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Author: Glass, Jennifer L.
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Glass, Jennifer L.
Job Quits and Job Changes: The Effects of young Women's Work Conditions and Family Factors
Gender and Society 2,2 (June 1988): 228-240.
Also: http://gas.sagepub.com/content/2/2/228.abstract
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Exits; Family Constraints; Family Influences; Job Turnover; Labor Turnover; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Labor force exits are conceptualized as a parallel option to employer changes in the gender-specific opportunity structure for employed young women, and it is hypothesized that the same working conditions should predict both. In addition, it is hypothesized that family characteristics (including pregnancy and the presence of preschool children) rather than working conditions should differentiate between job changers and job leavers. Logit analyses of data on a random subsample from the 1970-1980 Young Women's Panel of the NLS (sample = 2,740) indicate that employment conditions do affect decisions to change jobs or exit the labor force in similar ways. However, household factors affect labor force exits more strongly than they do job changes: pregnant women are more likely to leave the labor force, though improved job conditions and existing preschool children (implying prior experience with substitute care) enhance their likelihood of remaining continuously employed. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L. "Job Quits and Job Changes: The Effects of young Women's Work Conditions and Family Factors." Gender and Society 2,2 (June 1988): 228-240.
2. Glass, Jennifer L.
Levitte, Yael
Sassler, Sharon
Michelmore, Katherine
Retention of Women in the STEM Labor Force: Gender Similarities and Differences with a Focus on Destination Status
Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Educational Outcomes; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Occupational Choice; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Non-Traditional; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While much recent scholarly attention has been focused on getting women into the STEM labor force, less attention has been paid to keeping them in STEM occupations across the life course. This research follows college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 panel who transitioned into the STEM labor force following college graduation. Using multinomial modeling of the hazard of leaving a STEM employer, we estimate the covariates of leaving to take a new STEM job, to move into a non-STEM job, and to exit the labor force for women and men. Survival curves show few gender differences overall in the rate at which women and men leave their first STEM job.. Multivariate hazard models show that preschool aged children disproportionately encourage job moves out of STEM for women, including moves out of the labor force, while having a partner employed in a STEM field facilitates retention.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L., Yael Levitte, Sharon Sassler and Katherine Michelmore. "Retention of Women in the STEM Labor Force: Gender Similarities and Differences with a Focus on Destination Status." Presented: San Francisco CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2012.
3. Glass, Jennifer L.
Noonan, Mary Christine
Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989-2008
Social Forces 95, 1 (1 September 2016): 217-250.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/sf/article-abstract/95/1/217/2427137
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Telecommuting; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989-2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home. Working from home rather than the office produces equal earnings growth in the first 40 hours worked, but "taking work home" or overtime telecommuting yields significantly smaller increases than overtime worked on-site. Yet, most observed telecommuting occurs precisely during this low-yield overtime portion of the hours distribution. Few gender or parental status differences emerged in these processes. These trends reflect potentially widespread negative consequences of the growing capacity of workers to perform their work from any location. Rather than enhancing true flexibility in when and where employees work, the capacity to work from home mostly extends the workday and encroaches into what was formerly home and family time.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L. and Mary Christine Noonan. "Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989-2008." Social Forces 95, 1 (1 September 2016): 217-250.
4. Glass, Jennifer L.
Noonan, Mary Christine
Workplace Flexibility Policies and Wage Growth: Do Organizational Characteristics Matter?
Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
Also: http://paa2007.princeton.edu/abstractViewer.aspx?submissionId=71714
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Wage Growth; Work Hours; Working Conditions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the wage trajectories of workers using flexible work practices to see how emplwoyers evaluate such workers under a variety of organizational settings. Earlier research has shown markedly lower wage growth for professional and managerial mothers who use flexible work arrangements when their children are small (Glass, 2004). Fathers and non-parents who use the same workplace policies have not been carefully evaluated. This study estimates fixed effects models of respondents in the 1989-2002 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to assess the comparative impact of having a flexible schedule, working from home, and working reduced hours on the wage growth of mothers, fathers, and non-parents. We further explore differences in the size of wage penalties based on occupational sector, firm size, and occupational characteristics such as customer or client contact and supervisory authority.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L. and Mary Christine Noonan. "Workplace Flexibility Policies and Wage Growth: Do Organizational Characteristics Matter?" Presented: New York, NY, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 29-31, 2007.
5. Glass, Jennifer L.
Sassler, Sharon
Levitte, Yael
Michelmore, Katherine
What's So Special about STEM? A Comparison of Women's Retention in STEM and Professional Occupations
Social Forces 92,2 (2013): 723-756.
Also: http://sf.oxfordjournals.org/content/92/2/723
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): College Graduates; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Exits; Occupations, Female; Occupations, Non-Traditional; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics); Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We follow female college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and compare the trajectories of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related occupations to other professional occupations. Results show that women in STEM occupations are significantly more likely to leave their occupational field than professional women, especially early in their career, while few women in either group leave jobs to exit the labor force. Family factors cannot account for the differential loss of STEM workers compared to other professional workers. Few differences in job characteristics emerge either, so these cannot account for the disproportionate loss of STEM workers. What does emerge is that investments and job rewards that generally stimulate field commitment, such as advanced training and high job satisfaction, fail to build commitment among women in STEM.
Bibliography Citation
Glass, Jennifer L., Sharon Sassler, Yael Levitte and Katherine Michelmore. "What's So Special about STEM? A Comparison of Women's Retention in STEM and Professional Occupations." Social Forces 92,2 (2013): 723-756.
6. Noonan, Mary Christine
Glass, Jennifer L.
The Hard Truth about Telecommuting
Monthly Labor Review 135,6 (June 2012): 38-45.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2012/06/art3exc.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Telecommuting; Work Experience; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Telecommuting has not permeated the American workplace, and where it has become commonly used, it is not helpful in reducing work-family conflicts; telecommuting appears, instead, to have become instrumental in the general expansion of work hours, facilitating workers’ needs for additional worktime beyond the standard workweek and/or the ability of employers to increase or intensify work demands among their salaried employees.
Bibliography Citation
Noonan, Mary Christine and Jennifer L. Glass. "The Hard Truth about Telecommuting." Monthly Labor Review 135,6 (June 2012): 38-45.
7. Porter, Sarah
Glass, Jennifer L.
Using O*NET Occupational Characteristics with Longitudinal Panel Data
Presented: San Diego CA, Western Economic Association Conference, July 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Wage Growth; Work Hours; Work, Atypical

Our research project at the University of Iowa traces the effects of flexible work practices on individual’s wage growth over time, which we believe will be moderated based on organizational and occupational characteristics of the respondent’s primary job. For example, we believe that jobs involving a high level of customer/client service or team coordination of work tasks may penalize employees more strongly for utilizing a flexible schedule or working from home. The O*NET data base contains measures such as these for detailed job classifications using the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we needed to attach occupational characteristics from the O*NET data base to each person/job in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY) sample beginning with the 1989 wave through the 2002 wave when respondents were in their peak years of career building and family formation.
Bibliography Citation
Porter, Sarah and Jennifer L. Glass. "Using O*NET Occupational Characteristics with Longitudinal Panel Data." Presented: San Diego CA, Western Economic Association Conference, July 2006.
8. Sassler, Sharon
Glass, Jennifer L.
Levitte, Yael
Michelmore, Katherine
The Missing Women in STEM? Assessing Gender Differentials in the Factors Associated with Transition to First Jobs
Social Science Research 63 (March 2017): 192-208.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X16306020
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Expectations/Intentions; Gender Attitudes/Roles; Gender Differences; Occupational Choice

We utilize data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLSY79) to explore transitions into the labor force of young adults who received a baccalaureate degree. This was the first cohort for whom college completion was more likely among women than men (Buchman and DiPrete, 2006). Graduates also began their careers in the early 1980s, when women's job opportunities were expanding, and when considerable gains in female representation in STEM baccalaureates fields were made (Xie and Killewald, 2012). We begin by reviewing existing explanations of women's underrepresentation in STEM employment, then present our own empirical results. Our analysis extends prior research by incorporating indicators of young adult's values, expectations, and intentions. We use regression decomposition techniques to investigate what factors account for gender disparities in transitions into STEM employment. Our results highlight the need to better interrogate long-accepted views regarding the association between women's and men's family and work values and actual employment outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Sassler, Sharon, Jennifer L. Glass, Yael Levitte and Katherine Michelmore. "The Missing Women in STEM? Assessing Gender Differentials in the Factors Associated with Transition to First Jobs." Social Science Research 63 (March 2017): 192-208.
9. Sassler, Sharon
Levitte, Yael
Glass, Jennifer L.
Michelmore, Katherine
The Missing Women in Science, Math, Engineering, and Behavioral Science Jobs? Accounting for Gender Differences in Entrance into STEM Occupations
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
Also: http://paa2011.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=111615
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Outcomes; Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Segregation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the investment of considerable money to increase women's representation in undergraduate science and engineering education, gender imbalance in the science workplace remains. Women are now more likely than men to obtain a college degree, and in science, math, engineering and behavioral science (SMEB)-related fields of study, women's graduation rates since the 1970s have increased between two to ten times (Bell, 2010). Despite these educational gains, women's representation in the SMEB workforce remains low. As of 2003, women were only 27% of the SMEB workforce (National Science Board, 2008). In this paper, we examine the factors associated with entering into SMEB occupations and how this differs by gender. We assess whether differences in attitudes towards gender and family roles account for gender disparities in the likelihood of entering into SMEB occupations among young adults who received college degrees and majored in SMEB fields.
Bibliography Citation
Sassler, Sharon, Yael Levitte, Jennifer L. Glass and Katherine Michelmore. "The Missing Women in Science, Math, Engineering, and Behavioral Science Jobs? Accounting for Gender Differences in Entrance into STEM Occupations." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.