. Physician human capital consists of the underlying human capital (productivity) of those who become physicians and the job-specific investments (physician training) added to this underlying capital. The value of physicians' underlying human capital is estimated by forecasting an age-earnings profile for doctors based on the characteristics in youth of NLSY cohort participants who subsequently became doctors. Published estimates are used to measure the total cost (wherever paid) of investments in physician training. These data are combined to compute the societal cost per primary care physician visit. The estimated societal cost per primary care physician visit is much higher than the average co-payment per primary care service and generally higher than the current Medicare compensation rate per service unit. The private return to primary care physician training is relatively low, in the range of 7-9%. At current levels of supply, the marginal social costs of primary care visits appear to be equal to or greater than marginal social benefits.

We conduct these analyses using the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). The NLSY79 is a nationally representative survey of 12,686 men and women, which contains extensive information about the characteristics of sampled youth in their late teens (ages 14-22). The survey tracked these youth annually through 1994 and biennially since then. The NLSY79 collects an extensive array of information, including family socioeconomic characteristics, respondent background, occupational information, and annual income. The study also contains information about respondent aptitudes and achievements measured before they made choices about future occupations. The aptitude and achievement measures we use are the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) and High School GPA. The AFQT is a measure of trainability and is a majo r criterion for armed forces enlistment. The AFQT score is derived from select sections of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), using a methodology developed by the U.S. Department of Defense. Of the entire sample, a total of 11, 914 youths (94%) completed the AFQT test. We compute high school GPAs from data gathered during a High School Transcript Survey conducted as part of the NLSY79 during 1980-1983. Transcript information was collected for respondents who were 17 years of age or older (at the time of the survey) and who had finished or were expected to finish high school in the US. Credits and final grades were collected for up to 64 courses, across all 4 years of high school. We used this information to compute a high school GPA. Of the NLSY79 sample, 8,778 (70%) of respondents provided complete transcript information. We compare future physicians to other college completers (since both physicians and non-physicians make comparable investments in college-level education). We also limit the sample to men who work full time (35 hours a week or more), since we will use data on physicians who are full time labor force participants.

Bibliography Citation
Glied, Sherry A., Ashwin Prabhu and Norman H. Edelman. "The Cost of Primary Care Doctors." NBER Working Paper 14568, National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2008.
6. Glied, Sherry A.
Prabhu, Ashwin
Edelman, Norman H.
The Cost of Primary Care Doctors
Forum for Health Economics and Policy 12,1 Article 4 (2009): 1-24.
Also: http://www.bepress.com/fhep/12/1/4/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Berkeley Electronic Press (bpress)
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Earnings; Financial Investments; Health Care; Human Capital; Medicaid/Medicare; Occupational Investment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research Objective: This study offers a novel approach to workforce planning in the physician market. Rather than projecting the future demand for physician services, a human capital model is used to estimate the societal cost of producing a physician service. The socially optimal workforce is one at which (at optimal practice scale), the societal cost of producing a physician service is equal to the societal benefit obtained from the service.

Study Design: Physician human capital consists of two components: the underlying human capital (productivity) of those who become physicians and the job-specific investments (physician training) added to this underlying capital. The value of physicians' underlying human capital is estimated using a regression analysis of the National Longitudinal Sample of Youth (NLSY). For those in the survey who did not go on to become doctors, income over time is modeled as a function of a rich set of variables measured in youth, including family background, educational attainment and a range of high-school level performance tests. This equation is then used to forecast an age-earnings profile for doctors based on the characteristics in youth of those NLSY cohort participants who subsequently became doctors. Next, published estimates are used to measure the total cost (wherever paid) of investments in physician training. Combining these estimates, the social cost per primary care physician provided visit and Medicare relative value unit (RVU) is determined.

Principal Findings: Physicians are drawn from the highest performing group of high school students. The earnings of comparable students who do not become doctors and the predicted earnings of would be doctors are substantially above the population mean. The opportunity cost of physician human capital is thus very high. The estimated societal cost per primary care physician visit is substantially higher than the average co-payment. The societal cost per primary care physician provided RVU is generally higher than the current Medicare compensation rate per RVU. The private return to primary care physician training is relatively low, in the range of 7-9%.

Conclusions: At current levels of supply, the marginal social costs of primary care visits appear to be equal to or greater than marginal social benefits of many primary care services. In considering expansions of primary care capacity, it may be efficient to increase the use of complementary, lower-skilled practitioners.

Bibliography Citation
Glied, Sherry A., Ashwin Prabhu and Norman H. Edelman. "The Cost of Primary Care Doctors." Forum for Health Economics and Policy 12,1 Article 4 (2009): 1-24.